Presentation on theme: "KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit Kentucky Energy Efficiency"— Presentation transcript:
1 KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit Kentucky Energy Efficiency KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit Step 2: Assess Performance & Opportunities Toolkit 2E: Evaluating School HVAC SystemsStep 2Assess Performance & OpportunitiesToolkit 2eEvaluating School HVAC SystemsKentucky Energy EfficiencyProgram for SchoolsKEEPS EnergyManagement ToolkitWelcome to the KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit. This toolkit is part of the KEEPS Training System, which provides a valuable package of tools, training, coaching and expertise that helps school districts establish and implement an effective Energy Management Program.
2 Evaluating School HVAC Systems KEEPSEnergyManagementToolkitKEEPS Energy Management Toolkit Toolkit 2E: Evaluating School HVAC SystemsToolkit 2eEvaluating School HVAC SystemsThis presentation provides instructions and forms for performing an effective school building heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system evaluation. This resource is available through KEEPS – Kentucky Energy Efficiency Program for Schools.
3 7-Step Energy Management Process Make the CommitmentAssess Performance and OpportunitiesSet Performance GoalsCreate an Action PlanImplement the Action PlanEvaluate ProgressRecognize AchievementsThe KEEPS Training System is based on the seven-step ENERGY STAR® Guidelines for Energy Management, which is a proven strategy to help organizations improve energy and financial performance. This strategy allows participants to take ownership of their Energy Management Program, which ensures energy and cost savings year after year and promotes a culture of responsible, environmental and community stewardship.This toolkit, Toolkit 2E: Evaluating School HVAC Systems, is part of the KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit series for Step 2 of the seven-step energy management process – Assess Performance & Opportunities. The KEEPS Energy Management Toolkits for this step provide the necessary tools to produce a school-specific, complete, consistent and substantiated evaluation of the energy use and help identify potential energy saving opportunities.
4 Evaluating School HVAC Systems Overview ImportanceKEEPS Five-step HVAC Evaluation ProcessKEEPS On-site Energy Assessment FormsKEEPS Energy Assessment ToolsKEEPS Assessment ReportThis presentation addresses why evaluating a school’s HVAC system is important to assessing a school’s energy performance. In doing so, it provides a five-step assessment process used by KEEPS engineers and energy managers to identify best opportunities for energy reduction and cost savings. This process uses KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Forms and KEEPS Energy Assessment Tools, all of which are available in the KEEPS Toolkit Library on the KEEPS website, This toolkit also provides guidance on how to apply HVAC system assessment data to the KEEPS Assessment Report.
5 Why evaluate a school’s HVAC system? Gain knowledge and understanding of HVAC systems and how they impact energy use and performanceIdentify future upgrades or replacement for poor-performing equipmentMake recommendations and present Energy Management Opportunities (EMOs) to district stakeholdersPerforming an evaluation of a school’s HVAC system helps the school energy manager and energy team gain knowledge of the school’s HVAC systems, and better understand how this equipment impacts energy usage, which ultimately affects facility performance. An HVAC assessment highlights poor-performing equipment, which can be identified for future upgrades or replacement.Understanding why a system is or is not performing to standard is crucial in controlling energy usage and identifying Energy Management Opportunities (EMOs).
6 A typical K-12 school HVAC system consumes 58% of its energy usage Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) estimates that a typical K-12 School consumes 40 percent of its energy usage for space heating, 14 percent for cooling and 4 percent for ventilation, which accounts for a total of 58 percent energy consumption for HVAC systems. With HVAC systems consuming more than half of a school’s energy usage, an evaluation and thorough understanding of those systems is imperative to reducing future energy consumption and cost.
7 KEEPS HVAC Evaluation Process Step 1: Identify and Document Equipment and ControlsStep 2: Conduct a Visual Inspection of all SystemsStep 3: Review Operations and Maintenance ProgramsStep 4: Evaluate HVAC ControlsStep 5: Identify Energy Management Opportunities (EMOs)There are five steps to the KEEPS HVAC evaluation process.Step 1: Identify and Document Equipment and ControlsStep 2: Conduct a Visual Inspection of all SystemsStep 3: Review Operations and Maintenance ProgramsStep 4: Evaluate HVAC ControlsStep 5: Identify Energy Management Opportunities
8 Recommended Tools Assortment of Screwdrivers Flashlight Digital Camera Flat-head (slotted) and crossed (Phillips)Various sizesFlashlightDigital CameraHelpful and highly recommendedTo assist in accomplishing the HVAC evaluation, it is recommended the assessor have the following tools:Screwdrivers – Flat Head and Phillips – of various sizesFlashlightDigital CameraA Digital camera is especially helpful during the audit and highly recommended.
9 Step 1: Identify and Document Equipment and Controls Review all HVAC equipmentGather information on equipment including identification, ratings, fuel type and ageSources include:Facility staff and school personnelRating platesBuilding drawings and specificationsStep 1 of the evaluation is the identification and documentation of HVAC equipment and controls. This information can be acquired from looking at HVAC equipment rating plates, through discussions with facility staff and school personnel, and reviewing equipment and building drawings and specifications. It is helpful to use a digital camera to take pictures of the equipment and rating plates during the process. This not only assists in initially identifying and documenting the equipment, but the pictures may be beneficial if needed for future reference.
10 KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Form for HVAC Systems - Equipment Use the KEEPS On-site Assessment Form for HVAC Systems – Equipment to collect and track HVAC information and performance data.
11 HVAC Systems Assessment Form 1 Begin step one by entering the school name and date at the top of the KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Form for HVAC Systems - Equipment.Next, enter HVAC equipment data in the appropriate columns on page one of the form. Information to document includes system or component name, ID/zone served, manufacturer, model number, fuel, age, quantity, capacity or rating, capacity units, efficiency rating, and appearance.
12 HVAC Systems Assessment Form 2 The Typical Systems and Components section at the bottom of the form provides HVAC systems and components that may be part of your school’s HVAC system and should be included in your documentation.
13 HVAC Systems Assessment Form 3 Since electrical motors are an important part of HVAC systems and contribute to the systems’ total energy consumption, motors are to be documented on Page 2 of the form in the “HVAC Motors” section.
14 HVAC Systems Assessment Form 4 Enter HVAC Motor data in the appropriate columns on the form. Data collected includes HVAC unit served by the motor, motor manufacturer, quantity of motors, horsepower, voltage, phase, amps, RPMs, power factor and service factor.
15 Step 2: Conduct a Visual Inspection of All Systems See first-hand the condition of the HVAC EquipmentGet a general observation and feel for the condition of the HVAC Systems.Perform the Step 2 visual inspection during the Step 1 identification process.The second step in the HVAC evaluation process entails a visual inspection of all systems. This step gives the assessor a first-hand look at the condition of the HVAC equipment and systems. This inspection will help identify system inefficiencies and whether to upgrade or replace equipment since age alone does not always determine if a system requires replacement. Also, it helps evaluate the effectiveness of the operations and maintenance activities.Please note that a good time to perform this step is while performing the Step 1: Identify and Document HVAC Systems and Controls. This will save you the time of revisiting the same equipment observed in step one.
16 Observe the Overall Appearance of the Equipment Motors and Belts (Noisy, Squeal)Dampers (Linkage Connected, Lubricated)Filters and Fans (Dirty)Bearings (Noisy)Duct Connections (Air Leakage)Condenser and Evaporator Coils (Dirty)Burners (Dirty)Insulation (Missing or Damaged)Piping and Valves (Leaking)During the visual equipment inspection, observe the overall appearance of the equipment paying particular attention to motors, belts, dampers, filters, bearings, duct connections, condenser and evaporator coils, burners, insulation, piping and valves. Look for items that may be noisy, disconnected, requiring lubrication, dirty, leaking or corroded.Remember, step two is intended as a visual versus a hands-on inspection. If the removal of any panels, etc. is required to gain visual access, this activity should be accomplished under the supervision of, trained, experienced school personnel who are familiar with the equipment.
17 HVAC Systems Assessment Form 5 The KEEPS Energy Assessment Form for HVAC Systems – Equipment can also be used to record data from HVAC system observations.
18 HVAC Systems Assessment Form 6 Use the last column on page one of the HVAC systems assessment form to enter the condition of the HVAC systems, equipment and components observed during the visual inspection. In the “Appearance Column” note if the equipment is in Excellent condition, Good condition or Needs attention.
19 HVAC Systems Assessment Form 7 If a particular item on a system was noted as needing attention, document the details of what attention is needed for that piece of equipment on HVAC systems assessment form in the “HVAC Items Needing Attention” section.
20 Step 3: Review Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Programs Verify if maintenance and repairs are performed on a regular basisConfirm what type of record-keeping is maintainedVerify if any labeling is performed to facilitate O&MVerify if personnel are properly trainedThe objective of Step 3: Review Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Programs is to verify if regularly scheduled maintenance and repairs are performed on the equipment, what documentation is maintained, if labeling is performed and if personnel has/needs training.
21 Review Current O&M Programs Does a preventative maintenance program exist?Are any predictive maintenance activities performed?Are any informal records available pertaining to repairs and maintenance?Review with the staff the presence of any O&M programs. This would entail questions pertaining to the existence of preventative maintenance programs (planned maintenance aimed at the prevention of breakdowns and failures) or predictive maintenance programs (determination of the condition of equipment in order to predict when maintenance should be performed). If no formalized programs exist, ask if any informal record-keeping is logged on maintenance and repairs to equipment. This could be something as simple as a hand-written maintenance log.
22 Are HVAC Systems and Components Labeled? Ask the staff if any labeling has been performed at the school. Labeling and color-coding of equipment, flow direction, services, etc. is an inexpensive and effective method for helping personnel properly operate and maintain equipment.
23 O&M Training Are training needs being addressed? Is there any specialized equipment that requires staff training?Have other personnel received training (i.e. teachers trained on programming thermostats)?Another important part of maintaining equipment is to have personnel that are regularly trained in the proper upkeep and operation of the equipment. It is also important that personnel, such as teachers, be trained to achieve a working knowledge on some of the equipment.Find out the status on past, present and future training programs. Is there any specialized equipment that requires training prior to use? Ask the school faculty and staff what training they feel would help them to understand and maintain the HVAC equipment.23
24 KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Form for HVAC Systems – O&M Use the KEEPS On-site Assessment Form for HVAC Systems – O&M to document O&M information.
25 O&M Form Section 1: Preventative Maintenance Section 1 of the KEEPS O&M form documents preventative maintenance activities, such as the existence of a preventative maintenance program, tracking of preventative maintenance activity and maintenance repair activity. Review the questions and explanation provided on the form, and enter a “Yes” or “No” response in the last column.
26 O&M Form Section 2: Predictive Maintenance Section 2 of the KEEPS O&M form deals with predictive maintenance activities and questions if predictive maintenance tools, such as infrared, oil analysis, ultrasonic detection or oil analysis, are used. After reviewing these questions with the school staff, enter “Yes” or “No” in the last column.
27 O&M Form Sections 3 through 6: Record Keeping, Labeling, Training, Reactive vs. Proactive The same process is followed for sections 3 through 6 of the KEEPS On-site Assessment Form for HVAC Systems – O&M. The areas to review are:Section 3: Informal record keepingSection 4: Labeling activitiesSection 5: TrainingSection 6: O&M activities being reactive or proactive
28 Step 4: Evaluate HVAC Controls Understand what degree of Building Automation System (BAS) controls are in place to reduce energy consumptionReview current HVAC temperature adjustment settings and policiesReview other HVAC controls that may be used to control energy consumptionDetermine commissioning needsStep four of the KEEPS HVAC Evaluation Process gathers information on existing HVAC controls to obtain an understanding of what degree of Building Automation System (BAS) controls are in place. A review of HVAC automatic and manual controls gives insight into what is currently being used and what may be implemented to assist in future energy reduction efforts.This step also entails a review of HVAC temperature adjustment settings and policies as well as other HVAC controls, policies and procedures that may be in place. Lastly, a review of previous and future building renovations is conducted to determine commissioning needs.28
29 KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Form for HVAC Systems - Controls Use the KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Form for HVAC Systems – Controls to document information pertaining to HVAC controls.
30 Controls Form Section 1: Building Automation System Begin by entering the school name and date at the top of the form. Discuss with the school the six questions in section 1 (1a through 1f), addressing the level of Building Automation System controls in place.Section 1 confirms the presence or absence of:1a) An Energy Management System that adjusts and monitors HVAC Operations1b) Programmable thermostats1c) A timer system for automatic shutdown and start-up of HVAC equipment1d) Manual thermostats1e) Active (functional) outside air controls1f ) The degree of outside air control (CO2 monitoring, economizers, etc.)Enter the response to questions 1a through 1f in the “Response” column.
31 Controls Form Section 2: Temperature Adjustments Continue the discussion with the staff by asking questions listed in 2a through 2d pertaining to HVAC manual or automatic temperature adjustments, the person or persons responsible for adjusting these settings, building comfort and temperature adjustment override capabilities. Enter the response to questions 2a through 2d into the “Response” column.
32 Controls Form Sections 3 and 4: Miscellaneous Controls Items and Commissioning Repeat the same process for sections 3 and 4. Questions 3a through 3c address miscellaneous items regarding separate controls for zones, ventilation fan shut-down during periods when the building is unoccupied and housekeeping schedule adjustments.Questions 4a through 4c pertain to commissioning. “Building commissioning is the systematic process of ensuring a building performs to the design’s intent and the owner’s operational needs prior to building occupancy. Re-commissioning refers to building commissioning conducted again, during building occupancy, to ensure that the building continues to perform accordingly. Retro-commissioning refers to building commissioning conducted during building occupancy for the first time.”¹Commissioning questions ask if the school has ever been commissioned, when the last major renovation or expansion took place and if future renovations or expansions are planned.Enter the response to each question in the “Response” column.¹US Dept of Energy/Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy – Guide to Operating and Maintaining Energy Smart Schools
33 Step 5: Identify Energy Management Opportunities (EMOs) Use information gathered from steps 1 through 4 to determine potential Energy Management Opportunities for HVAC systems and controlsStep four uses information gathered in the first four steps of the HVAC systems evaluation to draw conclusions and recommendations for Energy Management Opportunities (EMOs).
34 HVAC Systems EMOsEMO 1: HVAC replacement, upgrade, modifications and/or additionsEMO 2: O&M program enhancementsEMO 3: HVAC controls installation and implementationEMO 4: Commissioning, retro-commissioning, re-commissioningLet’s consider four areas of HVAC systems Energy Management Opportunities (EMOs).EMO 1 - HVAC replacement/upgrade/modifications/additionsEMO 2 - Operations & Maintenance program enhancementsEMO 3 - HVAC controls installation and implementationEMO 4 - Commissioning, retro-commissioning and re-commissioning
35 EMO 1: HVAC Considerations Replacement of the HVAC systemsUpgrade or refurbishment of the systemsThe HVAC systems will be evaluated in regards to:Replacement of the HVAC systemsUpgrade or refurbishment of the systems
36 EMO 1: HVAC Replacement Considerations Age of Equipment. Is it more than 15 years old or greater than the median age on the ASHRAE Life Expectancy Table?Condition of Equipment. How good or bad did it look during the visual inspection?Efficiency Recommendations. Does the equipment meet ASHRAE Recommended Efficiency ratings?Many items will determine whether an HVAC system should be replaced. These items include age, cost, life expectancy, condition, efficiency, fuel costs and facility modifications, to name a few. Information gathered during steps one and two of the HVAC evaluation process and documented in the KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Forms for HVAC Systems will help make that decision. Consider replacement if:Equipment is greater than 15 years old or greater than the median age on the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Life Expectancy Table. (See following slide.)Equipment has numerous or major items that need attention.Equipment efficiency is below ASHRAE recommendations.
37 ASHRAE Life Expectancy Table Source: Limited Condition Survey and Usability/Reuse Study, page 34. University of Connecticut Greater Hartford Campus. September 10, 2003.Review documentation taken during the assessment and compare the age of existing equipment with the ASHRAE Life Expectancy Table, which lists HVAC systems and components and provides information on median life expectancy years for that equipment. This information may be used to determine expected remaining life of a school’s HVAC equipment.This table appears in Limited Condition Survey and Usability/Reuse Study published by the University of Connecticut Hartford Campus. This publication is available to download online at .
38 ASHRAE HVAC Minimum Efficiency Ratings Review equipment efficiency with ASHRAE HVAC Minimum Efficiency Ratings for Zone 4 K-12 SchoolsSource: ASHRAE 30% Advance Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, page 938. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers . September 2010.Review documentation taken during the assessment and compare efficiency ratings of existing equipment with the ASHRAE Recommendations for Schools located in Zone 4, which is the zone where all Kentucky K-12 schools are located.ASHRAE’s Climate Zone 4 Recommendations list HVAC systems and components common to K-12 schools and provide recommendations on minimum efficiency ratings for that equipment. These recommendations may be used to determine the difference between recommended and original rated efficiencies of a schools HVAC equipment.This information appears in ASHRAE 30% Advance Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, which is available to download on the ASHRAE Energy Design Guides website,
39 ASHRAE Ratings: Water-source Heat Pump The table lists typical HVAC items and components and provides recommendations for those components. For example, for a water-source heat pump (WSHP) rated less than 65,000 kBtuh, ASHRAE recommends a WSHP with a cooling efficiency rating of 12.0 EER at 86°F, and a heating efficiency rating of 4.5 Coefficient of Performance (COP) at 68°F.
40 EMO 1: HVAC Upgrade/Refurbishment Considerations Age of Equipment. Is it more than 8 years old, but less than 15?Condition of Equipment. How good or bad did it look during the visual inspection?Efficiency Recommendations. If there are no existing economizers, and heat recovery and installation looks physically possible, consider upgrading with economizers.If replacement of HVAC equipment is not warranted, then consideration should be given to upgrading or refurbishing the equipment. Equipment should be considered for refurbishment if:1. Equipment is greater than 8 years old but less than 15.2. Equipment has several items that needs attention.3. Equipment does not have economizers or heat recovery. If installation is physically possible, then consider adding to existing equipment.The US DOE EnergySmart Schools Tips lists installing economizers as an HVAC “quick win” for saving energy. (Source: According to the U.S. EPA ENERGY STAR® program, “Heat Recovery is one of the most effective ways to optimize energy efficiency during building operations, and can recover 50 to 80 percent of the energy used to heat or cool incoming outdoor air.” (Source:
41 KEEPS Report InputLocate “HVAC & Controls” in the KEEPS Assessment Report and describe the school’s existing HVAC system.List HVAC energy management opportunities and recommendations.Locate “HVAC & Controls” in the KEEPS Assessment Report and describe the school’s existing HVAC system, and list energy management opportunities and recommendations.
42 EMO 2: O&M Program Enhancements Review the information recorded on the KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Form for HVAC Systems - O&M.Use observations made during the visual inspection to assist in evaluating the effectiveness of current O&M programs.Provide recommendations based on the extent and effectiveness of O&M activities observed.The process of determining operations & maintenance opportunities begins with a review of the information captured during the visual inspection and recorded on the KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Form for HVAC Systems – Equipment. Also, the observations gathered on the KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Form for HVAC Systems – Controls during the visual inspection should be consulted to assist in evaluating the effectiveness of current O&M programs. Information from these sources will enable you to provide O&M recommendations based on the extent and effectiveness of O&M activities observed.
43 O&M Opportunities: Preventative Maintenance Recommend a preventative maintenance program if none exists.If not practical, then at a minimum, establish a system for tracking maintenance and repairs.If answers from Section 1 (Preventative Maintenance section) of the O&M form revealed that little or no maintenance records exist, then initiating a maintenance and repair tracking program should be recommended. A basic program, such as one tracking filter changes and repairs, can be expanded as time allows to a more formalized and thorough preventative maintenance system with scheduled maintenance, inspections, repairs, corrective work orders generation, etc.
44 O&M Opportunities: Predictive Maintenance Evaluate benefits of a predictive maintenance program.Infrared analysisOil analysisUltrasonic analysisVibration analysisDetermine if any or all of the four predictive maintenance tools listed on this slide have potential. Some points to consider when evaluating the tools in Section 2 of the O&M form are:2a) Infrared has become a very cost effective tool and may be one of the easiest to implement.2b) Depending on the number of pieces of equipment that can benefit from oil analysis and if a reasonable program and price can be negotiated with an oil vendor, then an oil analysis or total lubrication program may have potential.2c) Ultrasonic analysis is particularly beneficial in HVAC systems using steam. Usage may be limited otherwise, unless compressed air is used in the school. Also, the cost to purchase the equipment can be very reasonable.2d) Vibration analysis is a good tool and beneficial if a large number of equipment with motors and bearings exists, but the cost to purchase resources needed for a vibration analysis program can be prohibitive.
45 O&M Opportunities: Record Keeping Section 3 on the O&M form verifies if record keeping of any form exists. Manual logs of repairs and maintenance would be the minimal level of acceptable maintenance documentation, but not the preferred method. Keeping only service receipts as a means of maintenance tracking is also not the preferred method. If these are the only tracking tools that exist, then the school needs to consider utilizing a maintenance software program.
46 O&M Opportunities: Labeling Recommend the labeling of equipment, services, piping, valves and other equipment.Labeling is an inexpensive and effective method for helping personnel properly operate and maintain equipment.Determine if any or all of the four labeling tools discussed during the O&M review have potential. Some points to consider when evaluating the tools in Section 4 (Labeling) are:4a) If equipment is not labeled, then recommend it be labeled, and consider adding not only the identification of the equipment, but where it is fed from electrically and what zone it services.4b) The labeling and/or color-coding of piping is an asset in understanding and verifying HVAC systems. This action, as well as labeling of equipment, is often a time-saver when working on systems and helps confirm that the proper systems are being maintained. If piping is not labeled, then recommend that it be done.4c) If directional flow arrows do not exist, they should be added to assist in the proper recognition of fluid or gas flow.4d) The labeling of valves is important, particularly if a valve is normally open or closed during standard operations. This can eliminate inefficiencies in systems that may be improperly mixing fluids or bypassing coils.
47 O&M Opportunities: Training Operation and maintenance of existing equipmentSpecialized equipmentEnergy reduction policies and procedures (teachers and staff)Use of programmable thermostats (teachers and staff)If the questions in Section 5 (Training) reveal that training does not exist, is limited or is not ongoing, and does not include staff and teachers, then the following recommendations should be considered:5a) Training for facility staff and teachers (where appropriate) should be recommended for: operation and upkeep of equipment; use of new, specialized equipment; new policies and procedures for reducing HVAC energy consumption.5b) If teachers control thermostats and/or programmable thermostats, then they should be trained on how to properly use the thermostats and what the policies are for thermostat setback.
48 O&M Opportunities: Reactive vs. Proactive Section 6 (Reactive vs. Proactive) is to get input from the staff if they feel their efforts are more reactive than proactive. A response of “reactive” reinforces the recommendation to modify the O&M process.
49 Operations & Maintenance Benefits Energy savingsExtension of equipment lifeEnhanced internal air qualityElimination of contaminant sourcesIncreased occupant comfortImproved reliabilityAvoidance of classroom disruptionsMaintenance staff empowermentEffective O&M is one of the most cost-effective methods for ensuring reliability, safety and energy efficiency. O&M programs targeting energy efficiency can save 5 to 20 percent on energy bills without a significant capital investment. (SeeRegular maintenance of the HVAC system has several benefits including energy savings, extension of equipment life, enhanced indoor air quality, elimination of contaminant sources, increased occupant comfort, improved reliability, avoidance of classroom disruptions and maintenance staff empowerment.
50 KEEPS Report InputLocate “Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Program” in the KEEPS Assessment Report and modify respective figures and other necessary words/sentences for your specific school.Describe O&M energy management opportunities and recommendations.Locate “Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Program” in the KEEPS Assessment Report and modify respective figures and other necessary words/sentences for your specific school.Describe O&M energy management opportunities and recommendations.
51 EMO 3: HVAC Controls Installation and Implementation Review the information captured on KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Form for HVAC Systems - ControlsProvide recommendations based on the extent and effectiveness of HVAC controls activities observedDetermining HVAC controls opportunities begins with a review of the information captured on KEEPS On-site Energy Assessment Form for HVAC Systems - Controls.Based on what controls do or do not exist, an evaluation of HVAC control opportunities should be considered. The recommendations can be as simple as establishing a manual shutdown and startup program, as well as a setback/setup program. This can be upgraded to timers and/or programmable thermostats vs. manual thermostats. A total building energy management system may also be considered if funds are available or if the school will be undergoing major renovations.
52 HVAC Controls: Energy Management System (EMS) Opportunities If a Energy Management System (EMS) exists, then maintain the system and verify that programming is updated.If using programmable thermostats, then upgrade to an EMS and verify proper thermostat programming.If timers are used, then upgrade to an EMS and verify that timers are set correctly.If using manual thermostats, then upgrade to programmable thermostats at a minimum.Consider potential for active outside air controls.Section 1 of KEEPS HVAC Systems Controls Form is used to determine what level of Energy Management System (EMS) is in place. The six questions in Section 1 deal with various levels of energy management controls in an attempt to advance to the next level of building automation. The EMS opportunities from Section 1 to be considered are as follows:1a) If a school already has EMS that adjusts and monitors HVAC operations, then no recommendations are made at this time other than upkeep of the system and verifying that programming is updated as schedules change.1b) If programmable thermostats are used, then recommendations are to consider upgrading to an EMS, and verification thermostats are properly programmed for recommended setbacks.1c) If timers are used to automatically shut down and start up HVAC equipment, then recommendations are to upgrade to an EMS, and regularly verify that timers are set correctly. If timers strictly shut equipment off and on, then use in conjunction with programmable thermostats.1d) If manual thermostats are used, recommend upgrading to an EMS, or at a minimum, upgrade to programmable thermostats.1e and 1f) If no active outside air controls exist, then consider installing CO₂ sensors to control outside air dampers and/or outdoor air volume monitoring and control.
53 HVAC Controls: Temperature Adjustment Opportunities If heating and cooling is not adjusted automatically, then recommend a program for adjusting be put in placeSee KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit E1: Thermostat Setback Opportunities)Train personnel that control setbacksSection 2 of KEEPS HVAC Systems Controls Form includes four questions that review temperature adjustment policies and questions personnel who are given the responsibility for adjustments, comfort complaints and override capabilities. The HVAC controls temperature adjustment opportunities from Section 2 to be considered are as follows:2a) If heating and cooling are not adjusted automatically, then recommend that a program for adjusting automatically be put in place. To see the impact and potential savings of temperature setbacks, see KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit E1: Thermostat Setback Opportunities.2b) Verify what personnel have the ability to control thermostats. Recommend that personnel be trained on policy and thermostat functions.
54 HVAC Controls: Temperature Adjustment Opportunities (cont.) If complaints about the building’s comfort are non-existent or minimal, consider further modifications to temperature setbacks.Review the override capabilities for temperature adjustment and verify that if overrides exist, they are properly controlled.2c) Confirm if there are any complaints about the building’s comfort. If complaints are non-existent or minimal, consider further modifications to temperature setbacks.2d) Review the override capabilities for temperature adjustment and verify that if overrides exist, they are properly controlled.
55 HVAC Controls: Miscellaneous Opportunities Consider separate controls for zones.Recommend ventilation fans be shut down when not required.Adjust housekeeping schedule to minimize HVAC impact.Section 3 of KEEPS Controls Form reviews miscellaneous HVAC controls items that have Energy Management Opportunity potential. Opportunities from Section 3 to be considered are as follows:3a) Do separate controls exist for zones? If not, then separate zone control should be considered. This will reduce overheating and overcooling of areas, and will allow sectionalizing of zones that do not require heating or cooling from those that do.3b) Verify that ventilation fans are shut down when not required, such as when the building is not occupied. To avoid bringing in unconditioned air, exhaust systems should not be operated when the supply air portion of the HVAC system is turned off.3c) Is the housekeeping schedule adjusted to minimize HVAC use? If this has not been considered, then recommend a review of the schedule. Also consider the assignment of specific time periods during the summer break when air conditioning will be operated for a limited number of predetermined hours.
56 KEEPS Report InputLocate “HVAC & Controls” in the KEEPS Assessment Report, then modify and add respective figures and other necessary words/sentences for your specific school.Describe HVAC controls energy management opportunities and recommendations.Locate “HVAC & Controls” in the report, then modify and add respective figures and other necessary words/sentences for your specific school.Describe HVAC controls energy management opportunities and recommendations.
57 EMO 4: Commissioning, Retro-commissioning and Re-commissioning If the school has never been commissioned, recommend retro-commissioning. If the school has not been commissioned in 2 to 3 years, recommend re-commissioning.If the school has undergone major building renovations or expansion or it is planned in the future, commissioning should be recommended.If ENERGY STAR® Target Finder benchmarked the school higher than the average CBECS K-12 school, consider commissioning.If school is due for HVAC replacement, defer commissioning until equipment is replaced.Section 4 of KEEPS Controls Form examines the need for commissioning, re-commissioning or retro-commissioning. Opportunities from Section 4 to be considered are as follows:4a) If the school has been commissioned in the past, determine how long it has been since it was last commissioned and recommend it be retro-commissioned. If it has not been commissioned for longer than two to three years, the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (see recommends that it be re-commissioned.4b) If the school has undergone major building renovations or expansions and commissioning has not been performed, then commissioning should be recommended.4c) If plans for future renovations or expansions are planned, then commissioning should be recommended.Also, if ENERGY STAR Target Finder® (see KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit 2C: School Energy Profile) benchmarked the energy intensity of your school higher than the average CBECS K-12 school, then commissioning should be considered.If school is due for HVAC replacement, then defer commissioning until equipment is replaced.
58 Commissioning Benefits Schools have an average 3.3-year simple payback, or $0.09/ft².Retro-commissioning typically translates into energy savings of 5 to 15%.As a result of the process, staff will understand the building and how to keep it in optimal condition.Commissioning costs can vary considerably from project to project. A 2009 meta-analysis by Lawrence Berkley National Laboratories observed a median cost of $0.30/ft² of 561 retro-commissioned buildings. The report found school buildings to have an average 3.3-year simple payback, which equates to an approximate annual savings of $0.09/ft².ENERGY STAR® guidelines state that retro-commissioning typically translates into energy savings of 5 to 15 percent. About 80 percent of the savings are the result of optimizing building control systems. Improving O&M accounts for the majority of the remaining savings.School staff should be updated and trained on the revised maintenance and operational procedures as a result of the retro-commissioning process.
59 KEEPS Report InputLocate “Retro-Commissioning” in the KEEPS Assessment Report and modify respective figures and other necessary words/sentences for your specific school.Modify the inset box by multiplying the building square footage by $.30/sq ft to obtain cost, and by $.09/sq ft to obtain estimated annual savings. Simple payback would be 3.3 years.Locate “Retro-Commissioning” in the KEEPS Assessment Report and modify respective figures and other necessary words/sentences for your specific school. Next, modify the inset box by multiplying the building square footage by $.30/sq ft to obtain cost, and by $.09/sq ft to obtain estimated annual savings. Simple payback would be 3.3 years.
60 References O&M Best Practices Energy Efficiency in Industrial HVAC SystemsRecommended Actions Checklist - CO₂ SensorsEnergySmart Schools U.S. DOEASHRAE Energy Design Guides websiteASHRAE Life Expectancy TableCollaboration for High Performance SchoolsInformation Referenced in this toolkit are available at the following sites:O&M Best Practices,Energy Efficiency in Industrial HVAC Systems,Recommended Actions Checklist - CO₂ Sensors,EnergySmart Schools US DOE,ASHRAE Energy Design Guides website,ASHRAE Life Expectancy Table,Collaboration for High Performance Schools,
61 Resources Available for download from the KEEPS Toolkit Library Referenced materials for this toolkit are available for download from the Toolkit Library on the KEEPS website,
62 Kentucky Energy Efficiency Program for Schools End of PresentationKentucky Energy EfficiencyProgram for SchoolsThis presentation and all supporting documents are provided by KEEPS. The program is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act through the combined efforts of the Kentucky Department for Energy Development and Independence, the U.S. Department of Energy and KPPC.(502)KEEPS is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act through the combined efforts of the Kentucky Department for Energy Development and Independence, the U.S. Department of Energy and KPPC.