Presentation on theme: "Quality Management in Special Libraries 1-Golnessa GALYANI MOGHADDAM Shahed University Dept. of Library and Information Science, Shahed University, Persian."— Presentation transcript:
Quality Management in Special Libraries 1-Golnessa GALYANI MOGHADDAM Shahed University Dept. of Library and Information Science, Shahed University, Persian Gulf Highway, Tehran, IRAN, Postal code: , 2-Mostafa MOBALLEGHI Islamic Azad University – Karaj Branch Dept. of Industrial Management, Islamic Azad University (IAU) - Karaj Branch, P.O. Box , Karaj, Iran,
Purpose of the Paper This paper sets out to review quality management and its complexities, and later review the quality approaches in especial libraries. A number of different approaches such as TQM, EFQM, SERVQUAL, and LibQUAL to the introduction of quality management in special libraries were reviewed.
Quality Management Quality management is focused not only on product/service quality, but also the means to achieve it. Quality management therefore uses quality assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve more consistent quality. The distinction between quality assurance and quality improvement/enhancement is not easy to recognize.
Three main components of Quality Management Quality Control, Quality Assurance, and Quality Improvement/Enhancement.
Differentiation between Quality Assurance and Quality Enhancement Quality assurance is a widely used term that refers to the processes associated with ensuring that quality adheres to some externally or internally set standard. Through quality assurance, the organisation and external stakeholders can be assured that the performance of the organisation is of an appropriate standard. The processes whereby the organisation collects the data to demonstrate that these targets have been met are quality assurance. Quality assurance requires standards of performance to which organisations must aspire, often, but not always articulated as quantitative performance measures. Such performance measures are often based on the collection of benchmarking data from across a sector.
Differentiation between Quality Assurance and Quality Enhancement… Quality enhancement focuses attention on those processes associated with enhancing or improving quality. Again performance measures are a necessary representation of quality; organisations will not only seek to make improvements, but also will want to be able to monitor that improvements have been made. Quality enhancement programmes may also embrace standards and targets and the various other elements of quality assurance, but improvements are not constrained by, or restricted to achievement of these targets. In addition, the focus is on the processes that lead to quality enhancement.
DimensionQuality assurance Quality enhancement FocusOutput standards Internal processes MeasuresPerformance measures Assessment of processes Primary audience/stakeho lder Funding bodyCustomer/emplo yees Level of staff ownership LowHigh ConsequencesFunding/accredi tation, achievement of quality marks and branding Quality service delivery
Quality Approaches in Special Libraries TQM (Total Quality Management) EFQM (European Foundation for Quality Management) SERVQUAL LibQUAL
TQM (Total Quality Management) The concept of quality management originated in Japan and later moved into the USA and the UK, initially in the manufacturing sector. Since then, the theory of quality management has been growing fast. The philosophy is increasingly being applied in the service sectors, including libraries. Use of TQM in the library sector started in the late 1980s, though early studies show that the TQM approach was not successful in some libraries.
Reasons for Implementing TQM Models
TQM in Special Libraries Literature review shows that some special libraries applied TQM in their libraries and found interesting results. For instance, a study by Wang in 2006 showed that teamwork is important for the successful implementation of TQM. Every step of the process depends on the constant support of top management. Their role determines how far the implementation can go. Therefore, once a decision is made to apply TQM, strong leadership is required. TQM provides a model and a benchmark as guidelines in making new strategies in libraries facing todays great changes. It is arguable whether it is feasible to apply the principles without reservation, but it is reasonable to adopt the techniques with adaptations suitable to the library environment.
EFQM (European Foundation for Quality Management) Following the idea of TQM, libraries have witnessed the emergence of EFQM. The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) has developed a widely used framework for quality enhancement, the EFQM Business Excellence Model, that not only embeds the principles of TQM, but also provides a mechanism for accreditation of an organisations quality processes. The model is based on nine criteria for excellence: five Enabler criteria relating to what the organisation does, and how it runs, including leadership, policy and strategy, people, partnerships and resources and processes; and four Results criteria relating to what the organisation is actually achieving, in the eye of its stakeholders, (i.e. customers, employees or people, society and funders).
The EFQM Model
SERVQUAL As an instrument or service quality framework, the SERVQUAL instrument measures the gap between customers expectations for excellence and their perceptions of actual service delivered, so service providers can understand both customer expectations and their perceptions of specific services. A review of literature shows that SERVQUAL has been vastly used in library studies.
What does SERVQUAL measure? 1) reliability; (2) responsiveness; (3) competence; (4) access; (5) courtesy; (6) communication; (7) credibility; (8) security; (9) understanding or knowing the customer; and (10) tangibles.
SERVQUAL in Libraries A case study in Iran by using SERVQUAL model in an academic library showed that, there is no equal importance between library service quality indicators. After prioritizing indicators it was found that having the ability to find information 24 hours a day has the most importance and a secure and safe place is the least important indicator for making a high quality library (Jamali and Sayyadi, 2009).
LibQUAL LibQUAL derives from the Gap Theory of Service Quality, and the SERVQUAL instrument. LibQUAL has been attracted by many libraries around the world and many studies have been conducted by means of this emerging quality-service model. LibQUAL measures the following four dimensions: (1) affect of service; (2) library as place; (3) personal control; and (4) access to information
LibQUAL in Iranian Libraries A study by Hariri and Afnani in Iran was conducted using a LibQUAL+ survey at the central library of Iran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. The results did not show significant differences between mean values of gap scores for female and male users. The library exceeded female users minimum acceptable level of service quality in 16 aspects of LibQUAL+ survey, while that library fulfilled the minimum level of acceptable quality in just nine aspects for male users; however, according to statistical analysis, female and male users held similar opinions in relation to the quality of the library services.
Conclusion Quality Management System (QMS) provides a management framework that gives libraries the necessary controls to address risks and monitor and measure performance in their business. It can also help libraries to enhance their image and reputation inside their parent organizations. Quality Management is considered more formally as part of organizational and departmental policy and planning. This has required the setting up of a variety of quality-related procedures and performance measures. However, quality management is not a simple but a complex process.
Conclusion… Literature review showed that most quality studies were reported form academic libraries, but TQM and EFQM are two quality models which are used in some special libraries around the world and librarians found enough positive results to justify their application. Two most used quality instruments to measure library performance are SERVQUAL and LibQUAL. The SERVQUAL instrument measures the gap between customers expectations for excellence and their perceptions of actual service delivered. LibQUAL measures library users evaluations of service quality. In spite of some criticisms, these two instruments have been vastly used in library studies for measuring quality.