3• Service Management Life Cycle • Service Strategy Processes Tivoli Software服务战略• 服务战略面向CIO•服务战略作为框架的核心，它告诉我们在思考如何做之前，先想想为什么要做。它为其它模块指明了方向，从而使服务生命周期的所有阶段都强调业务的重要性。•《服务战略》介绍了如下的主题和流程：ServiceStrategyITIL• Service Management Life Cycle• Service Strategy ProcessesStrategy GenerationIT Financial ManagementService Portfolio ManagementDemand Management• Organizational Development & Design• Implementing Service Strategy
5Service Strategy asset. The Service Strategy volume provides guidance on how to design, develop,and implement service managementnot only as an organizationalcapability but also as a strategicasset.
6Goals of Service Stratege What services should we offer and to whom?How do we differentiate ourselves from competing alternatives?How do we truly create value for our customers?How do we capture value for our stakeholders?How can we make a case for strategic investments?How can Financial Management provide visibility and control over value creation?How should we define service quality?How do we choose between different paths for improving service quality?How do we efficiently allocate resources across a portfolio of services?How do we resolve conflicting demands for shared resources?
7Service Strategy Goals • To understand what services should be offered tosupport the organisation.• To begin setting policies and objectives for theprovision of services in support of the business areas.• To understand how to create value for an organisation.• To offer advice on strategic investments, and• To understand how to define service quality.
8Value to business Organizations already practicing ITIL may use this publication to guide a strategic review of their ITIL-based service management capabilities and toimprove the alignment between those capabilitiesand their business strategies.This volume of ITIL encourages readers to stop andthink about why something is to be done beforethinking of how. Answers to the first type ofquestions are closer to the customer’s business.Service Strategy expands the scope of the ITILframework beyond the traditional audience of ITService Management professionals.
11Service Value• Service value:--Defined by customer’s business outcomes--Dependent on customer’s perceptions• Customer perceptions are influenced by:--Attributes of a service that are indications of value--Present or prior experiences with similar attributes--Relative endowment of competitors and otherpeers--Customer’s self-image or actual market position(e.g. being an innovator, market leader, and risk-taker)Definition and differentiation of service value is in the customer’s mind
12Four points of service strategy PerspectivePositionPlanPattern
13Logic of value creation through services UtilityWarrantyUtility is what the customer gets, and warranty is how it is delivered.Customers cannot benefit from something that is fit for purpose but not fit for use, and vice versa. It is useful to separate the logic of utility from the logic of warranty for the purpose of design, development and improvement.
15• Utility and Warranty define services and work together to create value for the customer• Utility= 功用– What does the service do?– Functional requirements– Features, inputs, outputs…– “fit for purpose”• Warranty=功效– How well does the service do it?– Non-functional requirements– Capacity, performance, availability…– “fit for use”
16Utility, Warranty, Market Space • A service is a means of delivering value to customers byfacilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without theownership of specific costs and risks.+Utility:‘What the Customer gets’Utility is measured on the basis ofthe number of key ‘outcomesWarranty:‘How is it delivered’Warranty is measured in terms ofthe levels of Availability, Capacity,=Value CreationThe basis of differentiation in theMarket Spacesupported’ and ‘constraints removed’Continuity and SecurityMarket Space– A market space is defined by a set of business outcomes,which can be facilitated by a service.– Market spaces defined in terms of outcomes desired bycustomers.
18Service Owner• The Service Owner is responsible to the Customer for a particular service– Initiation and transition– Ongoing maintenance and support– Monitoring and reporting– Identifying improvement opportunities– Prime customer contact
19Service Provider An organization supplying services to one or more internal customers or external customers• Type 1– Internal– Embedded in the business unit it serves• Type 2– Shared– Provide services to multiple business units• Type 3– External– Provide services to many customers
20Suppliers and Contracts – A third party responsible for supplying goods or services– These are required by the service provider to enablethem to deliver services• Contract– A legally binding agreement between two or more parties to supply goods or services
21RACI Model responsibilities • A RACI model can be used to help define roles andresponsibilities• It identifies the activities that must be performedalongside the various individuals and roles involved• RACI is an acronym for the four main roles of:– R = Responsible — The person or people responsible forgetting the job done– A = Accountable — Only one person can be accountablefor each task– C = Consulted — The people who are consulted andwhose opinions are sought– I = Informed — The people who are kept up-to-date onprogress
22Example RACI Model Director Service Management Service Level Manager ProblemSecurityProcurementActivity 1ARCIActivity 2ARActivity 3Activity 4Activity 5
23Expansion of RACI Model • A RACI model can be expand to RASCI model:S = Supportive – The people who can support for a task.
25Strategy Generation Process • Define the market – Understand the customer and opportunities, classifyand visualize services –how they create value and inwhat context– Evaluate the services you could potentially offer, andwho you may be able to offer them to!• Develop the offerings– define the market space and define the services basedon what is valuable to the customer– Continue to formulate the services you think it will beworthwhile pursuing– Utility and Warranty are considered at this stageITIL V3 Foundation Course Ver.1.1
26Strategy Generation Process (Cont.) • Develop strategic assets – increase the service and performance potential of theorganization, treat IT service management as a strategicasset– Look for opportunities to exploit your services andcapabilities (to allow more services to more customers)– Develop Service Management so that it becomes a strategic• Prepare for execution– do a strategic assessment to find what core differentiationsalready exist– Take all the necessary steps to ensure that we are ready togo ahead and it is worthwhile doing soITIL V3 Foundation Course Ver.1.1
27Define the market Services and Strategy The Customer The Opportunities Classification and Visualisation
32Develop the offerings Market Space – a set of business outcomes that customers desire, andwhich can be facilitated by a serviceOutcome-based Definition of Services– involves managers planning and executing all aspects ofService Management entirely from the perspective ofwhat is of ‘value’ to the customer.– Utility and warrantyService Portfolio– Why should a customer buy these services?– Why should they buy these services from us?– What are the pricing or chargeback models?– What are our strengths and weaknesses, priorities and risk?– How should our resources and capabilities be allocated?
33Develop strategic assets Closed loop control systemService potential and performance potentialDemand management
35Prepare for Execution What are our most distinctive services and why? Which are the mostprofitable services andwhy?Which of our stakeholdersare the most satisfied andwhy?Which stakeholders are themost profitable and why?
38Financial Management — Objectives and business value • Financial visibility and accountability• Financial compliance and control• Enhanced decision making• Operational control• Value capture and creation• Understand the value of IT ServicesITIL V3 Foundation Course Ver.1.1
39Financial Management — Basic concepts (1 of 2) • Service valuation – Cost of providing the service– Value to the customers receiving the service• Service investment analysis– Understand the total lifecycle value and costs of proposednew services or projects
40Financial Management — Basic concepts (2 of 2) • Business Case – A decision support and planning tool that predictsoutcomes of a proposed action– Used to justify investments• Business Impact Analysis– Understanding the financial cost of service outages
42Financial Management — Roles • All managers have some financial responsibility• Senior IT Management own budgets and are ultimatelyresponsible for decisions• Many organizations appoint a financial controller tooversee day-to-day finances• Accounting department provides governanceframework and support
45RETURN ON INVESTMENT ROI Return on Investment is a concept for quantifying the value of an investment.In service management, ROI is used as a measure of the ability to use assets to generate additional value. In the simplest sense, it is the net profit of an investment divided by the net worth of the assets invested.Business case – a means to identify business imperatives that depend on service managementPre-Programme ROI – techniques for quantitatively analysing an investment in service managementPost-Programme ROI – techniques for retroactively analysing an investment in service management
46Risk Management and Analysis Define a frameworkEmbed and reviewGain assurancesabouteffectivenessImplementresponsesRisk managementIdentify the risksIdentify probablerisk ownersEvaluate the risksSet acceptable levels ofriskDefine aframeworkRisk analysis
48SERVICE PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT Service Portfolio Management is a dynamic method for governing investments in service management across the enterprise and managing them for value.By acting as the basis of a decision framework, a Service Portfolio either clarifies or helps to clarify the following strategic questions:Why should a customer buy these services?Why should they buy these services from us?What are the pricing or chargeback models?What are our strengths and weaknesses, priorities and risk?How should our resources and capabilities be allocated?
49• Decide what services to offer Service Portfolio Management — Objectives• Decide what services to offer• Understand– Why should a customer buy these services?– Why should they buy these services from us?• Provide direction to Service Design– So they can manage and fully exploit the servicesinto the future
51• Business Service Service Portfolio Management — Basic concepts – A service that directly supports a business process• IT Service– A service that the business does not think of in businesscontext or semantics• Business Service Management– Considering service management in terms of businessprocesses and business value
52Service Portfolio Management — Activities Service Strategy• Inventories• Business Case• Value proposition• Prioritization• Service Portfolio• Authorization• Communication• Resource allocationITIL V3 Foundation Course Ver.1.1DefineAnalyzeApproveCharter
53Service Portfolio Management — Roles • Product Manager – Own and manage a set of related services– Evaluate market opportunities and customer needs– Create business cases– Plan new service development programs• Business Relationship Manager– Identify and document customer needs
54SERVICE PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT METHODS Define: inventory services, ensure business cases and validate portfolio dataAnalyse: maximize portfolio value, align and prioritize and balance supply and demandApprove: finalize proposed portfolio, authorize services and resourcesCharter: communicate decisions, allocate resources and charter services
56Objectives and business value Demand Management—Objectives and business value• Understand customer requirements for services andhow these vary over the business cycle• Ensure the provision of appropriate levels of service– By varying provision or influencing customer demand• Ensure that the Warranty and Utility we offer matchesthe customer needs
57Demand Management— Basic concepts (1 of 3) • Core Service – An IT Service that delivers outcomes desired by one ormore customers• Supporting Service– A service that enables or enhances a core service. Forexample• A directory service or a backup service
58• Pattern of Business Activity (PBA) Demand Management—Basic concepts (2 of 3)• Pattern of Business Activity (PBA)– Workload profile of one or more business activities– Varies over time– Represents changing business demands• User Profile– Pattern of user demand for IT Services– Each user profile includes one or more PBAs
59• Service Package Demand Management—Basic concepts (3 of 3) – Detailed description of a service– Includes a service level package and one or more coreservices and supporting services.• Service Level Package– Defined level of utility and warranty for a particularservice package– Designed to meet the needs of a PBA. For example• Gold, Silver or Bronze service
60Demand Management — Roles • Business Relationship Manager – Document PBAs and user profiles– Identify correct service level packages for their customers– Identify unmet customer need– Negotiate with Product Managers for creation of newservices
61DEMAND MANAGEMENT Challenges in managing demand for services Activity-based Demand ManagementService packages
63• Graphical representation of the components that Service Model• Graphical representation of the components thatmake up a service• Documents workflow and dependencies• Used to support design, analysis and communication
64Service ModelService models codify the service strategy for a market space.They are blueprints for service management processes andfunctions to communicate and collaborate on value creation.Service Models describe how service assets interact withcustomer assets and create value for a given portfolio ofcontracts