Presentation on theme: "Project Management For the last day and a half we’ve talked about the APD process – how to get the funding and approval for your project. There is one."— Presentation transcript:
1 Project ManagementFor the last day and a half we’ve talked about the APD process – how to get the funding and approval for your project.There is one very important piece that brings a PAPD or IAPD to a successful end. That is good, solid project management.There is no way we can teach you project management in such a short session. What we want to do is provide you with some basic guidance on PM = things to avoid and things to make sure you do. These are based upon our experience with State Systems and training in PM. We hope you find them useful.Is anyone ready for candy???(Ask the audience for examples of good project management – list on flip chart!)(Ask the audience for examples of bad project management – list on flip chart!)
2 Defining project management The importance of project management Learning ObjectivesDefining project managementThe importance of project managementThe role of the project managerKeys to successful projectsManaging the ContractorManaging the Project
3 (USER LASER POINTER)We first saw this back in the IAPD session on Functional Requirements. Obviously, this project did not have a PM – or not a good one anyway!How the Customer explained it!How the Project Leader/Manager understood it!How the analyst designed it!How the Programmer wrote it!How the Business Consultant Described it!How the project was documented!What was installed!How the customer was billed!How it was supported!What the customer really needed!This is why we need Project Management!
4 Professional and conscientious project management is critical to a successful outcome! It’s a balancing act – you’ve got a lot of things to keep going - and going well – all at once!
5 Learning Objectives Defining project management The importance of project managementThe role of the project managerKeys to a successful projectManaging the ContractorManaging the Project
6 What is a Project?A temporary and one-time endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service, which brings about beneficial change or added valueIn order to define project management, we need to understand what a project is.A project is a temporary and one-time endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service, which brings about beneficial change or added value.Projects have end dates!
7 Project Management 101 that the focus of a Project Manager is always… The very first thing you learn in project management is..that the focus of a Project Manager is always…Read the slide. (CLICK)
8 Manage these or they will manage you! PM Triple ConstraintsTimeCostScopeASK THE AUDIENCE?? Do we have any project managers in the audience?? Does anyone know what the PM Triple Constraints are? (GIVE CANDY)The PM Triple constraints are the keys to quality and success! These three are interdependent and create quite a balancing act for Project Managers.The time constraint is the amount of time available to complete a project. All projects have deadlines or end dates. This may be the most difficult constraint to manage.The cost constraint is the budgeted amount available for the project. Remember that cost also translates to resources – people, equipment, and materials.The scope constraint is what must be done to produce the project's end result – the system you need – meeting your requirements!These three constraints are often competing constraints:increased scope typically means increased time and increased cost,a tight time constraint could mean increased costs and reduced scope,a tight budget could mean increased time and reduced scope, or managing the project over a longer period of time to take advantage of various funding opportunities without a loss of continuity!The discipline of project management is about providing the tools and techniques that enable the project team (not just the project manager) to organize their work to meet these constraints.Manage these or they will manage you!
9 Defining Project Management The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirementsOrganizing and managing resources so the project is completed within defined scope, quality, time and cost constraintsANDThe textbook definition of PM is:The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirementsAndOrganizing and managing resources so the project is completed within defined scope, quality time, and cost constraints.
10 Learning Objectives The importance of project management Defining project management?The importance of project managementThe role of the project managerKeys to a successful projectManaging the ContractorManaging the ProjectIn order to demonstrate the importance of project management, let’s talk about what make projects fail and what makes them succeed
11 What makes this all work? A good, solid professional project manager
12 The role of the project manager Learning ObjectivesDefining project managementThe importance of project managementThe role of the project managerKeys to successful projectsManaging the ContractorManaging the Project
13 Project Management Skills Program area knowledge, standards, and regulationsUnderstand the project environmentASK THE AUDIENCE – what skills are important? (GIVE CANDY!)(CLICK)The PM doesn’t have to be an expert in the application area but –they do need to understand the application area, the standards required, and the regulations that apply (includes functional, technical, financial, and procurement).Understand the project environment!What are the cultural, social and political characteristics you are doing with? (DON”T TALK ABOUT INTERPERSONAL SKILLS)There are big differences between FSP & WIC - and even more between government and private industry! (think about dealing with contractors!)Educate yourself, listen and try to understand.
14 Project Management Skills General management skills (budgeting, scheduling)Communication skillsInterpersonal skillsGeneral management skills and knowledge – prioritization, organization, decision-making, supervision, budgeting, negotiation(CLICK)Communication skills!!! Written, oral, presentation! These are essential!Interpersonal skills – this is a high visibility position for the duration of the project!The PM needs to be seen, heard, and understood. Calls for diplomacy, tact, and good listening skills. Maybe mediation.
15 Keys to successful projects Learning ObjectivesDefining project management?The importance of project managementThe role of the project managerKeys to successful projectsManaging the ContractorManaging the Project
16 Keys to Successful Projects or …Duh Keys to Successful Projects or …Duh?!? Things you already know but let’s review anywayStuff that seems obvious but gets missed!
17 PLANPLAN early and plan well all aspects of the project!
18 PLAN Identify all stakeholders up front! Develop the project plan before starting the projectEstablish communications protocols(CLICK)Identify all stakeholders up front!Develop the project plan before starting the projectEstablish communications protocols – this should be written. Who reports to who, who carries the message to whom!
19 PLAN Define your requirements in detail Establish a speedy conflict resolution processMake contingency plansPlan a reasonable roll-out schedule(CLICK)Define requirements in detailEstablish a speedy conflict resolution process! WRITTEN and part of the SOW or ContractMake contingency Plans – if things didn’t go wrong you wouldn’t need a PM!A risk management plan is NOT a contingency plan. Risk is something you anticipate! Contingency is something you must be ready to react to!Plan a reasonable roll-out schedule. You are not just putting in a new system – you are also changing the way your do business and this has a huge impact. Allow time to deal with it.
21 LEAD Ensure strong, committed management support Connect the business goals to the IT projectAssign an experienced project manager(CLICK) (CLICK) (CLICK)(READ SLIDE)KEY POINT: The Project Manager is responsible for ensuring the work gets done – not DOING all the work!
22 LEAD Establish clearly defined directions Be proactive Give IT and program a seat at the table(CLICK)Give IT and program a seat at the table – this is about OWNERSHIP! One of those three ships Karen talked about in the Procurement session!
23 LEAD Set clear performance expectations Ask for technical assistance Do not start roll-out until pilot is complete!(CLICK)Set clear performance expectations – for the developer, for the project team, for your stakeholders!
24 COMMUNICATECOMMUNICATIONS IS SO IMPORTANT! Even in our daily lives we see how communications can make or break a situation. It’s true for projects as well!DID YOU KNOW THAT PM’s SPEND 90% of their TIME COMMUNICATING??!!
25 Communicate Communicate objectives frequently Recognize different perspectivesCheck assumptions frequently(CLICK)Communicate objectives frequently – keep everyone on the same page!Recognize different perspectivesKEY POINT!!!!Recognize that with the various stakeholders (program staff, IT, workers, management) come different perspectives that are all valuable to the project! Listen!! These reflect their concerns and interests. Repeat them back to make sure you understand!Check assumptionsRemember those system goals and objectives we discussed during the alternatives analysis? These need to be reiterated to make sure assumptions stay consistent and are truly reflective of the business case.
26 Communicate Manage expectations Share success and broadcast achievementsInvite feedback(CLICK)Manage expectations of all stakeholders – need to be realistic and match the actual work involved. Sometimes states think this will solve all your problems – save time, money, staff, etc. These expectations, if overblown, can cause problems.Be very honest about what the new system will or will NOT do. Don’t give false expectations. Remember change brings a fear factor with it.Assuage fears. Encourage success.Share success and broadcast achievementsBroadcast achievements throughout the project – newsletters, s, announcements at meetings – too often only hear about the problems – need to hear the good as well! Use on-line forums or even a project blog.Invite feedbackInvite feedback from all stakeholders throughout the project! Good or bad! Be ready to manage it!KEY POINT!!! A Project Manager has to be willing and able to tell the truth to power! Remember PM’s should be empowered and this includes being the messenger to the senior managers – the project champions!
27 MANAGEAll of the Project Manager roles are critical but this is crucial!
28 Manage Ensure the system design reflects sound planning Hold the reins on irrational exuberance!(Ensure the system design reflects the system you need and can afford at this point in time)(CLICK)Ensure the system design reflects sound planningEnsure that the system design reflects the system that you need and you can afford using your budget at this point in time!HOLD REINS ON IRRATIONAL EXUBERANCEDon’t let your project team or stakeholders be blinded by the lights and just jump on the latest and great technology going!We’ve all seen those “bright idea” moments whether it is in requirements definition or in design sessions.Excitement is wonderful but we’ve all been in those sessions where we get carried away.This can lead to adding expensive tweaks and functions that end up causing scope creep and affecting the budget and the schedule. MANAGING THE TRIPLE CONSTRAINTS!Make sure it meets your needs and your budget at this point in time.Remember Karen said that a strong RFP is what you hold your contractor to. This is managing back to what you planned and agreed upon.Don’t let your project get out of hand! If you are going to increase scope, do it knowingly! Keep an eye on that requirements traceability matrix!!Some of these “bright ideas” may need to become options or go on your wish/enhancement list!
29 Manage Train all staff in a timely fashion Make extensive testing a priority!Make the most of pilot testing!Remember the “Getting to Go Live” session!!(CLICK)Train all staff in a timely fashionMake extensive testing a priority!Don’t go cheap on testing.Make the most of pilot testing!
30 Together we can! Working together as a team means winning together as a team! This is how you do want your team to feel!
31 A good project team can be the key to a successful project! A good project team doesn’t mean leaving the uncooperative people out of the room – make the extra effort to co-opt them!Draw on all areas of expertise! You need the subject matter experts on your team!Involve your stakeholders – encourage synergy and collaboration!Being a team member also gives stakeholders a sense of ownership and commitment.Good teamwork makes the Project Manager look good and the project successful!
32 Think Big, Think Fast, Think Ahead WORDS OF WISDOM – Think Big, Think Fast, Think Ahead
33 Managing the Contractor Learning ObjectivesDefining project managementThe importance of project managementDefining the role of the project managerKeys to a successful projectManaging the ContractorManaging the ProjectHow are we doing? We’re getting ready to talk about managing the contractor.Now I’m going to turn the rest of the presentation over to Gregg!
34 Enforce the terms of the contract and meet the requirements of the RFP Manage the ContractorEnforce the terms of the contract and meet the requirements of the RFPRemember we talked about having clear language in the RFP and contract on the performance and expectations of the contractor? Well, now we get to manage and enforce this!
35 Manage the Contractor Don’t “marry” the contractor Trust but question Their bottom line is the bottom lineYour bottom line is a working systemNothing is ever freeThe end product is only as good as your requirementsHere are some quick tips on how to manage the contractor!(READ LIST)
36 Provide Performance Feedback Build performance reviews into the contractBe clear and specificBe timelyThe State is ultimately accountable for the projectStates must be proactive and provide the contractor with a clear and accurate picture of expectations and how their performance compares with the requirements.Providing performance feedback should be an on-going process. Appropriate times to discuss performance may be when reviewing work, project reports, status reports or other tasks where the opportunity presents itself, critical work milestones such as submission of deliverables.Build performance discussions into the project planKnow your purpose – have a clear understanding of the issue(s) you intend to addressPresent a clear message – clearly express concerns and/or observationsBe specific – use examples to illustrate the issue(s)Be timely – don’t wait for an extended period of time (potentially jeopardizing the schedule or reducing the impact of the feedback) before speaking with the contractor
37 Managing the Project Learning Objectives What is project management? Why is it important?The role of the project managerKeys to success projectsKeys to a successful projectsManaging the ContractorManaging the Project
38 Manage the ProjectSuccessful project management is delivering a quality product that meets the customer’s requirements within time, scope, and budget.
39 Manage these or they will manage you! PM Triple ConstraintsTimeCostScopeA reminder of the three key factors or constraints!Manage these or they will manage you!
40 Project Management Potholes Being a Sugar DaddyNot managing scope creep
41 Gradual, progressive increase in the project’s scope that is not noticed immediately Occurs when additional requirements result in scope change and can cause cost and schedule overruns(Read Definition from slide)Scope creep occurs when additional requirements, sometimes minor, are identified and added to the project. Overtime, these collectively may result in scope change and cause cost and schedule overruns.OFTEN DON’T RECOGNIZE IT BECAUSE IT HAPPENS WHEN EVERYONE IS AGREEING!Delineate between requirements and enhancements. You need buy-in from all of the stakeholders to add enhancements.
42 Ask these questions! Is it a must? Can the customer/user do the job without it?Does it contribute to the viability of the system?Does it add value as a feature/function to the system?Is it worth the additional cost?Stop! Ask these questions?Have a change control process that involves all of your stakeholders, so you know you have their buy-in, particularly if the change significantly impacts the budget or timeline.
43 Keeping Control of the Budget This ties back to the triple constraint and our nemesis scope creep. It also may reflect poor planning.Keep on top of your budget. Don’t let changes in time or scope occur without updating your budget.A GOOD PROJECT MANAGER STAYS ON TOP OF THE BUDGET.While some changes in budget are not uncommon, projects that go significant over budget are in danger of not getting something they really need or want that comes later in the project because of failure to control cost.
44 Budget/Cost Management Monitor project spendingWhen a variance occurs, determine the causeChange the execution of the project, reduce scope, or submit an APDUPrevent unapproved changes to the projectMonitor project spending to ensure it stays within the baseline plan for spending rates and totalsWhen spending varies, determine the cause.Change the execution of the project to bring the spending back in line within the budget, or recognize the original estimate was incorrect or you require additional funding due to variances in scope or time and either submit an APDU to request approval of additional funding or reduce the scope of the projectKeep your stakeholders, particularly executive sponsors in the loop.Prevent unapproved changes to the project
45 Focus on the entire project Report? What report? What is a report? Documentation….duh…One of the areas of concern for a project manager is maintaining focus on the entire project! Especially when you’re getting close to the end of construction and everyone is eager to test and pilot.You have to make sure the system provides you with the data to prepare accurate reports.
46 Project Management Reporting Establish reporting requirements upfrontInclude the good, the bad, and the uglyBe brief but accurateManagement really does want to know!Management Reporting is crucial to a successful project – management buy-in and continued sponsorship is dependent upon good communications!Establish reporting requirements upfront (frequency, delivery method (meeting, written, conference call), items to be included. This is where you should establish a change control process.Remember these are management reports – be brief but provide accurate and sufficient information for managers in language they understand about the current status and any issues. Remember the higher up the food chain you go the shorter the attention span, but believe it or not management really does want to know! If they don’t, your project has another problem!
47 Not Obtaining Federal Prior Approval May cost the State funding that may have been approved if submitted in advance!RetroactiveApprovals
48 Submit APDUs Timely!Annuals are due within 90 days of the anniversary of the approval dateAs Needed are due as soon as the trigger condition (time, budget, scope) becomes known to the State
49 Project Management Tips Remember! Your system is a blue chip investment!STOP! Go to Slide #80
50 Project Management Tips Project Manager does no work other than manage the project!Project Manager spends 90% of time communicating
51 Project Management Tips Understand the project flow from beginning to endIdentify risks and develop contingenciesClearly outline the critical path of the project
52 Project Management Tips Establish the right relationshipsEstablish a speedy conflict resolution processOperations perspective is key to production
53 Project Management Tips Be flexibleBe firmCheck egos at the door!