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Biometric standards An overview of biometrics and identity management February 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Biometric standards An overview of biometrics and identity management February 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biometric standards An overview of biometrics and identity management February 2010

2 2 The need to identify Every day we are required to identify ourselves Using a bank card with a PIN at a cash machine A password to log on to a computer Using a key to open a door Punching a code into a keypad to enter the workplace Using passwords on the Internet Providing a passport and driving licence as proof of identity We need to be able to accurately IDENTIFY an individual to minimize current issues and threats

3 3 Current attributes used to identify Name Address Postcode Date of Birth Account no. Passwords PINs Phone no. Mothers maiden name Passport Birth certificate Driving licence Credit cards Utility bills Membership cards Salary slip

4 4 Is biometrics the answer? A biometric is part of the person and is not easily compromised through: Theft Collusion Loss Simplifies user management resulting in cost savings Users do not need to remember passwords Users do not need to remember PINs User accounts cannot be shared Easy to use

5 5 Biometric definition The automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics The general meaning of biometrics encompasses counting, measuring and statistical analysis of any kind of data in the biological sciences including the relevant medical sciences The term is derived from the Greek words bios meaning life and metron meaning measure

6 6 Biological and behavioural Biological Fingerprint Face (2D & 3D) Iris Vein pattern Hand geometry DNA Behavioural Signature Gait Voice Keystroke dynamics

7 7 Iris Captures the pattern of flecks on the iris Uses conventional cameras Average 2 seconds for identification No physical contact between user and reader

8 8 Face Based upon the geometric shape and position of features of the face Resistant to changes in skin tone, facial hair, hair style, and eyeglasses No active user involvement required in order to perform identification/verification Limited success in practical applications

9 9 Voice Analyses voice patterns and characteristics of speech e.g. pitch, tone, etc. High user acceptance – perceived as least intrusive biometric technology Easy for end users to implement Ideal for telephone systems/mobile environments

10 10 Hand geometry Measures the physical characteristics of the users hand and fingers Low level infrared light and camera used to capture an image Suited to applications where there is a large user base or users access the system infrequently Systems are easy to use and robust

11 11 Signature Based on analysis of the dynamics of a handwritten signature e.g. shape, speed, stroke order, pen pressure Generally use pressure sensitive tablets or wired pens User friendly Non intrusive – minimal public acceptance issues Captured signature can be used for digitally signing documents

12 12 Keystroke dynamics Monitors rate of typing and intervals between letters Verification based on typing rhythm – intruders may guess password but fail to key in with correct rhythm Neither enrolment nor verification disturbs the regular flow of work Low cost – only hardware required is keyboard

13 13 Fingerprint Variety of fingerprint devices available (silicon and optical) Template constructed by analysing patterns that make the fingerprint (minutiae)

14 14 DNA Forensic genetics use deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling in a number of important human identity applications 0.01% of a person's entire genome is unique to each individual This represents 3 million base pairs of DNA 95% of the human genome are non-coding sequences (called junk DNA) Standard profiling systems only exploit the junk DNA to maintain the privacy and civil rights of the donor

15 15 Multimodal Combination of one or more biometrics Algorithmic level Results level Multimodal is the fusion of results with logic applied

16 16 Key multimodal facts Can be used to: Improve reliability Make forgery more difficult Make systems more flexible to user characteristics (decreases failure to enrol) Make systems more complex Promote inclusivity Input Device Matching Result Input Device Matching Result Fusion

17 17 Verification versus Identification Are you who you say you are? Who are you? NOT

18 18 Verification and Identification Verification Involves confirming or denying a persons claimed identity – Are you who you claim to be? Biometric sample captured and compared with the previously stored template for that user One-to-one comparison Are you who you say you are? I am who I say I am Identification Means establishing a persons identity from an already established list – Who are you from this list? Biometric sample presented to a system which searches the existing (enrolled) subjects One-to-many comparison Do I know you? I am not known to you already

19 19 Identification before verification To establish a clean database of individuals each individual first needs to be identified One-to-many match is performed against the central database to ensure the individual does not already exist under correct name or any other aliases Once identity is established it can be sufficient to verify the individual as proof of identity only One-to-one match is performed at the point of interface without the need to check back to the central database

20 20 Key Consideration in a biometric system Current & Future Technology Risk & Requirement Analysis Research & Development User Perception Accuracy & Throughput IntegrationPerformance Business Process Strategy

21 21 Considerations of adding a biometric system Not all biometrics technologies suit all people In many cases additional hardware is required User co-operation is usually necessary Privacy concerns must be addressed Cost of personal devices in large systems can be significant User education is required Biometric revocation must be considered as biometric data is not secret

22 22 Capture the legal and political imperatives Ask what additional considerations are there with a biometric application as opposed to any other IT deliverable Privacy? Data access considerations (who and why)? Sensitivity of data? Legislative limitations? User acceptance? Standards compliance?

23 23 ISO/IEC JTC1 SC 37 Biometrics Currently 25 participating countries and 7 observer countries Liaisons with: JTC 1/SC 17 Cards and Personal Identification. JTC 1/SC 24 Computer Graphics and Imaging JTC 1/SC 27 Information Technology Security Techniques. JTC 1/SC 29 Coding of Audio, Picture and Multimedia and Hypermedia Information. JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic Identification and Data Capture Techniques JTC 1/SC 32 Data Management and Interchange JTC 1/SC 36 Information Technology for Learning, Education and Training. ITU-T SG17 Telecommunication Standardization Sector Study Group on Data Networks and Telecommunications Software. BioAPI Consortium IBIA International Biometrics Industry Association (IBIA) ILO International Labour Office of the UN

24 24 The benefits of standards for biometrics They foster wide spread utilization of the technology They are a sign of industry maturity They reduce time-to-market They facilitate interchange and/or interoperability They reduce risk to integrators and end users They reduce vendor lock-in effect

25 25

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