6Low p 50As mentioned in Egan’s as the 5th type of hypoxia.
7Consequences and implications Mild to moderate hypoxaemia is common in the postoperative period & is often underestimatedThe focus of this review is to provide an understanding of the reasons why post-operative oxygen therapy is necessary, with emphasis on the practicalities of delivering oxygen to the patient.
8Due to wide variability of patho physiology Mild to mod. hypoxemiaDue to wide variability of patho physiologyPost- op morbidity
10Surgical consequences Resistance to infection,wound healing,anastomotic integrityLoss of GI mucosal integrityBacterial translocation and sepsis
11Supplement o2 for 1-4 days post- op Rosenberg et al (1999)Supplement o2 for 1-4 days post- opHR/PONV
12Pt.s with heart ds.,(ischaemic and non ischaemic), Predisposed groupsPt.s with heart ds.,(ischaemic and non ischaemic),Extremes of age, pregnancy, obesity,smokers,cardio resp. dsAnaemias,haemoglobinopathies,head injury pts.
13Consequences Superimposed pulm.complications(atelectasis, Site of Sx,residual anaesthesia,lack of analgesiaSuperimposed pulm.complications(atelectasis,sputum retention,pneumonia,pulm. TE)HYPOXEMIA
14OXYGEN DELIVERY TO CELLS Normal 1000 mls/minute (550 mls/min/m2) of oxygen is transportedSatisfactory delivery to tissues depends on a number of factors:Adequate alveolar ventilationDiffusionmacro and micro circulation
15Depress central control of ventilation Alveolar ventilationInhalational agentsPost- op MI(3rd day)opioidsDepress compensatory responses to hypoxia,hyper carbia, obstruction to airwayDepress central control of ventilation
16ANAESTHETIC FACTORSGas exchange abnormalities in the post-operative period occur early or late.Early post-operative hypoxaemiaalveolar hypoventilation (above),Ventilation/perfusion mismatching,Decreased cardiac output andIncreased oxygen consumption due to shivering (induced by volatile agents)recovery from intra-operative hypothermia.‘diffusion hypoxia’
17The later onsetfunctional residual capacity (FRC)patient’s inability to inspire deeply or cause the patient to be immobilised in bed.eg pain
18FRC On induction of anaesthesia FRC Atmospheric pleural pressure in gravity dep areas of lungSmall airway closureAtelectasis, V/Q mismatchhypoxemiaObese, pregnant, elderly, infants, neonates
24MONITORING & CLINICAL ASSESSMENT altered mental statusdisorientation and confusion to LOC and coma.Dyspnoea/tachypnoeaCarotid chemoreceptors are stimulated when PaO2 levels fall below 50 mmHgCardiac arrythmiasCyanosisnot readily detected in anaemic or in an environment with poor ambient lighting.pre-existing cardiac dysfunction.
25HOW MUCH AND FOR HOW LONG? BMJ 2000; 321: 864-5 no didactic rules as to which patients should receive a certain amount of oxygen. Oxygen therapy should always be monitoredperiod for which it is prescribed should take into account the surgery performed and the patient’s preexisting medical problems,As a guideline, young, fit healthy patients having peripheral surgery should receive oxygen for about 30 minutes in recovery to allow resolution of the effects of diffusion hypoxia, and until they are awake and comfortable and protecting their airway. There is no need to administer high dose oxygen, 4 L/minute being adequate.
26Cont.A patient having major surgery should receive at least 72 hours of oxygen at concentrations of 28-60%.In case of fit patients with no coexisting diseases, a pulse oximeter could be used to decide when to discontinue oxygen therapy. Oxygen saturations should exceed 90% on air before supplemental oxygen is withdrawn.if the patient is at increased risk of the consequences of hypoxaemia, significant hypoventilation is a potential problem, then invasive arterial blood gases may give additional useful information to direct oxygen therapy.A special mention must be made of patients who chronically retain carbon dioxide. These patients will often require advanced respiratory support in an intensive care unit environment post-operatively, particularly following major surgery,
27I. HYPOXEMIC (DECREASED TISSUE OXYGEN TENSION) A. HYPOXEMIC HYPOXIA (INADEQUATE ARTERIAL OXYGENTENSION AND SATURATION)CAUSES:A. V/Q MISMATCH (EX: COPD, PE)B. SHUNT (EX: ATELECTASIS, PULM. EDEMA)C. HYPOVENTILATION (EX: DRUG INDUCED)
32Pvo2 o2 extraction Pao2 hypoxia Mixed venous Po2 [Pvo2]Pvo o2 extraction Pao hypoxiademandMore o2 consumptioninc. metabolic rate eg shivering ,convulsions ,feversupplyLow cardiac output eg hypovolemic shockAll this will lead to hypoxiaLess volume of blood presented to tissues per unit time so more o2 will be extracted by tissues
37B. ANEMIC HYPOXIA (DEFICIENT OXYGEN-CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE BLOOD) CAUSES:A. ANEMIA (DECREASED HEMOGLOBIN)B. CARBON MONOXIDE POISONINGC. SULFHEMOGLOBIN AND METHEMOGLOBIN
38At normal Hb conc. ,20 ml of o2 is carried by 1 dl(100 ml) of blood. At tissue site,o2 consumption is same and perfusion is also same ,but due to decrease in o2 content,low Po2 in capillary adjacent to the tissuesDecrease pressure head for diffusion of o2 to tissuesTissue hypoxia
39CONTENT VS TENSION (PaO2) A. CONTENT= TOTAL AMOUNT OF OXYGEN CARRIED IN BLOODNORMAL = VOL% CALCULATION: CaO2 = [%sat x l.39 x hb] + [PaO2 x 0.003]EXAMPLES/NORMALNORMAL Hb% = 15 GM%, SAT = PaO2 = 100mmHg[1.39 X 0.98 x 15] + [100 x 0.003] = mg/dlANEMIA Hb%, %sat = 98%, PaO2 = 100mmHg[1.39 x 0.98 x 10] + [100 x 0.003] = 14.2 mg/dlHYPOXEMIA Hb% =15 gm%, %Sat=85%, PaO2=50mmHg[1.39 x 0.85 x 15] = [50 x 0.003] = 18.0mg/dlNORMAL MIXED VENOUS CONTENT = 15%ARTERIAL VENOUS DIFFERENCE (A-V) = 5 VOL%
40Carboxyhaemoglobin Causes: Smoking. Auto exhaust,fire CO has 250 times more affinity for Hb than o2,Part of Hb is unavailable for o2.O2 dissociation curve shifts to left leading to hypoxia
48MOA:normal hb with a sulphur atom incorporated into porphyrin ring Renders the Hb molecule incapable of O2 binding and reconversion to normal Hb is not possibleDegree of clinical impairment is lessIt reduces the o2 affinity of unaffected Hb subunit
49CONTINUED B. VASCULAR INSUFFICIENCY (SEPSIS) C. CIRCULATORY HYPOXIA (DECREASE PERIPHERAL CAPILLARY BLOOD FLOW)CAUSES : A. DECREASED CARDIAC OUTPUTB. VASCULAR INSUFFICIENCY (SEPSIS)D. HISTOTOXIC HYPOXIA (DECREASED UTILIZATION OF OXYGEN AT THE CELL LEVEL)CAUSES: A. CYANIDE POISONINGB. ALCOHOL POISONING (RARE)
53Histotoxic hypoxia / Dysoxia(central resp. arrest) Cells cannot utilize O2Cytochrome oxidase system is paralyxedSaO2 and normal PaO2 but PvO2EtiologyCyanide poisoning, diptheria toxinSodium nitro prussideMOAInhibit oxydative phosphorylationO2 utilization is decreased
62INJURY INVOLVING PHARYNX AND TRACHEA SIGNSINJURY INVOLVING PHARYNX AND TRACHEASIGNED FACIAL HAIR ,FACIAL BURNS,DYSPHONEA,HOARSENESS,COUGHOR SOOT IN MOUTH OR NOSE, SWALLOWING DIFFICULTIES IN PATIENTS WITHOUT RESPIRATIORY DISTRESSSUSPICIOUN OF UPPER AIRWAY INJURYGLOTTIC AND PERI GLOTTIC EDEMACOPIOUS AND THICK SECREATIONSRESPIRATORY DISTRESSTHIS DISTRESS COULD BE AGGRAVATED BY FLUID RESUSITATION
63BRONCHIAL OBSTRUCTION AND AIR TRAPPING IN LOWER AIRWAYSDECREASED SURFACTANT AND MUCOCILIARY FUNCTION,MUCOSAL NECROSIS,ULCERATION,EDEMA ,TISSUE SLOUGHINGBRONCHIAL OBSTRUCTION AND AIR TRAPPINGWILL LEAD TO BRONCHOPNEUMONIAIT COULD BE DIAG BY DIRECT FOB VISUALISATION AND PFT (LOW PEF, VC, COMPLIANCE) (INC. AIRWAY RESISTANCE)P/V LOOP WILL SHOW EXTRATHORACIC OBSTRUCTION
64Prefarable: awake fiber optic intubation MANAGEMENTAdmin of highest possible conc by face mask is first priority in mod- severe burn pt.with “patent airway”In massive severe burns with stidor, resp. distress, hypoxemia,hypercarbia,LOC,or altered mentation.Tracheal intubationOther :wuscope,airtraq,king systems,nobelsville,IN glidescope,intubatingLMA, retrograde intubation,trans tracheal jet ventilation.Prefarable: awake fiber optic intubation
66Paediatrics( a challenge due to small airway size and early compromisation) Inhalation with 02 + sevo f/b fiber optic intubationSurgical airway avoided d/t risk of sepsisMech ventilation with low PEEP (to prevent pulm. Edema)Airway humidification with bronchial toilet with broncho dilatorsProphylactic intubation recommended even if distress is absent.
67Hypoxia and cirrhosis(15%) Intrinsic with cardio pulmonary disorder: 5.Pulmonary vascular ds.4.Pleural effusion3.COPD2.ILD1.CHD6.Fluid retention1.Intra pulmonary vascular dilatation(40%)Without primary lung ds.
68Hepato pulmonary syndrome Chronic liver ds.Evidence of IPVDA-a gradientPoor survival
69Post op hypoxia Anaesthesia + surgery Mechanical, haemodynamic, pharmacological factorsAnaesthesia + surgeryImpair ventilation , oxygenation and airway maintainance
70Pre op PFT(limited role) Increased riskHeavy smokingobesitySleep apneaSevere asthmaCOPDPre op PFT(limited role)
71causes Inadequate post op ventilation Inadequate respiratory drive Increased airway resistanceDecreased complianceNeuromuscular and skeletal problemsIncreased dead spaceIncreased co2 productionInadequate post op oxygenationDistribution of ventilationDistribution of perfusion
73Inadequate post-op vent. Mild resp acidemia = acceptedAlarm= acidemia coincedent with tachypnea,anxiety,dyspnea,laboured breathingpH < 7.30PaCO2 with pH
74Inadequate resp. drive Residual effect of i.v & inhalational agent i.v opioids given just befor shifting to post op careICH , Brain edema
75Increased airway resistance Obstruction in pharynx : tongue, soft tissueIn large airway : stenosis , hematomaIn larynx: spasm , edemaReactive airwaysResidual effect of NMD
76compliance Pulm edema Lung contusion RLD Retained CO2 after lap Skeletal ms anomalyObesityHemothorax, pneumothoraxIntra thoracic tumorsParenchymal ds.
77Neuromuscular and skeletal ms problems Inadequate reversal residual paralysisDiaphragmatic contraction , phrenic nr. paralysisFlail chest, severe kyphoscoliosis
78OXYGEN THERAPY A. THREE CLINICAL GOALS OF O2 THERAPY TREAT HYPOXEMIADECREASE WORK OF BREATHING (WOB)DECREASE MYOCARDIAL WORKB FACTORS THAT DETERMINE WHICH SYSTEM TO USEPATIENT COMFORTTHE LEVEL OF FIO2 THAT IS NEEDEDTHE REQUIREMENT THAT THE FIO2 BE CONTROLLEDBE CONTROLLED WITHIN A CERTAIN RANGE.THE LEVEL OF HUMIDIFICATION AND OR NEBULIZATION
79HIGH FLOW VS LOW O2 SYSTEMS HIGH FLOW SYSTEM DEFINED: THE GAS FLOW OF ADEVICE THAT IS ADEQUATE TO MEET ALL INSPIRATORYREQUIREMENTS. BY PROVIDING THE COMPLETE INSP.VOLUME, THE HIGH FLOW SYSTEM DELIVERS IT'S FIO2VERY ACCURATELY. HIGH FLOW SYSTEMS CAN DELIVERYBOTH HIGH AND LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF O2.1.A. VENTURI MASKB. VENTURI TYPE NEBULIZERS (FAIL > .50 FIO2)C. HIGH FLOW BLENDER SYSTEMD. THE NEW GAS INJECTION NEBULIZER (GIN)WORKS FOR ALL FIO2S.
80HIGH FLOW VS LOW O2 SYSTEMS CONTINUED LOW FLOW SYSTEMDEFINED: IS ONE THROUGHWHICH O2 IS DELIVERED TO SUPPLEMENT THE PATIENTSVT. THE FINAL FIO2 IS DETERMINED BY PROPORTIONATEMIXING OF THE NUMBER OF LITERS OF 100% OXYGENBEING DELIVERED AND THE NUMBER OF THE PATIENT'SVOLUME OF ROOM AIR THE PATIENT BREATHS IN TOMIX WITH IT. FOR THE SAME OXYGEN FLOW THROUGHEITHER DEVICE, THE FINAL FIO2 WILL BE HIGHERIF THE VE IS LOW (HYPOVENTILATION) AND LOWER IF THEVE IS HIGH (HYPERVENTILATION).A. CANNULAB SIMPLE MASKC RESERVOIR OR NON-REBREATHER(HIGHEST FIO2)
82ECMO Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Chang 3rd ed. Oxygenation of blood outside the body through a membrane oxygenator
83Patient selection Gestational age of 34 weeks or more* Birth weight of 2000 gm or higher*No significant coagulopathy or uncontrolled bleedingNo major intracranial hemorrhage (grade 1 intracranial hemorrhage)*Mechanical ventilation for days or less*Reversible lung injuryNo lethal malformationsNo major untreatable cardiac malformationFailure of maximal medical therapy
84Indication Patients with the following 2 major neonatal diagnoses primary pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), including idiopathic PPHN, meconium aspiration syndrome, respiratory distress syndrome, group B streptococcal sepsis, and asphyxiaCongenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)
85Types Veno arterial ECMO Veno venous ECMO Higher PaO2 is achieved. Lower PaO2 is achievedLower perfusion rates are needed.Higher perfusion rates are needed.Bypasses pulmonary circulationMaintains pulmonary blood flowDecreases pulmonary artery pressuresElevates mixed venous PO2Provides cardiac support to assist systemic circulationDoes not provide cardiac support to assist systemic circulationRequires arterial cannulationRequires only venous cannulation
88ReferencesDodd ME, et al ;Audit of oxygen prescribing before and after the introduction of a prescription chart. BMJ 2000; 321: 864-5Knight PR, Holm BA. The three components of hyperoxia. Anesthesiology 2000; 93: 3-5Aakerland LP, Rosenberg J. Post-operative delerium: treatment with supplementary oxygen. Br J Anaesth 1994; 72:Rosenburg-Adamsen S, Effect of oxygen treatment on heart rate after abdominal surgery. Anesthesiology 1999; 90: 380-4Greif R, Laciny S, Rapf B, Hickle RS, Sesslet DI. Supplemental oxygen reduces the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesthesiology 1999; 91:Chang 3rd ed.Miller’s anaesthesia 7th ed.Barash clinical anesthesia 6th ed.Egan’s 9th ed.Shapiro clinical applications of blood gases 5 th ed.