2CONCEPTS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT LET US UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPTS BEFORE WE START STUDYING DISASTER MANAGEMENTWE NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE NATIONAL VISION AS WELL AS THE PARADIGM SHIFT IN THE FIELDTHE INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM ALSO NEEDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
3TerminologyDISASTER“… A serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources.”
4Disaster ManagementA planned approach for the prevention of Disaster, preparedness and response to Disasters, and recovery following Disasters.
5WHY DISASTER MANAGEMENT ? To minimize deaths and losses.Minimum level of preparedness & planning can do it.Without identification of Risk & vulnerability, only knowledge of hazards is of no useNormal procedures are insufficient to handle grave situations.
6DefinitionsRisk is defined as the frequency of an event happening and its impactA Hazard is a physical or human-made event that can potentially trigger a disaster.Vulnerability is ‘Susceptibility to harm’ of those at riskCapacities are the qualities & resources of community ( or individual) to … anticipate, cope with, resist & recover from the impact of hazards
7RiskH x V ÷ C=H = Hazards - Potentiality of a physical event that may cause loss of life or property R = Risks - Probability of harmful consequences or losses V = Vulnerabilities - Factors or processes - physical, social, economic, and environmental - which increase susceptibility of an area or a community to damage and lossC = Capacities - Strengths and resources available within a community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster.
8H A Z R D S DETERIORATION BASED VIOLENCE BASEDWar, Armed Conflict, Physical Assaults etc.NATURE BASEDEarthquakes,Droughts, Floods,Cyclones etc.HAZRDSDETERIORATION BASEDEnvironmental Degradation, Declining Health, Education & other Social services.FAILING INDUSTRIALLIZED SOCIETY BASEDFire, Gas leakage, Transport Collisions etc.
10R = H X V / C Risk Analysis Risk Identification Risk Evaluation Nature of Impact on Elements at RiskRisk Prioritization & Decision MakingHazard, Vulnerability Capacity AssessmentRanking of most vulnerable CommunitiesMake decision about strategies to be followedRange of potential losses & damages & how these could occurAssessment of capacities & ResourcesConsequences & Likelihood – hence level of the Risk
12VULNERABLITY Vul. To Hazard % of Area Earthquake 57% Droughts 68% Cyclones08%Floods12%
13TYPES OF DISASTERSSub Group IWater & Climate Related DisastersFloods & Drainage Mgt., Cyclones, Tornadoes & Hurricanes, Hailstorm, Cloud burst, Heat Wave & Cold wave, Snow Avalanches, Droughts, Sea Erosion and Thunder & Lightning.Sub Group IIGeologically related DisastersLandslides, Mudflows, Earthquakes, Dam Failures / Dam bursts and Mine Fires.Sub Group IIIChemical, Indus., & Nuclear Related DisasterThe Chemical and Industrial & Nuclear Disasters have been included.
14TYPES OF DISASTERS (CONTD…) Sub Group IVAccident related DisastersForest / Urban Fires, Mine Flooding, Oil spill, major bldg. Collapse, Serial Bomb blasts ETC.Sub Group VBiologically related DisastersBiological Disaster & Epidemics, Pest Attacks, Cattle epidemics & Food Poisoning ETC.
15Major Phases of Disaster Management Cycle. impactResponsePreparednessMitigationRecoveryPreventionDevelopment
18Causal Factors of Disaster PovertyPopulationGrowthDISASTERLack ofInformationRapidUrbanizationEnvironmentallDegradation
19Insurance Opportunities POVERTYLack of resource bases,Support System,Insurance Opportunities
20Lack of knowledge in evacuation, First Aid, Rescue etc. LACK OF INFORMATIONCentralized information is helpful only for a certain range of the population, particularly Government.Lack of knowledge in evacuation, First Aid, Rescue etc.
21ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION Destruction of mangrove swamps in coastal areas. Construction of huge dams destructing vast area of forest.
22RAPID URBANISATIONEverybody wants to settle in urban area. High rates can’t accommodate every class of people. It results in growth of slumS, unplanned construction without regulations.
23Effect on the people living in crowded areas. POPULATION GROWTHEffect on the people living in crowded areas.
24Paradigm shift in disaster management KMANGETC R I S I SMANGETPreparednessDISASTERSResponseReliefMitigationRehabilitationPreventionDevelopmentReconstruction
25NATIONAL VISIONTO BUILD A SAFER AND DISASTER RESILIENT INDIA BY DEVELOPING A HOLISTIC, PROACTIVE, MULTI DISASTER AND TECHNOLOGY DRIVEN STRATEGY FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT THROUGH COLLECTIVE EFFORTS OF ALL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND NON GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS.SAFER AND DISASTER RESILIENT INDIAHOLISTIC, PROACTIVE, MULTI DISASTER AND TECHNOLOGYDRIVEN STRATEGYCOLLECTIVE EFFORTS OF ALL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES ANDNON GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS
26C O M M U N I T Y GOVT OF INDIA NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE CABINET COMMITTEE ON MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL CALAMITIESCABINET COMMITTEE ON SECURITYNDMANATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT COMMITTEENATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENTNECMHAMINISTRIES & DEPARTMENTS OFGOVT OF INDIANATIONAL DISASTER MITIGATION RESOURCE CENTRESSTATE GOVTsSDMAsNATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCEARMED FORCESSCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL INSTITUTIONSDISTTsCORPORATE SECTORDDMAsPROFESSIONAL BODIESACADEMIC INSTITUTIONSLOCAL BODIESNGOsC O M M U N I T Y
28The Disaster Management Act, 2005 It was enacted under the Concurrent List of the Constitution of IndiaThe Act comprises 79 sections and 11 chaptersDefines Disaster and disaster management in its new conceptIt provides for the pre-requisite institutional mechanism for monitoring and implementation of plansEnsures measures by various wings of the Government for the prevention and mitigation of disastersIn tune with the paradigm shift, the State Governments have been advised to amend their Relief CodesThe Act provides for a National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)The State governments shall create State Disaster Management Authorities and District Disaster Management AuthoritiesThere shall be a Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Mitigation Fund at national, state and district levels.
29SALIENT FEATURES. CHAPTER 1- ( S1-S2)- PRELIMINARY CHAPTER 2- ( S3-S13)- NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY.CHAPTER 3- ( S14-S24) – STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY.CHAPTER 4- ( S25-S34) – DISTRICT DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY.CHAPTER 5- ( S35-S40) – MEASURES BY THE GOVERNMENT FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT.CHAPTER 6 - ( S41) – LOCAL AUTHORITIES.CHAPTER 7- (S42- S 43) – NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE.CHAPTER 8- (S44- S 45) – NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE.CHAPTER 9– (S46- S 50) – FINANCE, ACCOUNTS AND AUDIT.CHAPTER 10– (S51- S60) –OFFENCES AND PENALTIES.CHAPTER 11– (S61- S 79) – MISCELLANEOUS
30PENAL PROVISIONS (SEC 51-60) SECTION 51:PUNISHMENT FOR OBSTRUCTION AND/OR NON- COMPLIANCE OF THE DIRECTIONS GIVEN BY THE CENTRAL / STATE GOVT, NEC, SEC, DDMA:UPTO ONE YEAR IMPRISONMENT OR FINE OR BOTH.IF SUCH OBSTRUCTION RESULTS IN LOSS OF LIVES OR IMMINENT DANGER THEREOF : IMPRISONMENT MAY EXTEND TO TWO YEARS.
31PUNISHMENT FOR FALSE CLAIM FOR OBTAINING RELIEF, ASSISTANCE ETC. SECTION 52:TWO YEARS’ IMPRISONMENT WITH FINE.
32PUNISHMENT FOR MISAPPOPRIATION OF MONEY OR MATERIALS SECTION 53:TWO YEARS’ IMPRISONMENT AND FINE.
33PUNISHMENT FOR FALSE WARNING SECTION 54:ONE YEAR IMPRISONMENT OR FINE.
34OFFENCES BY DEPARTMENTS OF THE GOVERNMENT SECTION 55:IN CASE OF AN OFFENCE BY THE GOVT DEPARTMENT, THE HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT TO BE HELD GUILTY UNLESS HE PROVES OTHERWISEANY OTHER OFFICER FOUND GUILTY TO BE PROCEEDED AGAINST AND PUNISHED
35REFUSAL TO PERFORM ANY DUTY BY ANY GOVT. OFFICER SECTION 56:ONE YEAR IMPRISONMENT OR FINE.
36PENALTY FOR CONTRAVENTION OF ANY ORDER OF REQUISITIONING SECTION 57:ONE YEAR IMPRISONMENT OR FINE OR BOTH