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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama chapter 9 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama chapter 9 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

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2 PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama chapter 9 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Leadership Traits and Styles

3 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–2 Leadership What is leadership?What is leadership? The process of influencing employees to work toward the achievement of organizational objectives. The process of influencing employees to work toward the achievement of organizational objectives. Is leadership the same as management?Is leadership the same as management? No. Leadership is a functional activity incorporated within the broader scope of management activities. It is part of planning, leading, organizing and controlling. No. Leadership is a functional activity incorporated within the broader scope of management activities. It is part of planning, leading, organizing and controlling. There are managers who are not leaders and there are leaders who are not managers. Managers lacking the ability to influence others are not true leaders. There are managers who are not leaders and there are leaders who are not managers. Managers lacking the ability to influence others are not true leaders.

4 Lets go to the Big Apple….American Express 65,000 employees65,000 employees CEO-Ken Chenault-worked his way up the ladder over 20 yearsCEO-Ken Chenault-worked his way up the ladder over 20 years Ken is one of few African American CEOs of a Fortune 500 companyKen is one of few African American CEOs of a Fortune 500 company Tough but fair manager who gets resultsTough but fair manager who gets results Became CEO just 9 months before 9/11Became CEO just 9 months before 9/11 11 employees were killed, thousands of customers were stranded, headquarters had to close11 employees were killed, thousands of customers were stranded, headquarters had to close Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–3

5 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–4 Leadership Trait Theory Leadership Trait TheoristsLeadership Trait Theorists Attempt to determine a list of distinctive characteristics that account for leadership effectiveness. Attempt to determine a list of distinctive characteristics that account for leadership effectiveness. But in over 70 years and 300 trait studies, they werent able to identify a universal set of traits that all leaders possess. But in over 70 years and 300 trait studies, they werent able to identify a universal set of traits that all leaders possess. The Ghiselli Study (1971)The Ghiselli Study (1971) Edwin Ghiselli studied over 300 managers from 90 different businesses in the US Edwin Ghiselli studied over 300 managers from 90 different businesses in the US He concluded that certain traits are important to effective leadership: He concluded that certain traits are important to effective leadership: (in this order)…. (in this order)….

6 Ghisellis 6 Traits of Effective Leadership- 1. Supervisory ability- getting the job done through others 2. Need for occupational achievement- seeking responsibility and wanting to work hard 3. Intelligence- good judgment/sound reasoning 4. Decisiveness- solve problems, make decisions competently 5. Self-assurance- viewing oneself as capable and behaving likewise 6. Initiative-being a self starter Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–5

7 What are some of Ken Chenaults Leaderships Traits? Supervisory ability-he gets subordinates to perform according to his expectationsSupervisory ability-he gets subordinates to perform according to his expectations Changed a poorly performing merchandise unit into a profitable one early in his career Changed a poorly performing merchandise unit into a profitable one early in his career Has a strong need for occupational advancement-Has a strong need for occupational advancement- Also has intelligence, decisiveness and takes initiativeAlso has intelligence, decisiveness and takes initiative Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–6

8 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–7 Behavioral Leadership Theories Behavioral Leadership TheoristsBehavioral Leadership Theorists Who were they? Early researchers who attempted to identify the best leadership style for all situations. Who were they? Early researchers who attempted to identify the best leadership style for all situations. Attempted to determine distinctive styles used by effective leaders. Attempted to determine distinctive styles used by effective leaders. Focused on the leaders behaviors Focused on the leaders behaviors Also focused on the relationship between leaders and followers. Also focused on the relationship between leaders and followers. What are the 3 parts of leadership style?What are the 3 parts of leadership style? The combination of traits, skills, and behaviors managers use in interacting with employees. The combination of traits, skills, and behaviors managers use in interacting with employees.

9 What Would You Do? Do the self assessment on pg. 320Do the self assessment on pg. 320 Remember your score as we discuss leadership styles.Remember your score as we discuss leadership styles. Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–8

10 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–9 3 Basic Leadership Styles Autocratic LeaderAutocratic Leader One who makes all the decisions, tells employees what to do, and closely supervises employees. One who makes all the decisions, tells employees what to do, and closely supervises employees. Considered a Theory X-type leader. Considered a Theory X-type leader. Democratic LeaderDemocratic Leader One who encourages employee participation in decisions, works with employees to determine what to do, and does not closely supervise employees. One who encourages employee participation in decisions, works with employees to determine what to do, and does not closely supervise employees. Considered a Theory Y-type leader. Considered a Theory Y-type leader.

11 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–10 3 Basic Leadership Styles (contd) Laissez-Faire LeaderLaissez-Faire Leader One who takes a leave-employees-alone approach, allowing them to make the decisions and decide what to do, and does not follow up. One who takes a leave-employees-alone approach, allowing them to make the decisions and decide what to do, and does not follow up.

12 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–11 Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles Two-Dimensional (4 Leadership Styles)Two-Dimensional (4 Leadership Styles) Based on job structure and employee consideration, which result in four possible leadership styles. Based on job structure and employee consideration, which result in four possible leadership styles. The Ohio State University (1945) The Ohio State University (1945) 1) Structuring (geared around the job) 1) Structuring (geared around the job) –The extent to which the leader takes charge to plan, organize, lead, and control as the employee performs the task. 2) Consideration (geared around the employee) 2) Consideration (geared around the employee) –The extent to which the leader communicates to develop trust, friendship, support, and respect. University of Michigan (1945) University of Michigan (1945) 3) Job-centered 3) Job-centered –Similar to structuring. (above) 4) Employee-centered 4) Employee-centered –Similar to consideration (above)

13 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–12 Exhibit 9–1 The Ohio State University and University of Michigan Two- Dimensional Leadership Styles

14 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–13 The Leadership Grid ® The Leadership Grid ® (5 Leadership Styles)The Leadership Grid ® (5 Leadership Styles) Believes that the ideal style incorporates a high concern for both the job (or production) and the employee. Believes that the ideal style incorporates a high concern for both the job (or production) and the employee. Leadership Styles (5)Leadership Styles (5) Impoverished management style (1, 1)-leader does the minimum required to remain employed Impoverished management style (1, 1)-leader does the minimum required to remain employed Authority-compliance management style (9, 1)-leader treats people like machines Authority-compliance management style (9, 1)-leader treats people like machines Country-club management style (1, 9)-leader makes a friendly atmosphere but doesnt care about production Country-club management style (1, 9)-leader makes a friendly atmosphere but doesnt care about production Middle-of-the-road management style (5, 5)-medium concern for people and job but gets minimal satisfactory performance Middle-of-the-road management style (5, 5)-medium concern for people and job but gets minimal satisfactory performance Team management style (9, 9)-strives for maximum performance and maximum employee satisfaction Team management style (9, 9)-strives for maximum performance and maximum employee satisfaction

15 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–14 The Leadership Grid ® (Blake and McCanse)

16 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–15

17 What Leadership Style does Ken Chernault use? Team management (most often)Team management (most often) But sometimes like just after 9/11 he used the country club style because he showed a higher concern for the emotional and safety needs of employees while placing production on the back burnerBut sometimes like just after 9/11 he used the country club style because he showed a higher concern for the emotional and safety needs of employees while placing production on the back burner Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–16

18 What Kind of Boss Do You Have? Each site should be a group.Each site should be a group. Each student at each site should take turns thinking of a present or past boss they had. Which of the 5 major leadership styles did he or she use most often? (impoverished, authority- complianance, country club, middle of the road, or team management). Describe your bosss behavior to the rest of the group and which style you think he or she used.Each student at each site should take turns thinking of a present or past boss they had. Which of the 5 major leadership styles did he or she use most often? (impoverished, authority- complianance, country club, middle of the road, or team management). Describe your bosss behavior to the rest of the group and which style you think he or she used. Students should explain why they agree or disagree with the other students findings.Students should explain why they agree or disagree with the other students findings. Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–17

19 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–18 Contemporary Perspectives (5) Charismatic LeadershipCharismatic Leadership A leadership style that inspires loyalty, enthusiasm, and high levels of performance. A leadership style that inspires loyalty, enthusiasm, and high levels of performance. Most appropriate for top management. Most appropriate for top management. Transformational LeadershipTransformational Leadership A leadership style that brings about continuous learning, innovation, and change. A leadership style that brings about continuous learning, innovation, and change. Most appropriate for top management. Most appropriate for top management. Transactional LeadershipTransactional Leadership A leadership style based on exchange. You do this for me and Ill give this reward to you. A leadership style based on exchange. You do this for me and Ill give this reward to you. Useful for middle or first line management Useful for middle or first line management

20 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–19 Contemporary Perspectives (contd) Symbolic LeadershipSymbolic Leadership A leadership style based on establishing and maintaining a strong organizational culture. A leadership style based on establishing and maintaining a strong organizational culture. Employees learn by example. Employees learn by example. Should start at the top and flow down. Should start at the top and flow down. Servant LeadershipServant Leadership A leadership style based on simultaneously meeting the needs and goals of employees and the goals of the organization. A leadership style based on simultaneously meeting the needs and goals of employees and the goals of the organization. Focuses on motivating employees by meeting their higher- level needs. Focuses on motivating employees by meeting their higher- level needs. Motivates employees to go beyond role requirements and do what it takes to attain the goals of the organization. Motivates employees to go beyond role requirements and do what it takes to attain the goals of the organization. Can be used at any level of management. Can be used at any level of management.

21 Is Ken Chenault a Charismatic Leader? What about Transformational? A Servant Leader? Symbolic? Hes all of the above!Hes all of the above! Charismatic-When you work with Ken Chenault, you feel youll do anything for him. Charismatic-When you work with Ken Chenault, you feel youll do anything for him. Transformational-He had the courage to challenge the old culture at American Express and change it. Transformational-He had the courage to challenge the old culture at American Express and change it. Symbolic leader during the 9/11 crisis Symbolic leader during the 9/11 crisis Servant leader-Two weeks after 9/11 he gathered the employees together for a town hall meeting and personally comforted grief- sticken employees. Also pledged $1 million of profits to the families of American Express victims. He said You represent American Express. All the people of American Express are what this company is all about. In fact, you are my strength and I love you. Servant leader-Two weeks after 9/11 he gathered the employees together for a town hall meeting and personally comforted grief- sticken employees. Also pledged $1 million of profits to the families of American Express victims. He said You represent American Express. All the people of American Express are what this company is all about. In fact, you are my strength and I love you. Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–20

22 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–21 Situational Approaches to Leadership (6) Up until the 1960s, they were trying to find the best leadership style for all situations but no single style is best for all situations.Up until the 1960s, they were trying to find the best leadership style for all situations but no single style is best for all situations. Situational Leadership Theorists (1960s)Situational Leadership Theorists (1960s) Attempted to determine the appropriate leadership style for various situations. Attempted to determine the appropriate leadership style for various situations. 1-Contingency leadership model 1-Contingency leadership model 2-Leadership continuum model 2-Leadership continuum model 3-Path-goal model 3-Path-goal model 4-Normative leadership theory 4-Normative leadership theory 5-Situational Leadership ® model 5-Situational Leadership ® model 6-Leadership substitutes and neutralizers 6-Leadership substitutes and neutralizers Should the leader change his/her style or should the situation be changed to fit the leaders style? Should the leader change his/her style or should the situation be changed to fit the leaders style?

23 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9–22 Contingency Leadership Model (1)Contingency Leadership Model (Fiedler)(1)Contingency Leadership Model (Fiedler) Used to determine if ones leadership style is task- or relationship-oriented and if the situation matches the leaders style. Used to determine if ones leadership style is task- or relationship-oriented and if the situation matches the leaders style. Leadership style Leadership style The Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale measures a leaders task (job) or relationship (employee) orientation. The Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale measures a leaders task (job) or relationship (employee) orientation. Situational favorableness Situational favorableness Leader-follower relations (good or poor?) Leader-follower relations (good or poor?) Task structure (structured or unstructured?) Task structure (structured or unstructured?) Position power (strong or weak?) Position power (strong or weak?) Criticism: If the style doesnt work, sometimes its very hard to change the situation. Criticism: If the style doesnt work, sometimes its very hard to change the situation.

24 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–23 Exhibit 9–2 Contingency Leadership Model

25 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–24

26 Is McDonalds company task oriented or relationship oriented? Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–25

27 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–26 Leadership Continuum Model (2)Leadership Continuum Model (Tannenbaum and Schmidt)(2)Leadership Continuum Model (Tannenbaum and Schmidt) Used to determine which of seven styles of leadership, on a continuum from autocratic (boss-centered) to participative (employee-centered), is best for a given situation. Used to determine which of seven styles of leadership, on a continuum from autocratic (boss-centered) to participative (employee-centered), is best for a given situation. Focuses on who makes the decisions Focuses on who makes the decisions Factors determining selection of style: Factors determining selection of style: The leaders preferred style The leaders preferred style The subordinates preferred style for the leader The subordinates preferred style for the leader The situation The situation –Organizations size, structure, climate, goals, technology, and higher-level management leadership style and the time available Criticism: The 3 factors above can be subjective, so determining which style to use in a given situation can be difficult. Criticism: The 3 factors above can be subjective, so determining which style to use in a given situation can be difficult.

28 Does Ken Chenault ever change his leadership style? Yes! To focus on tasks or relationships.Yes! To focus on tasks or relationships. Immediately after hearing that the World Trade Center had collapsed, he used the autocratic style to make the decision to evacuate the American Express building across the street and to hire private planes to transport stranded American Express customers. Immediately after hearing that the World Trade Center had collapsed, he used the autocratic style to make the decision to evacuate the American Express building across the street and to hire private planes to transport stranded American Express customers. But the style he uses most often is participative.But the style he uses most often is participative. Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–27

29 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–28 Exhibit 9–3 The Leadership Continuum Source: Adapted from Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt, How to Choose a Leadership Pattern, Harvard Business Review (May/June, 1973).

30 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–29

31 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–30 (3)Path-Goal Model Path-Goal Model (House)Path-Goal Model (House) Used to determine employee objectives and to clarify how to achieve them using one of four leadership styles. Used to determine employee objectives and to clarify how to achieve them using one of four leadership styles. Considers subordinates situational factors and environmental factors in determining a leadership style. Considers subordinates situational factors and environmental factors in determining a leadership style. Leadership styles: Leadership styles: Directive Directive –The leader provides high structure. Supportive Supportive –The leader provides high consideration.(develops trust and respect) Participative Participative –The leader considers employee input when making decisions. Achievement-oriented Achievement-oriented –The leader sets difficult but achievable goals, expects subordinates to perform at their highest level, and rewards them for doing so Criticism: hard to know which style to use in a given situation. Criticism: hard to know which style to use in a given situation.

32 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–31 Exhibit 9–4 A Summary of Path-Goal Factors and Styles Situational Factors Subordinate authoritarianism locus of control ability Environmental task structure formal authority work group Situational Factors Subordinate authoritarianism locus of control ability Environmental task structure formal authority work group Goal Achievement Performance Satisfaction Goal Achievement Performance Satisfaction Leadership Styles Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented Leadership Styles Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented determinethat affect

33 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–32 (4)Normative Leadership Model Normative Leadership Model (Vroom and Jago)Normative Leadership Model (Vroom and Jago) A decision tree that enables the user to select one of five leadership styles appropriate for a situation. A decision tree that enables the user to select one of five leadership styles appropriate for a situation. Determination of leadership style is based on two factors: Determination of leadership style is based on two factors: The importance of individual versus group decisions (input and participation). The importance of individual versus group decisions (input and participation). The importance of time-driven versus development-driven decisions (time-pressure and quality of decision). The importance of time-driven versus development-driven decisions (time-pressure and quality of decision). Criticism: cumbersome to select from 4 types of decisions and an 8 question decision tree every time you need to choose a style. Criticism: cumbersome to select from 4 types of decisions and an 8 question decision tree every time you need to choose a style.

34 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–33 (5)Situational Leadership ® Model Situational Leadership ® Model (Hersey and Blanchard)Situational Leadership ® Model (Hersey and Blanchard) Used to select one of four leadership styles that match the employees maturity level in a given situation. Used to select one of four leadership styles that match the employees maturity level in a given situation. (Maturity level doesnt mean how grown up an employee is but rather how competent, commited and ready to do the job he is.) (Maturity level doesnt mean how grown up an employee is but rather how competent, commited and ready to do the job he is.) Telling Telling –Giving employees explicit directions about how to accomplish a task. Selling Selling –Explaining decisions to gain understanding. Participating Participating –Facilitating decision making among subordinates. Delegating Delegating –Giving employees responsibility for their decisions and their implementation.

35 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–34

36 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–35 Exhibit 9–5 A Comparison of Behavioral and Situational Leadership Models

37 Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–36 (6)Leadership Substitutes Theory Can the leader be replaced by something?Can the leader be replaced by something? Characteristics of the task, of subordinates, or of the organization can replace the need for a leader. Characteristics of the task, of subordinates, or of the organization can replace the need for a leader. Subordinatesability, knowledge, experience, training; need for independence, professional orientation; indifference toward organizational rewards Subordinatesability, knowledge, experience, training; need for independence, professional orientation; indifference toward organizational rewards Taskclarity, routineness, invariant methodology; provision of feedback concerning accomplishment and of intrinsic satisfaction Taskclarity, routineness, invariant methodology; provision of feedback concerning accomplishment and of intrinsic satisfaction Organizationformality; inflexibility; very specific advisory and staff functions; closely knit, cohesive work groups; rewards outside of the leaders control; physical distance between superior and subordinates Organizationformality; inflexibility; very specific advisory and staff functions; closely knit, cohesive work groups; rewards outside of the leaders control; physical distance between superior and subordinates


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