Presentation on theme: "Structures and functions of urban government"— Presentation transcript:
1Structures and functions of urban government City ManagementDr. Adnan Alshiha
2Why do city politics matter? What is the role of urban government and how does it related to the other spheres of government in Saudi Arabia? Whose interests should local government serve?Whom does local government really serve? What is the most efficient and effective structure of governance?
3 What is “urban government”? By 2006 half the world’s population (3.2 billion people) will live in urban areas - a 20-fold increase from 1900.Rapid urbanization in the 20th century has magnified the environmental impact of cities. Because of inadequate infrastructural systems, poor planning and weak urban management, cities disproportionately drive global warming, increase water scarcity and extend built-up space.According to the Worldwatch Institute’s recent briefing on “Reinventing Cities” changes in at least six areas - water, waste, food, energy, transportation, and land use - are needed
4While rapid urbanization concentrates population and economic growth in cities, creating better opportunities for livelihood, at the same time cities face daunting challenges: overcrowding, poverty, environmental decay, inefficient systems of municipal service delivery, scarce finance and inefficient administration.
5Urban management means that city governments together with other urban stakeholders - civil society, private sector, and local communities - assume an active role in mobilization, management and coordination of resources to support the objectives of urban development and ensure the vitality of cities.
6A city, hence, is sustainable if it can provide all its inhabitants the environmental, social, cultural and economic needs without threatening natural, built or societal systems on which the safeguarding of these needs is based.
7Increasing local planning capacities, improving financial resources, guiding urban development processes in an action-oriented manner, establishing institutional mechanisms and procedures for participation and democratization of local decision-making processes, are just a few of the challenges urban managers - mayors, legislators, planners and service providers - face to make cities a more sustainable place for people and for the planet.
8Many national governments pursue a strategy to shift the responsibility for municipal management from states to cities, and local capacity building as well as community participation must be enhanced to support this process.
9A diverse set of objectives to enhance the quality and capacity of urban management structures and processes has to be pursued comprising urban land management, infrastructure improvement, environmental management, poverty alleviation etc.
10Where urban growth is far exceeding the capacity of infrastructure and services, and inadequate environmental management measures have contributed to a significant degradation of valuable natural resources, the strain has adversely affected the quality of life of urban dwellers.Yet, urban planning and management tools will have to be adjusted to meet these fundamental challenges in order to enhance the capacity to manage urban growth and development.
11To improve urban places To improve urban places there are five essential areas that require the attention of local governments, mayors and urban managers, and hence can be identified as imminent training needs for urban management:Establishing effective channels of communication to mobilize citizens’ participation, providing transparency and accountability; strengthening stakeholder participation to enhance commitment to and resource mobilization for jointly elaborated urban strategies;
12Improving the design of spatial policies to cope with rapid urban growth, of inter-sectoral programs to resolve urban problems, and of technical infrastructure and social projects sensitive to the needs of urban communities;
13Resolving urban environmental issues to create a healthier urban environment; reduce the pressure of cities on natural resources and decrease the environmental impact of cities;
14Empowering the urban poor by giving assets to them which in turn enhance their living conditions, e.g. through secure land titles; developing urban economies to provide opportunities to them, e.g. through channeling micro-finance to the urban informal sector;
15Mobilizing adequate finance in line with responsibilities taken over by municipalities in the fields of service provision and infrastructure maintenance, by pricing urban services, building partnerships with the private sector to manage and finance urban infrastructure.
16 Urban government Local state Local government Municipal government Urban governance
17The local state Municipal government Special purpose bodies (commissions, programs, boards, units, authorities, etc.)Voluntary associations
18Features of the municipality Its corporate natureDefined geographic boundariesAn elected councilIts taxing power
19Primary purposes of local government To act as a political mechanism through which a local community can express its collective objectives, andTo provide various services and programs to local residents
20Local government responsibility includes Protective services (fire, police)Transportation services (roads, public transit)Environmental services (sewers, garbage disposal, water supply)Social and health services (welfare administration, day care, homes for seniors, public health programs)Recreation and cultural servicesLand use planningAnd sometimes education
21History and constitutional status of municipalities Constitutional Act of 1867The incorporation of municipalities under provincial legislation (legal and political status of municipalities)Legal features of municipalities:Defined territoryMechanism (elected council) to make legally enforceable decisionsList of legal governmental functions
22Four principles of municipalities' constitutional status Municipal institutions:1)lack constitutional status,2)are creatures of the legislature and exist only if provincial legislation so provides,3)have no independent autonomy and their powers are subject to abolition or repeal by provincial legislation,4)may exercise only those powers that are conferred upon them by statute.
23Intergovernmental relationships Central governmentProvincial government
24Government responsibilities “hard” (infrastructure) services should be the full responsibility of municipalities“soft” (human) services should be the proper function of the provincial government
25Saudi System assigned these functions to municipalities Public health protectionLocal roads and streetsCollection and disposal of residential solid wasteSewage systemsRegulation of local land use
26Funds for local service provision An annual BudgetAnd user feesOther charges
27Municipal reform and restructuring Entanglement/disentanglementDownloadingSubsidiarityContracting outPrivatization
28Major issues in contemporary urban governance The importance of economic developmentThe fiscal squeezeFostering and sustaining livable cities
29Debates in Saudi context The historical and continuing debates about the place of local government in Saudi political systemChanging perspectives concerning the role of cities in the international contextDebates about the structure and internal operations of city governments, including the question: Whom does/should Municipality council serve?
30Issues in Saudi context of urban governance The apolitical nature of city politics, because Saudi city elections are non-partisanThe intergovernmental maze due to the current situation of intergovernmental relationships between the three levels of government in Saudi ArabiaThe degree of democracy and participation in city politics