2Learning ObjectivesDescribe how the need to increase organizational efficiency and effectiveness has guided the evolution of management theoryExplain the principle of job specialization and division of labor, and tell why the study of person-task relationships is central to the pursuit of increased efficiencyIdentify the principles of administration and organization that underlie effective organizations
3Learning ObjectivesTrace the change in theories about how managers should behave to motivate and control employeesExplain the contributions of management science to the efficient use of organizational resourcesExplain why the study of the external environment and its impact on an organization has become a central issue in management thought
4The Evolution of Management Theory Scientific Management Theory: In the closing decades of the 19th century managers were searching to find better ways to satisfy customer’s needs.Hand manufactured versus sophisticated machines Managers/Bosses had a technical orientation and were under prepared for the social problems that occur with large groups.scientific management: The systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiencyadministrative management: The study of how to create an organizational structure and control system that leads to high efficiency and effectivenessbehavioral management: The study of how managers should behave to motivate employees and encourage them to perform at high levels and be committed to the achievement of organizational goalsmanagement science theory: An approach to management that uses rigorous quantitative techniques to help managers make maximum use of organizational resourcesorganizational environment: The set of forces and conditions that operate beyond an organization’s boundaries but affect a manager’s ability to acquire and utilize resourcesFigure 2.1
5Job Specialization and the Division of Labor Adam Smith (18th century economist)Observed that firms manufactured pins in one of two different ways:- Craft-style—each worker did all steps.- Production—each worker specialized in one step.Smith found that the performance of the factories in which workers specialized in only one or a few tasks was much greater than the performance of the factory in which each worker performed all pin-making tasksJob Specialization and the Division of Labor Adam Smith identified two different types of manufacturingOne method was similar to crafts-style production, with each worker responsible for ALL of the tasks required in production. The second method had each worker perform only one or a few of the tasks required in production.5
6Job Specialization and the Division of Labor process by which a division of labor occurs as different workers specialize in specific tasks over timeSmith concluded that increasing the level of job specialization—the process by which division of labor occurs as different workers specialize in different tasks over time - increases efficiency.Workers who specialized became much more skilled at their specific tasksIncreasing job specialization increases efficiency and leads to higher organizational performance6
7F.W. Taylor and Scientific Management The systematic study of the relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency.Frederick W. Taylor defined the techniques of Scientific Management - the systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency.He developed four principles to increase efficiency in the workplace efficiency.Identify Best Practices: Study and measure how workers perform their jobs (using time-and-motion study methods), gather all the informal job knowledge that workers possess and experiment with ways of improving how tasks are performed and then identify the methods that are most efficient. Standard Operating Procedures: Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written work rules. Match workers skills and abilities to needs and tasks: Carefully select workers who possess skills and abilities that match the needs of the task, and train them to perform the tasks according to the rules and procedures established in step two. Pay and performance: Establish a fair or acceptable level of performance for a task and then develop a pay system that provides a higher reward for performance above the acceptable level.1910 nationally knownPer Taylor the most efficient division of labor could best be determined by scientific management7
8Problems with Scientific Management Managers frequently implemented only the increased output side of Taylor’s plan.Workers did not share in the increased output.Specialized jobs became very boring, dull.Workers ended up distrusting the Scientific Management method.Impact of Taylor/Scientific ManagementTime and motion studies: Study the way workers perform their tasks, gather all of the informal knowledge possessed by workers, and experiment with ways of improving task performance.Some managers obtained increases in performance but did not share gains with workers through bonuses.Workers learned that increases in performance often meant fewer jobs and a threat of layoffs. They could/would purposely ‘under perform’.The more specialized jobs became more monotonous and repetitive, causing dissatisfaction.Some organizations responded to worker resistance by increasing the mechanization of the work process. Management responded with increased use of machines and conveyors belts.Achieving the right mix of worker-task specialization produced huge cost savings and output increases.Scientific management practices cause many ethical concerns8
9The GilbrethsAnalyze every individual action necessary to perform a particular task and break it into each of its component actionsFind better ways to perform each component actionReorganize each of the component actions so that the action as a whole could be performed more efficiently-at less cost in time and effort1920’s Frank Gilbreth began his career as an apprentice bricklayer. He watched other bricklayers and saw that some were slow and inefficient while some were very productive. He discovered that each used a different set of motions to lay bricks. From his observations, he isolated the basic movements necessary to do the job and eliminated wasted ones. His revised method reduced unnecessary motions by 70 percent and tripled bricklayers’ productivity. This was the first “motion study,” designed to isolate the best possible method of performing a given job. Later Gilbreth and his wife, Lillian, studied job motions using a motion picture camera and split-second clock. The isolated individual motions they called “therbligs,” which is “Gilbreth” spelled backwards with the “th” reversed. One of Gilbreth’s clients in the 1920s was James E. Casey, the founder of UPS. Mr. Casey turned to Gilbreth to develop techniques to measure the time consumed each day by each UPS driver. Later, UPS engineers cut away the sides of a UPS delivery truck and used Gilbreth’s techniques to study a driver at work. The resulting changes in package loading increased efficiency by 30 percent. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth refined Taylor’s analysis of work movements and made many contributions to time-and-motion study.They used film to analyze worker movements to:break down and analyze every individual action into each of its component actions,find better ways to perform each component action,reorganize each of the component actions. The Gilbreths became focused on the study of fatigue and how physical characteristics of the workplace contribute to job stress and poor performance.Jobs were more repetitive, boring, and monotonous as a result of the application of scientific management principles, leading to worker dissatisfaction. Studies led to a “game” between workers, who tried to hide the potential for efficiency and managers, who tried to initiate work practices to increase performance.9
10Administrative Management Theory The study of how to create an organizational structure that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness.Administrative management is the study of how to create an organizational structure and control systems (measurement) that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness.Organizational structure is the system of tasks and authority relationships that controls how employees use resources to achieve the organization’s goals.10
11Administrative Management Theory Max WeberDeveloped the principles of bureaucracy as a formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness.The Theory of Bureaucracy: Max Weber developed the principles of bureaucracy as a formal system of organization and administration designed to try to ensure efficiency and effectiveness.Turn of the 20th century, when Germany was undergoing industrial revolution11
12Weber’s Principles of Bureaucracy A bureaucratic system of administration is based on five principles:A manager’s formal authority derives from the position he holds in the organization. Authority is the legitimate power to hold people accountable for their actions and gives managers the legal right to direct and control their subordinates’ behavior.People should occupy positions because of their performance, not because of their social standing or personal contacts.The extent of each position’s formal authority and task responsibilities and it’s relationship to other positions should be clearly specified.Authority can be exercised effectively when positions are arranged hierarchically, so employees know whom to report to and who reports to them.Managers must create a well-defined system of rules, standard operating procedures, and norms so they can effectively control behavior .Figure 2.212
13Rules, SOPs and Norms Rules Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Norms formal written instructions that specify actions to be taken under different circumstances to achieve specific goalsStandard Operating Procedures (SOPs)specific sets of written instructions about how to perform a certain aspect of a taskNormsunwritten, informal codes of conduct that prescribe how people should act in particular situationsManagers create a well-defined system of rules, standard operating procedures, and norms so that they can effectively control behavior within an organization.Rules are formal written instructions that specify actions that should be taken under different circumstances to achieve specific goalsStandard operating procedures (SOPs) are very specific sets of written instructions about how to perform a certain aspect of a task.Norms are unwritten, informal codes of conduct that govern how people should act.Issues/Concerns with Bureaucracy: Weber believed that the use of these five principles would improve organizational performance, if properly managed. However, if bureaucracies are not managed well, problems can result. Rules may become so cumbersome that decision-making becomes slow and inefficient. Managers often rely too much on rules to solve problems and not enough on their own skills and judgment thereby becoming inflexible.
14POP QUIZAdam Smith realized that production was being done in one of two ways. What were those?Frederick Taylor said there were 4 principles to the Scientific Management Method. What should be the step right after best practices are decided on?What did the Gilbreths call the individual actions that make up any job?List one thing that Max Weber believed about managers and authority.
15POP QUIZ AnswersAdam Smith realized that production was being done in one of two ways. What were those?Craft style and productionFrederick Taylor said there were 4 principles to the Scientific Management Method. What should be the step right after best practices are decided on?Develop SOP’sWhat did the Gilbreths call the individual actions that make up any job?TherbligsList one thing that Max Weber believed about managers and authority.Comes from the position, commands respect, best shown in org chart
16Fayol’s Principles of Management Division of LaborAuthority and ResponsibilityUnity of CommandLine of AuthorityCentralizationUnity of DirectionEquityOrderFayol's Principles of Management: Henri Fayol was a CEO of a mining company in early 1900’s, and identified 14 principles that he believed to be essential to increasing the efficiency of the management process.Division of Labor: allows for job specialization - jobs can have too much specialization leading to poor quality and worker dissatisfaction. Fayol advocated allowing workers to taken on more job duties to perform and assume more responsibility for work outcomes.Authority and Responsibility - both formal and informal authority resulting from special expertise. Fayol went beyond Weber’s formal authority to include the informal authority derived from personal expertise, knowledge, and ability to lead.Unity of Command - Employees should have only one boss.Line of Authority - A clear chain of command from top to bottom of the firm. It is important to allow managers at middle to interact with managers at similar levels in other departments to speed decision making.Centralization - The degree to which authority rests at the top of the organization.Unity of Direction - A single plan of action to guide the organization. An organization without a single overall plan becomes inefficient and ineffective.Equity - The provision of justice and the fair and impartial treatment of all employees. Fayol felt equity resulted from the combination of respect and justice.Order - The arrangement of employees where they will be of the most value to the organization and to provide career opportunities to satisfy their own needs.16
17Fayol’s Principles of Management InitiativeDisciplineRemuneration of PersonnelStability of Tenure of PersonnelSubordination of Individual Interest to the Common InterestEsprit de corpsInitiative - The fostering of creativity and innovation by encouraging employees to act on their own. Initiative can be a major source of strength because it leads to progress.Discipline - Obedient, applied, respectful employees are necessary for the organization to function.Remuneration of Personnel - An equitable uniform payment system that motivates contributes to organizational success. Fayol proposed reward systems including bonuses and profit sharing plans.Stability of Tenure of Personnel - Long-term employment is important for the development of skills that improve the organization’s performance. When employees stay with an organization for extended periods of time, they develop skills that improve the organization’s ability to utilize its resources efficiently.Subordination of Individual Interest to the Common Interest - The interest of the organization takes precedence over that of the individual employee.Esprit de corps - Comradeship, shared enthusiasm foster devotion to the common cause (organization).17
18Behavioral Management Theory The study of how managers should personally behave to motivate employees and encourage them to perform at high levels and be committed to the achievement of organizational goals.Behavioral Management is the study of the, ways managers should behave to motivate employees to encourage them to perform at high levels, and become committed to their organizations18
19Behavioral Management Mary Parker FollettConcerned that Taylor ignored the human side of the organizationSuggested workers help in analyzing their jobsIf workers have relevant knowledge of the task, then they should control the taskMary Parker Follett (“Mother” of Management, also early 1900’s) wrote because of her concern that Taylor was ignoring the human side of the organization. She felt that management often overlooked the ways that employees can contribute. She argued that that if workers have the relevant knowledge, then workers, rather than managers, should be in control of the work process.Follet anticipated the current interest in self-managed teams and empowerment. She also advocated “cross-functioning” in which members of different departments to work together in cross-departmental teams to accomplish tasks. Follett proposed that knowledge and expertise, and not managers’ formal authority, should decide who would lead at any moment and advocated a horizontal view of power and authority.19
20The Hawthorne Studies and Human Relations Studies of how characteristics of the work setting affected worker fatigue and performance at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company fromWorker productivity was measured at various levels of light illumination.Researchers found that regardless of whether the light levels were raised or lowered, worker productivity increased.Most managers ignored Follett’s work and continued to follow Taylor. One famous set of studies involved the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company.This research began as an attempt to investigate how the characteristics of the work setting, specifically the level of lighting, affected worker fatigue and performance. The Relay Assembly Test Experiments were designed to investigate various aspects of the work environment, such as number and length of rest periods, on job performance. The researchers again found productivity increased, but the increases could not be solely attributed to changes in the work setting. The researchers discovered that the presence of the researchers affected the results because workers enjoyed receiving attention. This became known as the “Hawthorne Effect.”20
21The Hawthorne Studies and Human Relations Human Relations ImplicationsHawthorne effect — workers’ attitudes toward their managers affect the level of workers’ performance21
22The Hawthorne Studies and Human Relations Human relations movementadvocates that supervisors be behaviorally trained to manage subordinates in ways that elicit their cooperation and increase their productivitySince manager’s behavior could affect worker performance, researchers turned to managerial behavior and leadership approach. The human relations movement advocates that supervisors be behaviorally trained to manage subordinates in ways that elicit their cooperation and increase their productivity.22
23The Hawthorne Studies and Human Relations Behavior of managers and workers in the work setting is as important in explaining the level of performance as the technical aspects of the taskDemonstrated the importance of understanding how the feelings, thoughts, and behavior of work-group members and managers affect performance
24The Hawthorne Studies and Human Relations Informal organizationThe system of behavioral rules and norms that emerge in a groupOrganizational behaviorThe study of the factors that have an impact on how individuals and groups respond to and act in organizations.Managers must understand the workings of the informal organization, the system of behavioral rules and norms that emerge in a group when trying to manage or change behavior in organizations.Organizational Behavior is the study of the many factors that have an impact on how individuals and groups respond to and act in organizations.
25POP QUIZ!!What does “Unity of Command” mean when it comes to Fayol’s 14 principles of management?What about “Initiative”?M. P. Follett was concerned that mgt was ignoring the __________ side of the situation.What was the result of the Hawthorne study? (SUPER brief)
26POP QUIZ!!What does “Unity of Command” mean when it comes to Fayol’s 14 principles of management?Employees should have one bossWhat about “Initiative”?Employees should be encouraged to act on their own.M. P. Follett was concerned that mgt was ignoring the HUMAN side of the situation.What was the result of the Hawthorne study? (SUPER brief)Employees like (positive) attention.
27Theory X and Theory YDouglas McGregor proposed two different sets of assumptions about workers.Theory XA set of negative assumptions about workers that leads to the conclusion that a manager’s task is to supervise workers closely and control their behavior.After WW11 Theory X and Theory Y: Douglas McGregor proposed that two different sets of assumptions about how work attitudes and behaviors govern the way managers think and behave in organizations. He named them Theory X and Theory Y.Theory X: Managers believe the average worker is lazy, dislikes work, and will try to do as little as possible. Because workers have little ambition and wish to avoid responsibility, managers should closely supervise and control workers.
28Theory X and Theory Y Theory Y A set of positive assumptions about workers that leads to the conclusion that a manager’s task is to create a work setting that encourages commitment to organizational goals and provides opportunities for workers to be imaginative and to exercise initiative and self-direction.Theory Y: Workers do not naturally dislike work; the work setting itself determines whether or not work is seen as a source of satisfaction or punishment. Given the chance or opportunity, workers will do what is good for the organization.
29Theory X vs. Theory Y Figure 2.3 Douglas McGregor proposed the two different sets of assumptions about workers.Theory X assumes the average worker is lazy, dislikes work and will do as little as possible.Workers have little ambition and wish to avoid responsibilityManagers must closely supervise and control through reward and punishment.Theory Y assumes workers are not lazy, want to do a good job and the job itself will determine if the worker likes the work.Managers should allow workers greater latitude, and create an organization to stimulate the workers.Figure 2.329
30Management Science Theory Contemporary approach to management that focuses on the use of rigorous quantitative techniques to help managers make maximum use of organizational resources to produce goods and services.Management science theory focuses on the use of rigorous quantitative techniques to help managers make maximum use of organizational resources to produce goods and services30
31Management Science Theory Quantitative managementutilizes mathematical techniques, like linear programming, modeling, simulation and chaos theoryOperations managementprovides managers a set of techniques they can use to analyze any aspect of an organization’s production system to increase efficiencyQuantitative management utilizes mathematical techniques such as linear and non-linear programming, modeling, simulation, queuing theory, and chaos theory to help managers make better decisions.Operations management (or operations research) provides managers with a set of techniques that can be used to analyze any aspect of an organization’s production system to increase efficiency.
32Management Science Theory Total quality managementfocuses on analyzing an organization’s input, conversion, and output activities to increase product qualityManagement information systemshelp managers design systems that provide information that is vital for effective decision makingTotal quality management (TQM) focuses on analyzing an organization’s input, conversion, and output activities to increase product quality.Management information systems (MIS) help managers design information systems that provide them with information about events occurring inside the organization as well as in its external environment.
33Organizational Environment Theory The set of forces and conditions that operate beyond an organization’s boundaries but affect a manager’s ability to acquire and utilize resourcesThe organizational environment consists of the set of forces, conditions, and influences outside organization’s boundaries that affect a manager’s ability to acquire and utilize resources efficiently and effectively.
34The Open-Systems View Open System A system that takes resources for its external environment and transforms them into goods and services that are then sent back to that environment where they are bought by customers.The Open-Systems ViewAn open system takes in resources from its environment and changes or transforms them into goods and services that are then sent back to the environment where customers buy them
35The Open-Systems View Input stage Conversion stage Output stage organization acquires resources such as raw materials, money, and skilled workers to produce goods and servicesConversion stageinputs are transformed into outputs of finished goodsOutput stagefinished goods are released to the external environmentInput stage: an organization acquires resources from the environment.Conversion stage: an organization’s work force using appropriate tools, techniques, and machinery, transforms inputs into outputs of finished products.Output stage: the release of the finished goods and services to its environment where they are purchased.
37The Open-Systems View Closed system A self-contained system that is not affected by changes in its external environment.Likely to experience entropy and lose its ability to control itselfA Closed system is self-contained so that it is not affected by changes that occur in its external environment. Organizations that operate as closed systems ignore the external environment and may fail to acquire inputs.Closed systems may experience entropy, the process by which a system loses its ability to control itself, and so dissolves and disintegrates.
38The Open-Systems View Synergy the performance gains that result from the combined actions of individuals and departmentsPossible only in an organized system
39Contingency Theory Contingency Theory The idea that the organizational structures and control systems manager choose are contingent on characteristics of the external environment in which the organization operates.“There is no one best way to organize”Contingency Theory: The idea that organizational structures and control systems managers choose are contingent on the characteristics of the external environment.
41Type of Structure Mechanistic Structure An organizational structure in which authority is centralized, tasks and rules are clearly specified, and employees are closely supervised.Mechanistic and Organic Structures Burns and Stalker proposed that there are two basic ways that managers can organize and control an organization’s activities: a mechanistic structure or an organic structure.A mechanistic structure in which authority is centralized at the top of the organizational hierarchy and the vertical hierarchy of authority is the primary means of controlling subordinates’ behavior.A mechanistic structure is the most efficient way to operate in a stable environment of resources.
42Type of Structure Organic Structure An organizational structure in which authority is decentralized to middle and first-line managers and tasks and roles are left ambiguous to encourage employees to cooperate and respond quickly to the unexpectedAn organic structure, in which authority is decentralized to middle and first line managers to encourage them to take responsibility and act quickly to pursue scarce resources.Organic structures are most effective when the environment is changing rapidly, and it is difficult to obtain resources
43POP QUIZ!! Which theory assumes that workers are good? The “Contingency Theory” means that managers should what?
44POP QUIZ!! Which theory assumes that workers are good? Theory YThe “Contingency Theory” means that managers should what?Have a plan B