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FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Chapter 24 Derivatives and Risk Management 1.

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Presentation on theme: "FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Chapter 24 Derivatives and Risk Management 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Chapter 24 Derivatives and Risk Management 1

2 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Topics in Chapter Corporate risk exposure Reasons to manage risk Derivative securities and hedging Some examples 2

3 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Different Types of Risk Demand risks: Those associated with the demand for a firms products or services. Input risks: Those associated with a firms input costs. Financial risks: Those that result from price fluctuations or transactions in the financial markets. Speculative risks: Those that offer the chance of a gain as well as a loss. Pure risks: Those that offer only the prospect of a loss. 3

4 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Property risks: Those associated with loss of a firms productive assets. Personnel risks: Risks that result from human actions. Environmental risks: Risk associated with polluting the environment. Liability risks: Connected with product, service, or employee liability. Insurable risks: Those which typically can be covered by insurance. Risks of risk management ? 4 Different Types of Risk

5 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management General rule of corporate risk management Step 1.Identify the risks faced by the firm. Step 2.Measure the potential impact of the identified risks. Step 3.Decide how each relevant risk should be dealt with. 5

6 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management How to minimize or reduce risk exposures? Avoid the activities that give rise to risk. Take actions to reduce the probability of occurrence of adverse events. Take actions to reduce the magnitude of the loss associated with adverse events. Transfer functions which produce risk to third parties. Transfer risk to an insurance company by paying premiums. Purchase derivatives contracts to reduce input and financial risks. 6

7 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management But! Do stockholders care about corporate risk management? If volatility in cash flows is not caused by systematic risk, then stockholders can eliminate the risk of volatile cash flows by diversifying their portfolios. 7

8 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management How can risk management increase firm value? Risk management allows firms to: Avoid costs of financial distress. Reduce cost of debt and increase debt capacity. Minimize negative tax effects due to convexity in tax. Implement the optimal capital budget without having to raise external equity in years that would have had low cash flow due to volatility. Utilize comparative advantage in hedging relative to hedging ability of investors. 8

9 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Risk management reduces expected tax: If we suppose risk management strategy can smooth firm performance, then it can minimize negative tax effects due to convexity in tax code. Example: EBT of $50K in Years 1 and 2, total EBT of $100K, –Tax = $7.5K each year, total tax of $15. EBT of $0K in Year 1 and $100K in Year 2, –Tax = $0K in Year 1 and $22.5K in Year 2. 9

10 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Derivative securities and risk management Futures/Forwards: Contracts which call for the purchase or sale of a financial (or real) asset at some future date, but at a price determined today. Swaps: Involve the exchange of cash payment obligations between two parties, usually because each party prefers the terms of the others debt contract. Swaps can reduce each partys financial risk. Others: options, caps, floors, collars, swaptions, treasury lock or other customized contracts. The prices of currency derivatives and interest rate derivative are available Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) at 10

11 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Hedging Corporate hedging refers to the use of off-balance-sheet instruments (forwards, futures, swaps, and options) to reduce the volatility of firm value. (Nance et al., 1993) Hedging: Generally conducted where a price change could negatively affect a firms profits. –Long hedge: Involves the purchase of a futures contract to guard against a price increase. –Short hedge: Involves the sale of a futures contract to protect against a price decline. Perfect hedge occurs when the gain or loss on the hedged transaction exactly offsets the loss or gain on the unhedged position 11

12 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Alternative ways? By appropriately spreading business risk over several activities or operations, the firm can significantly reduce the impact of a single random event on corporate performance. Examples: Geographic and product diversification (Operating hedging ). Keeping cash is also a natural way to avoid the risk from uncertainty. 12

13 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Use Swaps to reduce cost of debt: Reduce borrowing costs by using interest rate swaps. Example: Two firms with different credit ratings (Hi and Lo): Hi can borrow fixed at 11% and floating at LIBOR + 1%. Lo can borrow fixed at 11.4% and floating at LIBOR + 1.5%. 13

14 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Use Swaps to reduce cost of debt: Hi Lo CF to lender-(LIBOR+1%)-11.40% CF Hi to Lo-11.40%+11.40% CF Lo to Hi+(LIBOR+1%)-(LIBOR+1%) CF Lo to Hi+0.45%-0.45% Net CF-10.95%-(LIBOR+1.45%) 14 Hi wants fixed rate, but it will issue floating and swap with Lo. Lo wants floating rate, but it will issue fixed and swap with Hi. Lo also makes side payment of 0.45% to Hi

15 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Reduce the interest rate risk in bonds Duration: Average time to bondholders' receipt of cash flows, including interest and principal repayment. Duration is used to help assess interest rate and reinvestment rate risks. Immunization: Process of selecting durations for bonds in a portfolio such that gains or losses from reinvestment exactly match gains or losses from price changes. 15

16 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Interest Rate Hedging with T-Bond Futures It is January, Tennessee Sunshine will issue $5 million in bonds in June. TS is worried interest rates will rise between now and then. Current interest rates are 7% for the 20-year issue. But the CEO fears rates might rise by 1% by June. June T-bond futures (on a hypothetical 20-year 6% T-bond )are

17 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management What are risks of not hedging? Interest rates might increase before the bonds are issued. At a yield of 8%, how much will the $5 million worth of 20-year 7% semi-annual coupon bonds be worth? 17

18 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management What are risks of not hedging? Pmt = $5 million x 7%/2 = $175, NI/YR PV PMTFV -4,505,181 INPUTS OUTPUT The bonds will be worth only $4,505,181!! So if TS waits and interest rates increase, TS will lose $5,000,000 - $4,505,181 = $494,819.

19 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management How can Tennessee Sunshine hedge this risk? T-Bond futures represent a contract on a hypothetical 20-year 6% bond with semiannual payments. A futures price of means 111% plus 25/32 percent of par, or for a $1,000 par bond, a price of $1, One T-bond futures contract is for $100,000 par value of underlying bonds, which is 100 of the $1,000 par- value bonds. Since each bond is worth $1,117.81, one contract is for $111,781 worth of bonds. TS should sell $5,000,000/$111,781=44.7=45contracts. 19

20 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Implied yield on futures contract A price of $1, gives a semi-annual yield of % or an annual yield of about 5.057%: NI/YR PV PMTFV INPUTS OUTPUT

21 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Futures price changes T-bond futures prices change every day as interest rates change. If interest rates increase, bond prices decrease and so does the T-bond futures price. If interest rates decrease, then bond prices increase, and so does the T-bond futures price. 21

22 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management What happens if interest rates increase 1%? The yield on the bond underlying the futures contract will increase to 5.057% + 1% = 6.057%. This gives a new price of $ (N=40, I/YR=6.057/2, PMT = -30, FV = -1000; solving gives PV = per underlying bond, or a contract price of $99,344. This is a decrease of $111,781 - $99,344 = $12,437 for each contract. 22

23 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Profit or loss from contract Since TS sold futures contracts, then it makes money when the futures price declines. In this case, TS will make $12,437 on each of its 45 contracts. Since TS sold the futures contracts and the price went down, it earns a positive profit of $12,437 x 45 contracts = $559,

24 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management What is the effectiveness of the hedge? TS will lose $494,819 on its own bonds when it issues them at the higher coupon rate, but it earns $559,665 on its futures contracts. Net result = 559,665 – 494,819 = $64,846 profit from the hedge. 24

25 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Suppose interest rates fall instead of rise? If interest rates fall, then: –TS gains on its bond issue –TS loses on its futures contracts 25

26 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Example of Foreign Currency Hedging A U.S. firm must pay 500 million yen to a Japanese firm in 30 days, and the current spot rate is yen per dollar. Unless spot rates change, the U.S. firm will pay the Japanese firm the equivalent of $3.983 million (500 million yen divided by yen per dollar) in 30 days. But if the spot rate falls to 100 yen per dollar, for example, the U.S. firm will have to pay the equivalent of $5 million. 26

27 FINN3226 Intermediate Financial Management Example of Foreign Currency Hedging The financial manager of this U.S. firm plans to buy a 30-day forward exchange contract. –This contract promises delivery of yen to the U.S. firm in 30 days at a guaranteed price of yen per dollar. –The counterparty to the forward contract must deliver the yen to the U.S. firm in 30 days, and the U.S. firm is obligated to purchase the 500 million yen at the previously agreed-upon rate of yen per dollar. –Therefore, the treasurer of the U.S. firm is able to lock in a payment equivalent to $3.989 million, no matter what happens to spot rates. 27


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