Presentation on theme: "The Theory and Practice about Knowledge management Methodology Explore about Knowledge management of Complex System Lin Jian –xiang School of Education."— Presentation transcript:
The Theory and Practice about Knowledge management Methodology Explore about Knowledge management of Complex System Lin Jian –xiang School of Education Peking University
Content Introduction 1. The precise meaning of LOGO. 2. The Broader Significance of this Methodology. 3. Application for Educaton Review 4. Methodology Explore of Knowledge management about complex system
Introduction (1) As the knowledge-based enterprises increase rapidly, with larger proportion in modern enterprises, knowledge management emerged, developed rapidly too. In terms of education, the essence of education is the production, transmission, exchange, and management of knowledge and information. Knowledge management for education are equally important. In recent years, talk more and more about apply education informationalize to promote education modernization.
Introduction (2) Why informationalization of education are able to promote the modernization of education, why to promote education modernization must use information technology? Either absorb the knowledge, the fruit of enterprise knowledge management, or knowledge management work in education together to promote innovation further, the meaning of informationalize is an important base of all topic.
Introduction (3) Then what is informationalize? In simple word, informationalize is methodology, the methodology of the information age. When I contact with Guizhou Teacher Fu at the key project LOGO promote innovation of mathematics education and the study in the experiment that bring programming learning and mathematics learning in combination, I feel LOGO is not only a distinctive programming language, but is an important methodology with modern characteristics. LOGO has closely cross-connection with the extensive application of the concept of information and informationalize. And show more clearly the meaning as mothodology.
1. The exact meaning of LOGO.(1) LOGO originally means logic, or structure (model, schema, context). LOGO is the philosophy about education, epistemology, in particular is methodology. LOGO come from A ncient Greek logos, the meaning is the structure of things or logic,--- a static term. We here LOGO is refer to the extension of this term, methodology -- static structure, adding more emphasize analysis, synthesis and construction, all are components of dynamic operation.
1. The exact meaning of LOGO(2). It means: " Decompose the Object in study into basic component (or elements), base on these components further integrated into different levels of model, schema (math terminology) or semantic (linguistic terminology). From the very simple component can be gradually built a very complex information world. From the basic components can be integrated continuously, which is the right meaning of concept construction.
1. The exact meaning of LOGO(3) To describe and explain further: The basic components of the things (also called ) is first object, attributes and relationships. Various objects and various relationship between the components compose to be different structure. The structure can be regarded as objects again to form multi-level structure. The connotation of objects that distinguished from different attributes and the different values. The structure can have their own attributes and to be distinguished each.
Object --decomposed into– Components ( basic elements, or may decomposed again ) --- synthesis to be--- the new Object The concept map, and the concept of derivative map are similiar to LOGO idea.
Structure LOGO, General logic Mathematics Object & Relation formed S tructure. The concept of The structure of number multi-level semantic structure Semantic Web All are static : structure.
Operation Operation Calculation Operation on few objects - such as connectivity. Operation on overall structure such as transformation, --- More complex --- reorganization. All are Operation A bunch of operation -- algorithm Procedures is a special and complex operation. Procedures is an expression of algorithm These are dynamic, verb - Constructivism.
So, we see logo idea come from the long- term development of Mathematics. mathematical modeling. --- model composed from basic components. Positive. Solve the problem. --- Composition by the statement algorithms or procedures to express things is also problem solving. Reverse.
2. The broader significance of the methodology LOGO concept development accomplished with mathematics in the long history of progressive development - This is the pre-computer age, but cause the birth of computer. We see from the macro-view There is a long-term context in the history of the mathematics development - - to find component of object, base on these component that a large quantity of facts can be integrated or derived. That is exactly the spirit of axiomatic.
The history of mathematics Egypt empirical geometry --- to Euclid axiomatic geometry - to a deeper level of math-thinking – numeric and graphic combination Combine geometry and Arab arithmetic, algebra, Italy equation make analysis geometry come to world. Then found an understanding of the profound methodology from mathematics. When decomposition to be more detailed, to be more basic element, the generate ability will be more powerful.
The history of mathematics Then logic --- propositional logic, and predicate logic --- the decomposition and integration of thinking model. Then Set Theory –this have been the base of all mathematic knowledge representation. Then Model of algorithm -- model of Turing. Then Von- Neumann computer. All mathematics knowledge be analyse to the most primitive atomic constituents, or digital, as result of the birth of the computer. These can be seen as the main analyze stage.
The history of programming Achieve the most basical elements decomposition, huge capacity of description and generation grow After that a powerful integrated stage comes:, Recall the history of programming, b ased on the hardware,from compiled language, the formula language, high-level language, to mathematical language and the procedure language, functional language productive language, object-oriented language and the LOGO language, Mathematica language.
Go Ahead So, programming language has enormous capacity, seem have the ability to turn all the world into computer. (Of course, this is only ideal, many difficulties ought to be overcome) Applied Mathematics with Computer have the enormous devolopment. Not only that, by study the important concept information, gradually formed many kinds of information science, and then to explore the unite information science and that maybe approach the concept, the methodology of the information age.
A few simple examples below to show LOGO methodology broader sinificance. (1) Material world is composed from elementary particles, electronics, neutrons, protons, atoms, molecules and supramolecular many levels. Then from supramolecular, protein to cells, again, to the phenomenon of life; then growup of biological populations by genetic transfer. And then human society composed from senior intelligence life, have the brain to think and communication ability by language.
A few simple examples below to show LOGO methodology broader sinificance. (2) Putonghua voice can be decomposed into consonant, vowel, and tone various components and then base on these component could generate all the voice. Language is composed from character, word, phrase, sentence, paragraph, chapter different levels of elements construction. Geometer's Sketchpad can be seen as geometric shapes add graphics transformation that should maintain graphic structure, and function concept with correspondence notion, conbine all these conponents to form a kind of advanced knowledge representation, that is, micro-world.
A few simple examples below to show LOGO methodology broader sinificance. (3) Image thinking can be seen as the analysis synthesis and transformation for audio-visual representation, then form the procedure of imagery innovation. Odor remote transmission may go through analysis to all the basic elements of smell out,then coding. So long as the two side has the common agreement of basic ingredients, and build a generator, it can transfer only by code, and in remote areas reorganize out the odor. Ancient Chinese book of Change (Yi): Tai-Chi divided to twin, twin to Quartet, Quartet to Octet, that show the universe is constantly decompose to element, symbols eight diagram is code, Gua like the phase. Combine code and Gua to further combinations, may gain all things. So eight diagram reflects as the early LOGO methodology.
Some conclusion Synthesis and analysis methodology ought to distinguish between "code" and represention of "elements", or distinguish between "digit" and "phase." these are linked, but these are differences. The "digit" is abstract, and "phase" can be very concrect. The above examples show some original logic of things, some the logic, reflected by the concept in the brain (the concept map), and some is dynamic methodology motivate logical extension and innovation (thinking), and then be the logic of many artifitial design.
Why are we here with the emphasize on the verb meaning of this methodology? The dynamic of this methodology, which stressed the analysis and synthesis, operation, algorithm and led to the formation of the process, development and motivation to build more things. This has led philosophy from the speculative? to the progress of real- construction. then the concept of the virtual world.
3. Applications for the field of education review 3.1 Model of thinking. Building block. Good idea for entrance education of information technology in early childhood--- Through the combination of elements, the value self-evaluation, that is, model of problem Solving. But the goal is not clear, and the element couldnt divide again. LOGO Programming. = Data structure + Algorithm Also a kind of building block, but the component could be divided again. More opportunity to innovation.
3.2 Innovation mechanism. Generate and test = Problem-solving Free combination of fixed elements - could generate many valuable model, but the model has need to go through testing, whether meet predetermined goal or not. Through increase the basic component, especially further decomposition into more detail element, and reorganization has let problem become more open. Re-organization is the most powerful innovation mechanism.
3.3 Internalize and externalize Originally from the outside worldthrough learning, Through innovative thinking - problem solving into the concept Logic in the brain. Internalize Again, to design, to solve problem, transform the dominant form of knowledge in the brain, into Artifacts (man-made products) logic. Externalize
3.4 Image Expression People with visual organ can accept image information, the efficiency is very high, the graphics are static structure. However, the lack of human organ to free express of image. To draw the graphic-imaginings, has to use symbols, word, language, these basic components to creatively build expression. So, scenes feel is not enough. The image thinking and logic thinking, the function of right and left brain are complementary, and are indispensable each. Hidden image need to use language to express also.
Learning by accept transfer --- the transfer of static structure. As procedures in the programming, if it is usually used, give the structure a name or symbol, can also give procedures names. When necessary, calling with this name, no need programming again. Concept possese a clear and complex semantics. When human think, the concept can be used to reduce many complexity, and do high-level thinking. In interpersonal contacts, if common understanding of the concept exist, human could use high level concept to talk about complicated matters, and still be understood each other. (At the Internet age, the development of the World Wide Web markup language, give the structurize information (procedure) a label(tag), when transfer, only label (tag), structure of labels need, if the two sides have common agreement or common interpretation procedures, dont need convey too much code, both side could gain a lot of information and understanding. 
Learning by accept transfer Analogy to the usually language exchange(conversation), semantic represent go through its lower semantic components to construct. In the process of teaching, use terms to transfer (even at close range)information between different members (teachers and students, students and students), if they have common definition of words or common understand, then use words can do very high-level exchange of complex ideas, all can be understand each other. We see the benefits of acceptance learning that create a common understanding of terms between teacher and students, and can be very high efficiency to teach high-level thinking.
Learning by Exploration The decomposition process. Constructivism. But if the two sides havent common definition of the term, (especially knowledge asymmetry between teachers and students ) it need return to the definition of terms, starting communication from the bottom. The question is, the terms understanding, cant be easily transmitted by abstract term. Students also need personal experience and common experience. Both teachers and students create a common basis of understanding of the term. This is simply acceptance learning not so efficient and requires learning by doing (through directly by hands, or personal experience through activities). The most effective way to communicate is to change listen and speak into the personal activities and direct experience.
Group Learning Cooperative learning. Include Interactive, understanding, expression and recombination. Dialogue between 2 persons: Part A describe ---Part B response (here including analysis, understanding, problem solving, expression) is a complex knowledge processing procedure also. Cooperative learning. Particularly complex issue which needs to understand from several points of view. Personal perspective is limited, often subject understanding, and the peer groups discussion and questioned, often from different angles, from different points of view, and gain a more in-depth understanding from the comparison of groups discussion. Here, groups discussion and cooperation, the same opinion or different views on the consultation, integration, these all involves more comprehensive application of the LOGO methodology
A lot of topic The progress of knowledge representation. Learning Innovation model Learning platform, cognitive tools. Learning materials (static), but learning is process. and exercise is important in learning. In the static situation to ask question (thinking, judgment) to facilitate learning, or for information processing.
A lot of topic Classrooms reorganization Various effective learning methods, resulting in new teaching design. The knowledge representation and knowledge management in E-learning. The professional development platform of teachers provides teachers groups discussion garden spac. Regional motivate advance of technical application Combining the enterprise, school, institute in community level Learning-based society.
Management include different complex knowledge processing. 1.Simple case : Conponent, structure, construct, and problem solving, 2.Dialogue : interaction, understanding, expression, recombinantion. 3.Complex network: All involve complex system.
4. Methodology of knowledge management. The rapid development of social and economic process, on the Internet and its services are becoming increasingly important. These services require knowledge representation and knowledge management in new perspective under the conditions of highly complex world. This can also be extended to complex E- learning system. In complex system, this methodology is still work or not?
New Problem that need to face In a complex world, knowledge representation of information systems that outside the common basic knowledge, reasoning, we have to do action and judgment under the support of limited rational conditions incomplete and fuzzy knowledge. Such as: To consider unconscious, implicit knowledge. related to specific scenes and situation, and the high degree of personalization. It is not formally express, but is embedded knowledge. personality in common, preferences framework.
4.1. Three levels of informationalize. There are three levels of informationalize: 1.The concept levels of informationalize. 2.The technical level of informationalize. 3.There are another anotherlevels of socio- economic information system. Informationalize is not just referring to the technical level, with another two-level around, the meaning and value of that information-based methodology is relatively easy to understand.
The concept levels of informationalize. Using information approach to process problem of education (or broader) areas: that include all the knowledge and teaching (maybe social ) activities. Base on the analysis and synthesis method to construct information model and rationalize, and optimize. For example, first in the concept level : do information analysis to the knowledge and teaching activities in the classroom, found : Easy to obtain class feedback Information is the important ways of optimize teaching effect.
4.1.2.The technical level of informationalize. The key, relatively simple, and easy to implement part of the model, develop technology or hardware to achieve. However, many complex parts, that information technology difficult to achieve, still remain excute by human. That is, ought emphasize the integration of people and technology, or man-machine cooperation. In the former case, training teachers to control technology, do instructional design is very important.
4.2 To free express scene, image, still need natural language, application of the `basic vocabulary and grammatical elements to construct. People with visual organ can accept image information with high efficiency. However, human are lack of the organ of free image expression. To draw the graphic imaginings, need to use symbols, character, language, these basic components to build expression creatively. So, only scenes feel is not enough. The image thinking and logic thinking, right and left brain function are complementary, and both are indispensable. Hidden image need express by language.
analysis and synthesis methodology to distinguish between "coding" and represention of the "elements", or distinguish between digit" and "phase." They are linked, but they are different. The digit" is abstract, and "phase" can be very concrect. Symbolic code point to different content: phase, imagery, semantic representation, mime or unspeakable knowledge.
4. 3. The concept levels of informationalize, including the social dimension of informationalize, whether would result of tech level of informationalize? The difference between man and machine interaction, the distinction between computer interaction. Machine and machine interaction is formalized, or symbolic between text and text, symbols and symbol. People with the computer turn mime knowledge to be symbolic and speakable. Symbolic code point to different content, semantic representation, imaginery, mime knowledge that unspeakable. If the reference is the same, we can understand each other, or it may be similar, and come to the approximate or fuzzy understanding.
Non-formalize symbolic Non-formalize People A --- text version 1___text version person B Complicated interactive must do by the people. Machines is difficult to achieve. But machines can still go ahead. As multimedia, simulation, postures and emotions case. It may never be completed. In Summery, the mothodology work well in the complex case, only the complexity is highly increase.