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Leading and managing change Jocelyn Wyburd University of Manchester With thanks to the Leadership Foundation for Higher Education for material and insights.

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Presentation on theme: "Leading and managing change Jocelyn Wyburd University of Manchester With thanks to the Leadership Foundation for Higher Education for material and insights."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leading and managing change Jocelyn Wyburd University of Manchester With thanks to the Leadership Foundation for Higher Education for material and insights via one of their training programmes

2 Leaders and managers…. Work in a continual environment of change Work in a continual environment of change which might simply be incremental improvement: to operations, systems, or peoples skills, which might simply be incremental improvement: to operations, systems, or peoples skills, but sometimes involves leading radical change: initiated by ourselves, or thrust upon us but sometimes involves leading radical change: initiated by ourselves, or thrust upon us So, how do we manage this in ourselves AND ensure that staff are able to respond positively to either of these change agendas? So, how do we manage this in ourselves AND ensure that staff are able to respond positively to either of these change agendas?

3 Effective leaders provide a sense of purpose and direction for change management. They: Share the vision – creating a clear and simple picture of what the future will look like, and the benefits Share the vision – creating a clear and simple picture of what the future will look like, and the benefits Engage with emotions as well as logic Engage with emotions as well as logic Define criteria to gauge success Define criteria to gauge success Inspire commitment Inspire commitment Ensure ongoing support and resources Ensure ongoing support and resources

4 Reflect on a change you were/are involved in…. Was it your choice originally? Was it your choice originally? How did you feel initially? How did you feel initially? How did those feelings change at different stages? How did those feelings change at different stages? What/who helped you and how? What/who helped you and how? What/who hindered you and how? What/who hindered you and how? How did you help/hinder yourself? How did you help/hinder yourself? What have you learned from this experience and what would you do differently next time? What have you learned from this experience and what would you do differently next time?

5 The Kolb Model Testing Thinking Finding WHAT? Asking WHY? Before the CHANGING Theorising Asking WHY? Finding WHAT? Discovering HOW? Looking at IF?

6 Transition Cycle Shock Defensive Retreat Adjustment Acknowledge- ment

7 Change models: Kübler Ross transition/grief cycle 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance

8 Adaptation to business context curve.jpg

9 Adaptations of Kübler Ross to change management scenarios

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11 Planning change Be clear about the goal of change (in your own mind, in order to convey this to others) – develop a clear vision Be clear about the goal of change (in your own mind, in order to convey this to others) – develop a clear vision Be clear about what exactly needs to change Be clear about what exactly needs to change Identify steps in the change process Identify steps in the change process Avoid undue haste Avoid undue haste Identify change agents and resistors (not just people) Identify change agents and resistors (not just people) Inspire confidence by Inspire confidence by forestalling problems/ planning for contingencies forestalling problems/ planning for contingencies monitoring processes/progress monitoring processes/progress communicating regularly communicating regularly

12 Kanter et al 10 commandments for bringing about lasting change 1. Analyse the organisation and its need for change 2. Create a shared vision and common direction 3. Separate from the past 4. Create a sense of urgency 5. Support a strong leadership role 6. Line up political sponsorship 7. Craft an implementation plan 8. Develop enabling structures 9. Communicate, involve people, and be honest 10. Reinforce and institutionalize the change Kanter, Stein, and Jick. The Challenge of Organizational Change. Free Press, 1992, Page 383 The Challenge of Organizational ChangeThe Challenge of Organizational Change

13 Kurt Lewins change model Organisations are a combination of driving forces for and resistors to change. When these are balanced, the organisation is stable/static Organisations are a combination of driving forces for and resistors to change. When these are balanced, the organisation is stable/static readiness to change – i.e. both an awareness and commitment - needs to be created readiness to change – i.e. both an awareness and commitment - needs to be created This requires a 3 stage process This requires a 3 stage process Stage 1 – Unfreezing Stage 1 – Unfreezing Stage 2 – Change/transition Stage 2 – Change/transition Stage 3 – Refreezing Stage 3 – Refreezing

14 To unfreeze … Identify and exploit dissatisfaction with the status quo Identify and exploit dissatisfaction with the status quo Introduce additional forces for change (e.g. new targets, reduced budgets) Introduce additional forces for change (e.g. new targets, reduced budgets) Reduce resistance to change (e.g. exploit staff expertise; underpin change with comprehensive training and development) Reduce resistance to change (e.g. exploit staff expertise; underpin change with comprehensive training and development)

15 To change … Establish new modes of behaviour Establish new modes of behaviour Ensure appropriate and articulated reporting relationships Ensure appropriate and articulated reporting relationships Create new incentive systems Create new incentive systems Adopt an appropriate style of leadership and management to ensure efficacy at different stages Adopt an appropriate style of leadership and management to ensure efficacy at different stages

16 To refreeze … Once the desired outcome is reached, celebrate success Once the desired outcome is reached, celebrate success Establish the balance as being at this higher level of performance Establish the balance as being at this higher level of performance Ensure appropriate supporting mechanisms to positively reinforce the new ways of working (e.g. performance management) Ensure appropriate supporting mechanisms to positively reinforce the new ways of working (e.g. performance management)

17 Coping with resistance to change Why do people resist? Why do people resist? Insecurity (job, status, environment) Insecurity (job, status, environment) Fear of criticism Fear of criticism Loss of colleagues/workmates Loss of colleagues/workmates Difficulty of learning new skills Difficulty of learning new skills Anxiety about moving out of working comfort zones Anxiety about moving out of working comfort zones Loss of job interest Loss of job interest

18 Helping people to accept change: Consider how they will be affected Consider how they will be affected Plan change carefully Plan change carefully Involve them in the change Involve them in the change Consult and inform frequently Consult and inform frequently Be firm but flexible Be firm but flexible Make controversial change as gradually as possible Make controversial change as gradually as possible Monitor the change Monitor the change Develop a change philosophy – more continuous improvement than change Develop a change philosophy – more continuous improvement than change

19 Some possible actions: Involving/Communicating via a range of fora Involving/Communicating via a range of fora Programme of strategic training/retraining Programme of strategic training/retraining Performance management to discuss job enrichment Performance management to discuss job enrichment Performance review to discuss career planning, which might include education/re- education Performance review to discuss career planning, which might include education/re- education Consider how to re-establish loyalty Consider how to re-establish loyalty

20 Stakeholder analysis Should be satisfied despite lack of interest LOW Strength of interest in the change process HIGH LOW Relative Power HIGH Should not be prioritised at the expense of others Should be kept fully informed of events and progress No1 priority – essential they are informed and satisfied

21 In other words…. SPECTATORS LOW Strength of interest in the change process HIGH LOW Relative Power HIGH SCEPTICS/CYNICSSABOTEURS PLAYERS Some, but not all, may be shifted or may need to be shifted

22 Rogers (1983) categorises individuals as: Innovators (2.5%) Innovators (2.5%) Early adopters (13.5%) Early adopters (13.5%) Early majority (34%) Early majority (34%) Late majority (34%) Late majority (34%) Laggards (16%) Laggards (16%) Have a sense who is who and how/when/if they can become players

23 management%20continuum.jpg

24 Resources Management Models for use in Coaching and Organizational Development: Management Models for use in Coaching and Organizational Development: Businessballs: free ethical learning and development resource for people and organizations Businessballs: free ethical learning and development resource for people and organizations Kanter, Stein, and Jick (1992) The Challenge of Organizational Change. Free Press, 1992 Kanter, Stein, and Jick (1992) The Challenge of Organizational Change. Free Press, 1992 Kurt Lewins change model explained: ge/lewin_change.htm Kurt Lewins change model explained: ge/lewin_change.htm ge/lewin_change.htm ge/lewin_change.htm Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press. Rogers Adoption/Innovation curve: ve.html adoption_curve.html Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press. Rogers Adoption/Innovation curve: ve.html adoption_curve.html ve.html adoption_curve.html ve.html adoption_curve.html


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