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CONCEPTS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

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Presentation on theme: "CONCEPTS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT"— Presentation transcript:

1 CONCEPTS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
ACEC YASHADA

2 CONCEPTS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
LET US UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPTS BEFORE WE START STUDYING DISASTER MANAGEMENT WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE NATIONAL VISION AS WELL AS THE PARADIGM SHIFT IN THE FIELD THE INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM ALSO NEEDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

3 Terminology DISASTER “… A serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources.”

4 Disaster Management A planned approach for the prevention of Disaster, preparedness and response to Disasters, and recovery following Disasters.

5 WHY DISASTER MANAGEMENT ?
To minimize deaths and losses. Minimum level of preparedness & planning can do it. Without identification of Risk & vulnerability, only knowledge of hazards is of no use Normal procedures are insufficient to handle grave situations.

6 Definitions Risk is defined as the frequency of an event happening and its impact A Hazard is a physical or human-made event that can potentially trigger a disaster. Vulnerability is ‘Susceptibility to harm’ of those at risk Capacities are the qualities & resources of community ( or individual) to … anticipate, cope with, resist & recover from the impact of hazards

7 Risk H x V ÷ C = H = Hazards - Potentiality of a physical event that may cause loss of life or property R = Risks - Probability of harmful consequences or losses V = Vulnerabilities - Factors or processes - physical, social, economic, and environmental - which increase susceptibility of an area or a community to damage and lossC = Capacities - Strengths and resources available within a community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster.

8 H A Z R D S DETERIORATION BASED
VIOLENCE BASED War, Armed Conflict, Physical Assaults etc. NATURE BASED Earthquakes, Droughts, Floods, Cyclones etc. H A Z R D S DETERIORATION BASED Environmental Degradation, Declining Health, Education & other Social services. FAILING INDUSTRIALLIZED SOCIETY BASED Fire, Gas leakage, Transport Collisions etc.

9 Risk Analysis Awareness Generation Early Warning Vulnerability
Assessment & Analysis Prevention Risk Analysis Information, Interpretation Preparedness Hazard Assessment & Analysis Mitigation

10 R = H X V / C Risk Analysis Risk Identification Risk Evaluation
Nature of Impact on Elements at Risk Risk Prioritization & Decision Making Hazard, Vulnerability Capacity Assessment Ranking of most vulnerable Communities Make decision about strategies to be followed Range of potential losses & damages & how these could occur Assessment of capacities & Resources Consequences & Likelihood – hence level of the Risk

11 Prevention & Mitigation Measures
Preventive Measures HAZARD

12 VULNERABLITY Vul. To Hazard % of Area Earthquake 57% Droughts 68%
Cyclones 08% Floods 12%

13 TYPES OF DISASTERS Sub Group I Water & Climate Related Disasters Floods & Drainage Mgt., Cyclones, Tornadoes & Hurricanes, Hailstorm, Cloud burst, Heat Wave & Cold wave, Snow Avalanches, Droughts, Sea Erosion and Thunder & Lightning. Sub Group II Geologically related Disasters Landslides, Mudflows, Earthquakes, Dam Failures / Dam bursts and Mine Fires. Sub Group III Chemical, Indus., & Nuclear Related Disaster The Chemical and Industrial & Nuclear Disasters have been included.

14 TYPES OF DISASTERS (CONTD…)
Sub Group IV Accident related Disasters Forest / Urban Fires, Mine Flooding, Oil spill, major bldg. Collapse, Serial Bomb blasts ETC. Sub Group V Biologically related Disasters Biological Disaster & Epidemics, Pest Attacks, Cattle epidemics & Food Poisoning ETC.

15 Major Phases of Disaster Management Cycle.
impact Response Preparedness Mitigation Recovery Prevention Development

16 DM CONTINUUM

17 Expand – Contract Model of DM

18 Causal Factors of Disaster
Poverty Population Growth DISASTER Lack of Information Rapid Urbanization Environmentall Degradation

19 Insurance Opportunities
POVERTY Lack of resource bases, Support System, Insurance Opportunities

20 Lack of knowledge in evacuation, First Aid, Rescue etc.
LACK OF INFORMATION Centralized information is helpful only for a certain range of the population, particularly Government. Lack of knowledge in evacuation, First Aid, Rescue etc.

21 ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
Destruction of mangrove swamps in coastal areas. Construction of huge dams destructing vast area of forest.

22 RAPID URBANISATION Everybody wants to settle in urban area. High rates can’t accommodate every class of people. It results in growth of slumS, unplanned construction without regulations.

23 Effect on the people living in crowded areas.
POPULATION GROWTH Effect on the people living in crowded areas.

24 Paradigm shift in disaster management
K M A N G E T C R I S I S M A N G E T Preparedness DISASTERS Response Relief Mitigation Rehabilitation Prevention Development Reconstruction

25 NATIONAL VISION TO BUILD A SAFER AND DISASTER RESILIENT INDIA BY DEVELOPING A HOLISTIC, PROACTIVE, MULTI DISASTER AND TECHNOLOGY DRIVEN STRATEGY FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT THROUGH COLLECTIVE EFFORTS OF ALL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND NON GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS. SAFER AND DISASTER RESILIENT INDIA HOLISTIC, PROACTIVE, MULTI DISASTER AND TECHNOLOGY DRIVEN STRATEGY COLLECTIVE EFFORTS OF ALL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND NON GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS

26 C O M M U N I T Y GOVT OF INDIA NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE
CABINET COMMITTEE ON MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL CALAMITIES CABINET COMMITTEE ON SECURITY NDMA NATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT NEC MHA MINISTRIES & DEPARTMENTS OF GOVT OF INDIA NATIONAL DISASTER MITIGATION RESOURCE CENTRES STATE GOVTs SDMAs NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE ARMED FORCES SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL INSTITUTIONS DISTTs CORPORATE SECTOR DDMAs PROFESSIONAL BODIES ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS LOCAL BODIES NGOs C O M M U N I T Y

27 DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT 2005

28 The Disaster Management Act, 2005
It was enacted under the Concurrent List of the Constitution of India The Act comprises 79 sections and 11 chapters Defines Disaster and disaster management in its new concept It provides for the pre-requisite institutional mechanism for monitoring and implementation of plans Ensures measures by various wings of the Government for the prevention and mitigation of disasters In tune with the paradigm shift, the State Governments have been advised to amend their Relief Codes The Act provides for a National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) The State governments shall create State Disaster Management Authorities and District Disaster Management Authorities There shall be a Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Mitigation Fund at national, state and district levels .

29 SALIENT FEATURES. CHAPTER 1- ( S1-S2)- PRELIMINARY
CHAPTER 2- ( S3-S13)- NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY. CHAPTER 3- ( S14-S24) – STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY. CHAPTER 4- ( S25-S34) – DISTRICT DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY. CHAPTER 5- ( S35-S40) – MEASURES BY THE GOVERNMENT FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT. CHAPTER 6 - ( S41) – LOCAL AUTHORITIES. CHAPTER 7- (S42- S 43) – NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE. CHAPTER 8- (S44- S 45) – NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE. CHAPTER 9– (S46- S 50) – FINANCE, ACCOUNTS AND AUDIT. CHAPTER 10– (S51- S60) –OFFENCES AND PENALTIES. CHAPTER 11– (S61- S 79) – MISCELLANEOUS

30 PENAL PROVISIONS (SEC 51-60)
SECTION 51: PUNISHMENT FOR OBSTRUCTION AND/OR NON- COMPLIANCE OF THE DIRECTIONS GIVEN BY THE CENTRAL / STATE GOVT, NEC, SEC, DDMA: UPTO ONE YEAR IMPRISONMENT OR FINE OR BOTH. IF SUCH OBSTRUCTION RESULTS IN LOSS OF LIVES OR IMMINENT DANGER THEREOF : IMPRISONMENT MAY EXTEND TO TWO YEARS.

31 PUNISHMENT FOR FALSE CLAIM FOR OBTAINING RELIEF, ASSISTANCE ETC.
SECTION 52: TWO YEARS’ IMPRISONMENT WITH FINE.

32 PUNISHMENT FOR MISAPPOPRIATION OF MONEY OR MATERIALS
SECTION 53: TWO YEARS’ IMPRISONMENT AND FINE.

33 PUNISHMENT FOR FALSE WARNING
SECTION 54: ONE YEAR IMPRISONMENT OR FINE.

34 OFFENCES BY DEPARTMENTS OF THE GOVERNMENT
SECTION 55: IN CASE OF AN OFFENCE BY THE GOVT DEPARTMENT, THE HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT TO BE HELD GUILTY UNLESS HE PROVES OTHERWISE ANY OTHER OFFICER FOUND GUILTY TO BE PROCEEDED AGAINST AND PUNISHED

35 REFUSAL TO PERFORM ANY DUTY BY ANY GOVT. OFFICER
SECTION 56: ONE YEAR IMPRISONMENT OR FINE.

36 PENALTY FOR CONTRAVENTION OF ANY ORDER OF REQUISITIONING
SECTION 57: ONE YEAR IMPRISONMENT OR FINE OR BOTH

37 Thanks!


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