Presentation on theme: "PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT: THE ROLE OF TEACHERS IN LINKING SCHOOL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT TO LEARNER NEEDS. Presented by Sithenjwa H. Ncwane."— Presentation transcript:
PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT: THE ROLE OF TEACHERS IN LINKING SCHOOL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT TO LEARNER NEEDS. Presented by Sithenjwa H. Ncwane
Introduction and background South African Society is founded on democratic principles of accountability, co-operation, participation, consultation and partnership. These principles are enshrined in the new South African Constitution Act (108 of 1996) and they permeate the South African School Act (Act 84 of 1996). The school community is constituted by several stakeholder including parents learners, teachers, the school management team and the School Governing Body (SGB). Amongst these stakeholders teachers are at a critical level, where they directly influence learner achievement. It can therefore be arguable said that teachers have an important role of ensuring that their participation in school financial management, is not only for their own interest but also for ensuring that school finances are used to improve learner achievement and success. The necessity of involving teachers not only as implementers but as shared decision makers during the initiating, planning and management phases is very important (Swanepoel, 2008).
Stakeholder According to Collins (2010), the term stakeholder refers to the individual and groups that are associated with a school and who have vested interest in the success of the school. Bush and Heystek (2003) further elaborate that the concept of stakeholder is based on the notion that certain groups and individuals have a stake in the activities of an institution. In this study the term stakeholder specifically refers to the teachers, SGBs, principals, members of the School Management Team, learners as well as, the parents.
Participation When defining participation, Naidoo (2005) states that at basic level, it simply means sharing or taking part in the decision that is of ones interest. He goes on to say that in practice, it tends to be highly controversial because by its nature, participation is political as it relates to how groups and individuals are empowered to have control over their lives. Ife and Tesoriero (2006) view participation as ranging from the means to being an end. Ife and Tesoriero (2006) argue that participation is a means when it used to achieve some predetermined goal, utilising existing resources to achieve the set of objectives of a programme. They also add that participation under this notion is more on achieving objectives not on participation itself. Participation as an end attempts to empower people to participate in their own development more meaningfully and to increase the role of people in development initiatives (Ife & Tesoriero, 2006).
Financial management Bisschoff (2007) defines school financial management as a process of ensuring that the school governing body and the school management team plan, organise, delegate and control the funds of the school to achieve its goals.
Research design and methodology The study adopted a qualitative research design within an interpretive approach to inquiry. This design and approach to inquiry were deemed appropriate for this study whose objectives were to provide an understanding of the multi-realities and multi-truths that are socially constructed in a particular context (Gunkel, 2008 In keeping with the qualitative interpretive approaches, the study employed a case study. According to Henning, van Rensburg and Smit (2004) case study strives towards a comprehensive (holistic) understanding of how participants make meaning of a phenomenon under study.
Sampling Sampling is a critical part of any study. According to Cohen et. al. (2010) the quality of research not only stands or falls by the appropriateness of methodology and instruments but also by the suitability of the sampling strategy. In this study I used a combination of convenience and purposive sampling. I also used purposive sampling because I wanted to choose particular informants to fulfil the objectives of the study Sampling is a critical part of any study. According to Cohen et. al. (2010) the quality of research not only stands or falls by the appropriateness of methodology and instruments but also by the suitability of the sampling strategy. In this study I used a combination of convenience and purposive sampling. I also used purposive sampling because I wanted to choose particular informants to fulfil the objectives of the study
Data production methods This study used semi-structured interviews and the document analysis as data production methods. Semi-structured interviews and document analysis were deemed appropriate because they ensured that data gathered through interviews could be corroborated through document analysis. McMillan and Schumacher (1997) argue that data collection is a process that involves both interactive and non-interactive strategies.
Findings Different method of teacher participation 1.Fundraising 2. Recommending to the SGB and SMT 3.Consultation
Factors that hinder teacher participation Lack of transparency Poor knowledge of school financial management Insufficient funds Lack of trust in the school principal
Conclusion Teacher do participate in school financial management decision making processes It was also noted that participation is not authentic Teacher were found to be satisfied with this form of participation. Teachers are encouraged to empower themselves so as to make meaningful contribution in the decision making processes. The teacher school principals, teacher unions and the DoE has the responsibility to ensure that teacher are empowered.