2ADMINISTRATION & SCORING OF MIDE & Spanish R-CBM Medidas Incrementales de Destrezas Esenciales& Spanish R-CBM
3Why is phonological awareness in Spanish important? What does the research tell us?“Because children often transfer skills from L1 to L2 as they learn language sequentially, their phonological awareness skills in Spanish should be predictive of their reading acquisition in Spanish as well as in English.”“Furthermore, helping children who receive native language instruction cultivate their phonological awareness skills in Spanish will have beneficial effects on Spanish literacy and on later literacy development in English.”Brenda K. Gorman & Ronald GillamPhonological Awareness in SpanishA tutorial for speech-language pathologistsCommunication Disorders Quarterly 15:1, pp13-22
4Why is phonological awareness in Spanish important? What does the research tell us?“Taken together with evidence of cross-linguistic transfer of phono-logical processes, measures of phonological processes in Spanish may be key components in the identification of children in early grades (i.e. kindergarten, first grade) who are at risk of developing reading difficulties in Spanish and English.”Riccio, C.A., Amado, A., Jiménez, S. Hasbrouck, J.E.,Imhoff, B., & Denton, C.Cross Linguistic Transfer of Phonological ProcessingBilingual Research Journal, 25:4 Fall, pp“In Spanish, for example, it is considered important to consider syllable structure and stress as a salient factor in children’s perception of phonemic awareness.”Carreira, M., Alvarez, C.J., & de Vega, M.Syllable frequency and word recognition in SpanishJournal of Memory and Language, 32, pp
5Why is phonological awareness in Spanish important? What does the research tell us?“The results indicated that Spanish phonological awareness predicted English word reading. These results led the researchersTo suggest that native-language (Spanish) phonological awareness training could facilitate children’s ability to read in English.”Diane August, Margarita Calderón & María CarloTransfer of Skills from Spanish to English: A Study of Young LearnersReport for Practitioners, Parents and Policy MakersCenter of Applied Linguistics, Washington, D.C.2002
6Matching PA instruction and assessment to the unique characteristics of the Spanish language What does the research tell us?“Phonics instruction in Spanish should emphasize syllables as the natural elements of Spanish word structure. Children should have many opportunities to explore words through combining, segmenting, and substituting syllables in a process analogous to the exploration of onsets and rimes, or word families, in English.”Margarita Calderón, Alan Crawford, Gilbert García,John Pikulski & Tina SaldivarThe Role of Phonics in InvitacionesCopyright 1998 Houghton Mifflin Company“The Spanish speaking group was more adept than the English-speaking group in syllable-awareness, word reading and spelling, whereas the English-speaking group was more adept at rhyme awareness. . .In addition, no differences were noted between both language groups in the area of phonemes awareness. This was most likely a result of the importance of the alphabetic principle in both languages.” (Varona-Vicente, 2000)
7Matching PA instruction and assessment to the unique characteristics of the Spanish language What does the research tell us?“El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo comprobar la influencia de una enseñanza sistemática de habilidades fonológicas en el acceso a lectura y escritura. Para ello, se diseñó un programa de desarrollo de habilidades fonológicas en el ámbito léxico, silábico y fonémico. . .Los resultados manifestaron que el grupo experimental obtuvo mejores puntuaciones que el grupo control en habilidades fonológicas, produciéndose, asimismo, un efecto positivo y facilitador para el acceso y adquisición de la lectura y escritura en los alumnos.”“Otro aspecto a destacar es que el grupo experimental obtuvo mejorespuntuaciones en la escritura que en la lectura . . .de estos dataos podemos inferir que la escritura depende más de los procesos fonológicos que la lectura.”Pilar Arnáiz Sanchez, Juan-Luis Castrejón Costa,Maria Soledad Ruiz Jiménez & Jose-Manuel Guirao LavelaDesarollo de un programa de habilidades fonológicas y su implicaciónen el acceso inicial a la lecto-escritura en alumnos de segundo ciclode educación infantil (unpublished paper)Universidades de Murcia y Alicante
8Matching PA instruction and assessment to the unique characteristics of the Spanish language What does the research tell us?“Spanish phonology system is different than that of English. There are fewer consonant and vowel phonemes in Spanish, less complex syllable structure and longer words. . .and phonological development for Spanish speaking children is also different.”“Training of students in spelling, blending, and segmenting syllables and phonemes may be especially valuable because these skills are closely related to those which students use when actually reading and writing.”Dr. Nydia V. BouPuerto Rican Spanish Phonology; a Case Study on PhonologicalAwareness Intervention“In Spanish, for example, it is considered important to consider syllable structure and stress as a salient factor in children’s perception of phonemic awareness.”Carreira, M., Alvarez, C.J., & de Vega, M.Syllable frequency and word recognition in SpanishJournal of Memory and Language, 32, pp
9Development of MIDESix fluency measures designed to assess early literacy acquisition from early Kindergartenthrough Grade 1Includes:Letter NamesLetter SoundsSyllable SegmentationSyllable ReadingSyllable and Word SpellingOral Reading FluencyDeveloped by Ellen Magit, Ed.S.
10Focus is on syllable, NOT phoneme. Development of MIDEEnglish: Phonemic Awareness (PA) and phonics are importantSpanish: Equally important to develop PA & phonicsSpanish language builds from syllable unitEarly ability to: -Hear syllable divisions -Analyze & synthesize syllables within words -Rapidly & fluently read syllable = essential for early readersMIDE: Measures designed for Spanish speakers.Focus is on syllable, NOT phoneme.
16MIDE: Letter Naming Fluency “Aquí ves unas letras (point to the student copy). Empieza aquí, (point to first letter) y dime los nombres de todas las letras que sepas. Si llegas a una que no sabes, te la diré. ¿Tienes cualquier pregunta? Pon tu dedo debajo de la primera letra. ¿Listo(a)?, empieza.”Start your stopwatch.If the student fails to say the first letter-name after 3 seconds, tell the student the letter-name and mark it as incorrect.
17MIDE: Letter Naming Fluency If the student provides the letter sound rather than the letter name say, “Acuérdate que tienes que decirme el nombre de la letra y no el sonido que hace.” (This prompt may be provided once during the administration.)If the student continues providing letter sounds, mark each letter as incorrect and make a note at the top of the examiner copy.Student responds in English: “Dime los nombres en español”Discontinue: 10 consecutive letter names (1 row) incorrect.The maximum time for each letter is 3 seconds. Beyond 3 seconds: Tell the student the letter name and mark it incorrect. Point to the next letter and say, “¿cuál letra es?” 1 Minute: Place ] at end of last word read. “Alto.”
18What is a Correct Letter Name? A correctly named letter.Confused I’s and L’s are a function of font. These letters that look alike would have different names, depending on the font and case. For these letters, either name is considered correct.Self-Corrections. If a student makes an error and corrects him/herself within 3 seconds, circle the letter and do not count it as an error.Letters named in English are counted as correct and noted on the examiner copy.
19What is an Incorrect Letter Name? Substitutions of a different letter for the stimulus letter (e.g.,“P” for “D”).Omissions of a letter.Stops or struggles with a letter for more than 3 seconds.NOTE: Skipped Row. If a student skips an entire row, draw a line through the row and do not count the row in scoring.NOTE: Articulation and Dialect. A student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect, articulation, or second language interference.
22MIDE: Letter-Sound Fluency 1. Place the student copy in front of the student.2. Place the examiner copy on a clipboard and position so the student cannot see what the examiner records.3. Say these specific directions to the student:“Aquí ves unas letras (point to the student copy). Empieza aquí, (point to first letter) y dime los sonidos (with emphasis) de todas las letras que sepas. Si llegas a una letra con un sonido que no sabes, te la diré. ¿Tienes cualquier pregunta? Pon tu dedo debajo de la primera letra. ¿Listo(a)?, empieza.”4. Start your stopwatch. If the student fails to say the first letter sound after 3 seconds, tell the student the letter sound and mark it as incorrect. Point to the next letter and say, “¿cuál sonido hace?”If the student says the letter name rather than the letter sound: “Acuérdate que tienes que decirme el sonido que hace la letra y no su nombre”. This prompt may be provided once during the administration.Discontinue: 10 incorrect (1 row)
23What is a Correct Letter Sound? Students must provide the most COMMON sound of the letter. For example,“c”would be pronounced as the “c” in casa, not as the “c” in cebolla.Confused I’s and L’s are a function of font. These letters that look alike would have different sounds depending on the font and case. For these letters, either sound is considered correct.Self-Corrections. If a student makes an error and corrects him/herself within 3 seconds, circle the letter and do not count it as an error.NOTE: Articulation and Dialect. A student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect, articulation, or second language interference.
24What is an Incorrect Letter Sound? Substitutes a different sound for the stimulus letter sound. For example, /puh/ would be incorrect when the letter was “D”Substitutes the English sound for a vowel.For example, the /a/ pronounced as in “APE”Omission of a letter soundStops or struggles with a letter sound for more than 3 seconds.NOTE: Skipped Row. If a student skips an entire row, draw a line through the row and do not count the row in scoring.
27MIDE: Syllable Segmentation Fluency 1.Place your page on a clipboard so student cannot see what is recorded.2. Say these specific directions to the student:“Te voy a decir una palabra. Después, quiero que tu me digas todas las sílabas, o partes, que oyes en la palabra. Por ejemplo, si yo digo “papalote,” tu dirías “pa-pa-lo-te” (tapping your hand on the table as you say each syllable) con las partes bien separadas. Vamos a probar otra. Dime todas las sílabas, o partes, que oyes en “lechuga.”3. Student correct: “Estâ bien. Ahora viene la primera palabra.”
285. Give the student the first word and start your stopwatch 5. Give the student the first word and start your stopwatch. (3+ second delay: Say the next word and score first word as zero.)6. Underline ( ___ ) each syllable segment produced correctly.Put a slash (/) through syllables produced incorrectly.lechuga lechugaIf the student pronounces two syllables (in a word with three or more syllables) without a pause between them, score the response as one syllable segment.lechuga7. If the student simply repeats the word, score the item as incorrect and say, “acuérdate que tienes que separar las sílabas”. This prompt may be provided once during the administration.= 2 points
29MIDE: Syllable Segmentation Fluency 8. As soon as the student is finished saying the syllables, present the next word promptly and clearly.9. 3 second rule: If the student does not provide the next syllable segment within 3 seconds, give the student the next word.If the student provides the initial syllable only, wait 3 seconds for elaboration.10. At the end of 1 minute, stop presenting words and scoring further responses. Place a bracket “]” after the last word read.
30SSF: What is a correct Syllable Segment? Complete Segmentation:Incomplete Segmentation:Overlapping Segmentation:
31SSF: What is a correct syllable segment? Additions:Additions are not counted as errors if they are part of a correctly segmented syllable and do not change the total number of syllable segments.EXAMPLE:No Error: “causa,” student says “clau…sa”No Error: “camisa,” student says “ca…mi…sas”
32SSF: What is not a correct syllable segment? Omissions:No Segmentation:
33MIDE: Syllable Reading Fluency The AIMSweb MIDE Syllable Reading Fluency task requires students to read CV syllables or the individual sounds in syllables for 1 minute.
35MIDE: Syllable reading fluency Place the practice items in front of the child.ma peRead specific directions:“Mira esta sílaba (point to the first syllable on the practice probe). No tiene sentido, pero las letras tienen sonidos y podemos leerlas: (point to the letter “m”) /m/, (point to the letter “a”) /a/. La sílaba completa dice /m/ /a/ (point to each letter) o /ma/ (run your finger fast through the whole syllable). Acuérdate que no tiene sentido. Puedes decir los sonidos de las letras, /m//a/ (point to each letter), o puedes leer toda la sílaba, /ma/. (run your finger fast through the whole syllable).Quiero que me digas cualquier sonido que sepas. ¿Listo (a)? Vamos a probar una. Lee esta sílaba lo mejor que puedas (point to the syllable,“pa”) Pon tu dedo debajo de cada letra y dime su sonido, o lee toda la sílaba.
36MIDE: Syllable Reading Fluency Turn to the student copy of the probe.
37MIDE: Syllable Reading Fluency “En esta página puedes ver más sílabas (point to the student probe). Cuando yo digo “empieza,” comienza aquí (point to the first syllable), lee através de la página (point across the page), y lee todas las sílabas que puedas. Acuérdate que puedes decir los sonidos de las letras o puedes leer toda la sílaba. Pon tu dedo debajo de la primera sílaba. ¿Listo (a)? Empieza.”Start your stopwatch.3 second-rule: If the student does not start in 3 seconds, say: “¿y el próximo sonido?Sound by sound or syllable by syllable (based on how the child is readingUnderline each phoneme the child correctly reads (either in isolation or in the context of the syllable).Put a slash “/” over each phoneme read incorrectly or omitted.Place bracket around last word at end of 1 min.
38MIDE: SRF—Choices for correct syllable Correct Letter Sounds:Phonemes produced correctly in isolation.Letter-sound correspondence produced correctly.EXAMPLE:Examiner: “me”Student: /m/ /e/ = 2 points.Correct Syllables. Underline the entire syllable if the student reads the syllable rather than the individual phonemes.Examiner: “mu”Student: “mu” = 2 points.OR
39MIDE: SRF—What is a correct syllable? Self-Corrections. If a student makes an error and corrects him/herself within 3 seconds, circle the letter and count it as correct.Sounds Produced Out of Order. Letter sounds produced in isolation but out of order are scored as correct.EXAMPLE:Examiner: “le”Student: /e/ /l/ = 2 points.Blended letter sounds must be correct and in the correct sequence (beginning, ending) to receive credit.Student: “el” (neither letter sound is correct) = 0 points.Note: Articulation and Dialect. The student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect, articulation, or second language inference.
40SRF: What is not a correctly syllable? Silent Letters:The letter “h”. If silent “h” is pronounced as it is in English, it is incorrect—whether phoneme is produced individually or in a blended syllable.The letters “qu,” “qui,” “gue,” and “gui” in isolation: If “u” is pronounced in isolation, it is ignored.For example: Word: “que” Student: /c/ /u/ /e/ Draw line under “qu” and another under “c” = 2 points.Blended letters: A silent “u” pronounced in a blended syllable = error.Example: Word: “qui” Student: /cui/ = 1 point.
50What is a Word Read Correctly? Correctly pronounced words within context.Self-corrected incorrect words within 3 seconds.
51What is an Error?Mispronunciation of the wordSubstitutionsOmissions3-Second pauses or struggles PER SYLLABLE within the word (examiner provides correct syllable)(Errors/reading patterns such as this are more prevalent in the early grades, as these students read more syllabically and may need time to decode each syllable in the word.)
52What is not Incorrect? (Neither a WRC or an Error) RepetitionsDialect differencesInsertions (consider them qualitative errors)
53Calculating and R-CBM Scores Record total number of words read.Subtract the number of errors.Report in standard format of WRC/Errors (72/3).
54Benchmark Data: Obtain MEDIAN score for student’s 3 passages: 67 / / / 91 min min min.Why use Median vs. Average?Averages are susceptible to outliers when dealing with small number sets. Median Score is a statistically more reliable number than average for R-CBM.
5567 / 2 85 / 8 74 / 9 The Data: Obtain MEDIAN score for 3 passages: 67 / / / 91 min min min.1. Throw out the HIGH and LOW scores for Words Read Correct (WRC)
56The Data: Obtain MEDIAN score for 3 passages: 67 / / / 91 min min min.2. Throw out the HIGH and LOW scores for the Errors.Remaining scores = MEDIAN.3. Report this score in your AIMSweb account.=74/8