Presentation on theme: "Productivity Engg & Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Productivity Engg & Management By Engr Dr. Ali SajidSpecial Presentation forPakistan Engineering CouncilLeadership & ManagementDevelopment Associates (LMDA)28 Jan, 2009Tel: (off)
2By Enhancing capacity of Engineers LMDAA vision to makePakistani IndustryMore CompetitiveBy Enhancing capacity of Engineers
3"Don't curse the darkness -- light a candle." Shakwa a Zulmat Shab"Don't curse the darkness -- light a candle."Chinese proverb.
4“The will to win, the desire to succeed, the urge to reach your full potentials are the keys to unlock the doors to the personal excellence” Confucius
5- this was his entire speech. Commencement address by Sir Winston Churchill at a graduation ceremony: "Never give up. Never give up. Never, never, never."- this was his entire speech.
6Good MgmtGood management consists of showing average people how to do the work of superior people."(John D Rockerfeller, , US oil magnate and philanthropist.
7"Difficulty is not an obstacle, it is merely an attribute".
8"The stone age didn't end because they ran out of stones."
9Start viewing the probable as possible Start viewing the probable as possible. You'll be surprised at what you can accomplish.
10All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first thousand days, nor in the life of this administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin. - John F. Kennedy
11The best & most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched. They must be feltwith the heart.
12Self-actualized people are independent of the good opinion of others Self-actualized people are independent of the good opinion of others. - Wayne Dyer
13The greatest discovery of our generation is that a human being can alter his life by altering his attitudes. - William James
14Nature present us with an infinite variety of Attitudes - from gloomy mist to glorious sunshine. Our own moods, whether gloomy or bright, radiate to those around us.
15We may affirm absolutely that nothing great in the world has ever been accomplished without passion. - George Hegel
16Two Parts of Empathy:Skill (tip of iceberg)& Attitude(mass of the iceberg).
17Eighty percent of success is related to ATTITUDE rather than competency.
29Whatever is flexible ….will grow; FlexibilityWhatever is flexible ….will grow;what ever is rigid& blockedwill dieLao Tzu
30Goodness “Goodness is the Only Investment that Never Fails”Henry David
31Proj Mgmt Good Practices "I Praise Loudly.Blame Softly."(Catherine The Great, )
32“Nothing can stop man with “Right Mental Attitude” Attitude in Projects“Nothing can stop man with “Right Mental Attitude”from achieving his goals:Nothing on earthcan help man with“Wrong Mental Attitude”- Thomas Jefferson
33Importance of Ethics in Org In law, a man is guiltywhen he violates theright of another.In Ethics, he is guilty,if only he thinksof doing soImmanuel Kant
34Personal Integrity in Org I look for three things in hiring People.The first is Personal Integrity,Second is IntelligenceThird is a High Energy Level.But if you don’t have the first,other two will kill you.Warren Buffett,CEO Berkshire Hathaway
35Rethinking in Industry The complacent companyis a dead company.Success today requires“The Agility &“Drive to Constantly Rethink,Reinvigorate,React, & Reinvent”.Bill Gates, Chairman Microsoft
36Never to suffer would never to have been blessed. Edgar Allan Poe ( )36
37Although the world is full of suffering, it is full also of the overcoming of it.Helen Keller ( )37
38To do right is wonderful. To Teach others to “Do the Right” is even more wonderful –& much easier. - Mark Twain38
39“Self-pity is our Worst enemy & if we yield to it, we can never do anything wise inthis world”- Helen Keller39
40“Main Means of Influencing” “the only means”. - Albert Einstein “Setting An Example”is not the“Main Means of Influencing”Others, it is“the only means”. - Albert Einstein40
41Education & Training in PM "A person who graduated, yesterday & stops studying todayis uneducated tomorrow."
42CompetitivenessAbility to get customers to choose your product or service over competing alternatives on sustainable basis.
43Competitiveness-“Degree to which a country can, under free & fair market conditions, produce goods & services which meet the test of intl’ markets,while simultaneously maintaining & expanding the real incomes of its people over the long-term“.OECD
44CompetitivenessCompetitiveness ---- continually sustained increases in productivity resulting in higher wages & living standards --- characterized by increasing export market shares.Competitiveness ---- demonstrated by "ability to meet, rest of free intl markets while expanding real income."
45Investment in productive facilities (Factors, R&D, technology) Highstandard of livingTradeProductivity(Quality should exist)Investment in productive facilities(Factors, R&D, technology)Competitiveness PyramidSource: Based on US Council on Competitiveness, 1995.
46Competitiveness depends on Productivity "Standard of living is determined by the productivity of a nation's economy, which is measured by the “Value of goods & services (products) produced per unit of the nation's human, capital &Natural resources".Porter & Christensen, Harvard Business School
47What is Productivity “Ratio between o/p of wealth produced Ratio of output to input by large number of professionals.ILO Definition:“Ratio between o/p of wealth produced& i/p resources used up in process of production”.Comparative tool for mgrs, industrial engrs, economists, & politicians.Contd…
48Operation Management System OutputsProducts, services, &other (pollution)InputsRaw materials, human resources, capital (land, buildings, equipment), technology information.FeedbackProduct/ Service Design & FacilitiesTransformation ProcessControl Processes
49Indicators of Competitiveness Productivity is efficiency with which goods & services are produced & provided.Determined by previous “investments & by quality & performance of workforce, technological innovation, quality of plant & equipment, & effectiveness” with which these factors of production are utilized.
50Definition of Productivity Successful Tech Org create surplus through productive operations.Productivity, is output-input agreement on true meaning of due consideration for “Quality & Time”.Productivity = OutputsInputs(within time period, quality considered)
51Concepts of Productivity Comparison b/w:“Quantity of goods or services produced”& “Quantity of Resources Employed”in turning out these goods or services.Stress is on productivity beingConcern of production function only.
52Relationship b/w output generated by production or service system & input provided to create this output.Efficient use of resources –Labor, capital, land, materials, energy, information –In production of various goods & services.
53Concepts of Productivity “Ratio of o/p to inputs -expanded inputs to include technology besides labor, materials, machine utilization.”Siegel Considers Productivity as:“Class conceivable measure depicting output per unit of associated input in sequence of compared period”.
54Some Recent Attempt to Define Productivity Mali - Rational departure to define productivity as:“Productivity is measure of how well resources are brought together in organizations & utilized for accomplishing set of results.Productivity is reaching higher level of performance with least expenditure of resources”.Further Elaborates as.“Productivity is combination of effectiveness & efficiency” & “ Effectiveness related to performance, efficiency to resource utilization”.
55Some Recent Attempt to Define Productivity Concept of Productivity Must:“Serve as a tool in the hands of mgt to take corrective steps for productivity improvement & also should provide ready reference & comparison of performance with performance objectives of org.”Productivity Perceived as:“Indicator of how well goals or performance objectives or mission have been achieved.”
56Concepts of Productivity Faraday -Productivity as “Ratio of prescribed output to resources”.Ramsay - Productivity as ratio of output to inputs based on concept of value addition.Formal definition of productivity:“Productivity is Optimization (or maximization of economic resources & generation of new resources through creative thinking, research & development, & by use of all possible improvement techniques & methods”.
57Some Recent Attempt to Define Productivity “Productivity is measure of how well resources are brought together in organizations & utilized for accomplishing set of results.Productivity is reaching higher level of performance with least expenditure of resources”.Further Elaborates as.“Productivity is combination of effectiveness & efficiency” & “ Effectiveness related to performance, efficiency to resource utilization”.
58Some Recent Attempt to Define Productivity Concept of Productivity Must:“Serve as a tool in the hands of mgt to take corrective steps for productivity improvement & also should provide ready reference & comparison of performance with performance objectives of org.”Productivity Perceived as:“Indicator of how well goals or performance objectives or mission have been achieved.”
59Term ‘Productivity’ encompassed everything, which concerns an org Term ‘Productivity’ encompassed everything, which concerns an org. Different meaning, definitions, interpretations & concepts emerged as experts working in various fields have looked at it from their own emphasis, perceptions & reference point they have before them.
60Difference b/w Production & Productivity Production is concerned with Activity of Producing goods & or services.Productivity is efficient utilization of resources (inputs) in producing goods or services (outputs).Production is quantity of output produced.Productivity is ratio of output produced in input (s) used.
61Achieving higher output in terms of volume & quality for same input. Higher productivity means accomplishing more with same amount of resourcesorAchieving higher output in terms of volume & quality for same input.
62Evolution of Productivity Concept in Modern Era Frederick Taylor: Father of Scientific MgtMech Engr – invented high speed steel cutting toolsGot opportunity to know:First Hand Problems & Attitude of Workers.“Major Concern”To increase efficiency in production,to lower cost,Raise profits through higher productivity,possible increase in pay.To be Contd.
63“Concept of Economic Man”, - worker is motivated primarily by economic gain & o/p maximized only thru financial incentives.Differential Piece-Rate system, - workers receive higher rate of pay per piece produced after a fix number.
64Taylor’s Message of Productivity Various pay plans based on output for “surplus”.Give People their best opportunity to be productive, reward workers for individual productivity.Increase labor productivity not possible w/o:a) Providing ample reward,b) Adequate training,C) or Managerial help.Careful advance Planning by ManagerManagers to design work systems forworker to do their best.
65Fredrick Concluded: “Low Productivity is matter of ignorance on part of “Labor & Mgt”. Ignorance? “Fair day’s work” & “Fair day pay” Not enough inc in surplus to get more compensation. Productivity enhancement – answer to hi wages/profits.
66Problem faced in LDC is problem not of underdevelopment but rather of under mgt. Actually productivity is most serious challenge confronting mgt. Peter Drucker
67Productivity can be improved: Contd…Productivity can be improved:1. By increasing outputs to with same inputs.2. By decreasing inputs but maintaining same output3. By increasing outputs & decreasing inputs to change ratio favorably.
68Productivity-Manager’s Perspective Use accounting ratios in achieving objectives of general mgt, which is usually interested in productivity measures that enable it to easily assess the present profitability of the company.
69Productivity-Engineer’s Perspective Seek measures of Physical assets & other resources, such as“Production per hr.,man hrs. per unit,material requirements per unit,machine utilization,and space utilization”,but they may fail to relate these to overall productivity.
70Productivity- Behaviorist’s Perspective View productivity of people in organization, in terms of “time they spend at work vs. total time available”.A misleading measure.
71Productivity-Accountant’s Perspective Costing & budgeting approach to productivity.When budget figures, rather than optimum achievable values, are used as standards,Could be a false impression of high productivity.
72Productivity-Economist’s Perspective Partial measures, such as Labor productivity, Primary measures employed by economists.Total Factor & total productivity measures proposed, but again definitions do not agree.
73Misunderstanding about Productivity Myth # 1 Profitability is Measure of Productivity.Profit – Difference of some calculation of output value & some calculation of input costs.Function of several factors:-Status of demand & supply:Value of output:-Value of output can rise because of hi market prices resulting from more aggressive marketing, improved quality of product, influence with buyers.c) Input Costs:-
74Company may raise profit by: Profit is not solely result of increased production efficiency. At expense of the LT objectives, it can be obtained by curtailing:(a) Training / HRD, (b) Maintenance, (c) Advertisement. (d) SHE (e) QWL (f) BMRCompany may raise profit by:(a) Production building monopoly power,(b) Bribing purchasing agents,(c) Hypnotizing consumers,(d) Undermining a union or getting public subsidy. /export rebateConclusion : Profitability can not be equated with productivity.
75When you increase Quality, Myth # 2When you increase Quality,You decrease Productivity as Cost of Input increases.Quality & productivity go hand in handDeming circleQuality is a specific dimension of productivity.A high productivity is not outcome of lowered specifications of products manufactured or services rendered.
77Productivity & Managerial Performance Productivity is a summary measure of the quantity & quality of work performance, with resource utilization considered.It can be measured at the individual, group, or organization level.
79Deming’s Chain Reaction COST DECREASEBECAUSE OF LESSREWORK, FEWERDELAYS, BETTERUSE OF RESOURCESImprove QualityPRODUCTIVITYIMPROVESCAPTURE MOREBUSINESS WITHBETTER QUALITYAND LOWER PRICELess Production COSTJOBS, MORE PROFITSTAY INBUSINESS
80Quality is All Consuming Focus Deming’s Chain ReactionImprovequalityDecreasecostsImproveproductivityDecreasepricesIncreasemarketStay inbusinessProvide jobs& more jobsReturn oninvestmentOrg which seeks to decrease costs, improve productivity, decrease prices, increase market share & increase return on investment - without first building quality into systems – is gambling its long-term survival for short-term advantage.
81Positive Relationship b/w Quality & Productivity Reduced productivity is caused by quality defects, rework, & scrap.“Improvement of quality transfers waste of man hours & of machine time into manufacture of good products & better service”.(Dr. Edward Deming)
82Positive Relationship Between Quality & Productivity Reduced productivity is caused by “Quality Defects, Rework, & Scrap.“Improvement of quality transfers waste of man hours & of machine time into manufacture of good products & better service”.(Dr. Edward Deming)Contd…
83Certain “hidden” & “Non-productive Plant exists to rework & repair defects & returns, & if quality is improved, this hidden plant would be available for increased productivity.Any Quality Improvement that reduces defects - improvement in productivity.Same can be said, for services & for those firms in services businesses. Cost of quality improvement rarely exceeds savings from increased productivity.(Feigenbaum)Contd…
84Myth # 3 Productivity Can Be Judged by Output Output may be rising without increase in productivity e.g. input cost risen, disproportionatelyIncrease in o/p compared with last year should also consider like price hike/inflation.Such an approach is result of being process oriented at the expense of paying attention to final results.
85Productivity is Applied only in Manufacturing & Production alone. Myth # 4Productivity is Applied only in Manufacturing & Production alone.
86Myth # 5 Cost cutting always improves productivity When done in an indiscriminately make matters worse in long runCut on info Tech use, Ban on Training etc.
87Productivity is “Labour Efficiency or Labour Productivity Myth # 6Productivity is “Labour Efficiency or Labour ProductivityFalse assumption - single factor productivity analysis., UK Productivity in Agri Labor :Rose to 60% due to breeding, fertilizers sprays, land & tech (yield/hectare also increased)One Unit of Energy (fertilizer) grew less wheat in 83 than (Surprise)More appropriate yardstick of efficiency is then yield produced for each monetary unit spent.Productivity - much more than labour alone & take into account cost of energy, raw material & concern for unemployment / QWL.
88Myth #7Productivity improvement requires billions of Rs and millions of trained persons.Common senseShort courses/formal train.Top level commitmentPrinciples of TQM
89“Greatest opportunity for increasing productivity is surely to be found in knowledge worker itself, & especially in mgt”.Peter F. Drucker
90Financial & social benefits of productivity improvement strategy should be greater than implementation cost, in long run.
91Definition of Effectiveness & Efficiency Productivity implies effectiveness & efficiency individual & organizational performance.Effectiveness-Achievement of Objective.Efficiency: Achievement of ends“with least amount of resources”.
92Efficiency is concerned with means Effectiveness with ends.
93Efficiency is ratio of actual output attained to standard output expected. ExampleOutput of machine is 120 units perhours while standard rate is 180pieces per hour, machine'sefficiency is 120/180 = or66.67 percent.
94Efficiency Extent of useful output compared to input. Least amount of resources must be used to achieve useful output.Wastage reduction.
95Efficiency -relationship between inputs & outputs and its comparison Efficiency -relationship between inputs & outputs and its comparison . If you get more output for a given input, you have increased efficiency.Managers deal with input resources that are scarce money people, equipment they are concerned with the efficient use of these sources.Mgmt- concerned with minimizing resource costs. (Efficiency).Mgt concerned with getting activities completed- (effectiveness).When managers achieve their org goals- effective.
96Balancing Effectiveness & Efficiency Effectiveness entails promptlyachieving stated objectives.Efficiency enters picture whenresources required to achieve an objectiveare weighed against what was actually accomplished.Mgrs are responsible for balancingeffectiveness & efficiency.Too much emphasis in eitherdirection leads to mismgt.
97Efficiency & Effectiveness Mgt, is concerned with minimizing resource costs w/o chances of failure.Efficiency is “doing things right”.Mgt is also concerned with getting activities completed, so it seeks effectiveness.Effectiveness is:“Doing right things”So efficiency is concerned with means & effectiveness with ends.
98extremely inefficient. It is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Some Production org- reasonably effectivebutextremely inefficient.They get their jobs done, but at a very high cost.
99By doing wrong thing well ! Mgt in Engg Org must be concerned, then not only withGetting activities completed (effectiveness),but also with doing so asEfficiently as possible.Can organizations be efficient & yet not effective?Yes,By doing wrong thing well !
101Effectiveness/Efficiency Peter Drucker Doing things rightEffectivenessDoing the right thing
102Productivity Index = Output Obtained Input expended. = Effectiveness Productivity Index = Output Obtained Input expended = Effectiveness Efficiency Productivity Index= f (Effectiveness) F (Efficiency)Performance achievedResource consumed
103Efficiency & effectiveness are interrelated. It is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency.Federal Govt. in Islamabad are reasonably effective -extremely inefficient jobs done but at a very high cost.
104Major Issues of Productivity in Pakistan Inability to understand the basic concept of productivity.Inability to measure & manage productivity of white collar employees- main reason for PS inefficiencies.
105Major Issues of Productivity in Pakistan Considering productivity enhancing initiative as an additional overhead.Across the board Rewards / benefits disregarding - equivalent in productivity.
106Major Issues of Productivity in Pakistan Diffused and unclear authority under institutional setup & inefficiency in complex organizations, cause delays and time lags.Low labor productivity in Pakistan is causing –”competitive imbalance”.
107Major Issues of Productivity in Pakistan Manufacturing -we are losing competitiveness, due to higher costs of production as customers turn to low cost product.
108Productivity in Pakistan: Issues & Lessons Financial & social benefits of Productivity Improvement Strategy are fargreater than implementation cost in the long run.
109Increasing Productivity can break Vicious Circle of Poverty, Low Productivity & Unemployment
110Low Productivity Trap in Pakistan Low productivity growth (compared with input prices esp. labor and energy).Conditionalities of donors.Lagging capital formation (insufficient capital-labor ratio).Rising prices (domestic and export goods).Rising per unit (labor and energy) costs.Lower utilization of domestic plant capacity.Sluggish sales (in domestic and foreign markets). Unintended inventory in warehouses.
111Low Productivity in Pakistan This vicious cycle of poverty & unemployment can be broken by increased productivity.Increased productivity results in:Optimal use of resources.Better balance between different stakeholders of society.
112Productivity Improvement in Pakistani Environment Productivity improvement will cause direct increase in standard of living.Pakistani GNP can grow without adding more input factors when productivity is improved.Productivity improvement will trigger economic growth.
113Lessons for Pakistani Industry Caterpillar has achieved 27% greater sales, through investments in productivity enhancement of its workforce & technology.
114Difference B/W Production & Productivity Production is concerned with the activity of producing goods and or services.Productivity is efficient utilization of resources (inputs) in producing goods or services (output)Production is the quantity of output produced; productivity is the ratio of the output produced to the input (s) used.Efficiency is the ratio of actual output attained to standard output expected. ExampleOutput of a machine is 120 units per hours while the standard rate is 180 pieces per hour, the machine's efficiency is 120/180 = or percentEffectiveness is the degree of accomplishment of objectives.How well a set of result is accomplished reflects effectiveness, whereas how well the resources are utilized to accomplish the results refers to the efficiency.Productivity is a combination of both effectiveness and efficiency, since effectiveness is related to performance while efficiency is related to resource utilization.
115Rising & improving quality of working life do tend to go hand in hand. Efficient & effective use of resources – labour, capital, land, materials, energy, time, information, etc. in production of goods & services that meet users, needs & requirements.“Productivity is combination of effectiveness & efficiency” while “Effectiveness is related to performance & efficiency to resource utilization”.Rising & improving quality of working life do tend to go hand in hand.
116How can Orgs Improve Their Productivity Productivity is composite of people & operations variables.To improve productivity, mgt needs to focus on both.
117Mississippi State University Productivity does not just happen by “trying harder”. It must be planned.But how do you plan for productivity, & what factors are involved?Frank. E. Cotton, Jr.Mississippi State University
118Task of mgt is to evaluate those factors with have bearing on productivity & take appropriate measures to use effectively.
119Increase Productivity Is Key To Global Competitiveness Japan’s prosperity in 1980s -due to growth in manufacturing productivity.BetweenJapan’s productivity increased - 5.5%U.S productivity gained only 2.8% annually.US firms responded over in 1990s -dramatic improvements.Caterpillar investments in productivity (workforce & its tech) resulted in:Higher customer satisfaction.Increasing market share27% greater salesWith 29% fewer employees.
120Critical Barriers/Problems Affecting Productivity Improvement Application on South Asia Family-controlled industry leading to earning easy money.Some Segments have monopolistic market, some hi competitive one.Erratic inflow of orders.Lack of productivity/quality culture.Shortage of funds & codification are at low level.Automation is not encouraged.Contd…
121Critical Barriers/Problems Affecting Productivity Improvement Application on South Asia Contd… Low priority of marketing & commercial activities, poor after service.Complicated govt. policy, rules & regulations.Inadequate communication facilities, particularly road transport.Energy shortage.Poor working conditions (light, ventilations, safety, housekeeping).Non availability of some basic material & components (to be imported), unreliable suppliers.
122Causes of Productivity Decline in Org Inability to measure, evaluate, & manage productivity of white collar employees. This causes shocking waste of resources.Rewards & benefits given without requiring equivalent in productivity & accountability. This causes spiraling inflation.Diffused authority & inefficiency in complex org, thereby, causing delays & time lags.Org expansion that lowers productivity growth. results in soaring costs.Low motivation among rising number of affluent workers with new attitudes.Late deliveries caused by schedules that have been disrupted by scarce materials.Contd…
123Causes of Productivity Decline in Projects Unresolved human conflicts & difficulties in teamwork, resulting in firm’s ineffectiveness.Increased legislative intrusions or antiquated laws, resulting in constrained mgt options & prerogatives.Specialization in work processes resulting in monotony & boredom.Rapid technological changes & high costs, resulting in decline in new opportunities & innovations.Increasing demand of leisure time causing disruption of time commitments.Practitioner’s inability to keep pace with latest information & knowledge.
124Critical Barriers to Productivity Improvement in any Project Too many hierarchical levels.Poor utilization of old factory & machinery.Skilled worker shortage. Overloaded engineering & design groups.Lack of time for development work.Trade unions adversity to productivity.
125Critical Barriers to Productivity Improvement Inadequate human resource development.Poor industrial relations.High absenteeism.Inefficient materials-handling facilities.Rigid & authoritarian management style.Excessive diversification.Poor documentation of technical problems.High social orientation.
132Time and Motion Study: Defined A method created to determine the ‘correct time’ it takes to complete a certain taskA method to establish ‘the one best way to perform a task’Tine and Motion Study Defined:All of the motions in a job need to be established so a sequence of motions can be determined to ensure that the task is being preformed in the most efficient and effective way.
133Time and Motion Study: Purposes To end ‘goofing off’ and to establish what constituted a fair days workTo make sure that the job being evaluated does not include any unnecessary motion by the worker
134Functions of Time Studies Establish work standards: e.g. recommended times in which tasks should be completed by qualified, trained operators, without excessive fatigue,Set expectations which are fair to both employee and company.Identify sources of error, difficulty, sub-optimality,Improve an existing process, tool, or work environment,
135Functions of Work Standards Establish reasonable productivity targets for experienced workers,Provide productivity goals for training purposes,Eliminate waste,Make processes more consistent,Reduce product variability, improve quality.
136Time and Motion Study: History Frederick W. Taylor and his followers developed and refined the Time StudyFrank B. Gilbreth and his wife Lillian developed and refined the Motion StudyHistorically the two studies are discussed individually, today they generally are discussed as one
137Time and Motion StudyHistorically: T&M Studies were used in the manufacturing industry to evolve pay scales with the thought that money was the only motivation for workThis idea, that people are only motivated by money, has been disproved. Things like job satisfaction and environment are more important to employees than pay.
138Time and Motion Study Today: T&M Studies can be effective for performance evaluationsT&M Studies can be used for planning purposes in order to predict the level of output that may be achievedT&M Studies can be used to uncover problems and create solutionsT&M Studies can be used for time cost analysisThe effective cost of an employee, per unit of time for the task they are primarily responsible for.The allocation of time to various ‘productive’ and ‘non-productive’ tasks.Review of alternatives to make the best use of time.
139Time and Motion Study: Objective The objective of the Time and Motion Study is to determine a ‘normal’ or average time for a job, by using observers to record exactly how much time is being devoted to each task.
140SCOPE ENHANCEMENT In 60s measurement alone found of little use Method Improvement made an integral part of TMSNow called Work StudyComplete step one by analyze the job using methods analysis, this will allow you to be sure the best method is being used.Complete step two by breaking the job down into short tasks with ‘break points’ in between.Complete step three by conducting the actual timing of each job element with the traditional stopwatch attached to a clipboard or a hand held electronic time-study machine.Complete step four by using a performance rating factor of 100 percent. 100 percent reflects a normal work performance, less than 100 percent means a below average performance, greater than 100 percent means better then a normal performance.
141Work Measurement Divided into Two parts Method StudyWork Measurement5. To complete step five a sufficient number of job cycles need to be observed, and then an average time.6. After computations are made for the normal time, the normal cycle time needs to be computed before step 7. This is done by summing the elemental normal times. The directions for finding the rating factor can be found in step 4.7. An allowance factor is inserted into the formula for work delays like mechanical breakdowns, personal delays, and normal fatigue.
142METHOD STUDY Systematic Recording & Critical Examination of existing and proposed processes as a means ofapplying easier and effective methods5. To complete step five a sufficient number of job cycles need to be observed, and then an average time.6. After computations are made for the normal time, the normal cycle time needs to be computed before step 7. This is done by summing the elemental normal times. The directions for finding the rating factor can be found in step 4.7. An allowance factor is inserted into the formula for work delays like mechanical breakdowns, personal delays, and normal fatigue.
143OBJECTS OF METHOD STUDY Improvement of Processes and ProceduresImprovement of Shop-floor layoutEconomy in human effort and reduction in fatigueImprovement in use of machines, material and manpowerDevelopment of better physical environment5. To complete step five a sufficient number of job cycles need to be observed, and then an average time.6. After computations are made for the normal time, the normal cycle time needs to be computed before step 7. This is done by summing the elemental normal times. The directions for finding the rating factor can be found in step 4.7. An allowance factor is inserted into the formula for work delays like mechanical breakdowns, personal delays, and normal fatigue.
144There are two major categories of productivity External (Not controllable)Internal (Controllable)
145External Factors Affecting Enterprise Productivity External factors include government polices and institutional mechanisms: political, social and economic conditions; the business climate; the availability of finance, power water, transport, communications and raw materials. They affect individual enterprise productivity, but the org’s concerned cannot actively control them.
146Internal Factors require different institutions, people, techniques & methods. External Factors – during planning phase.First step towards improving productivity in Services is to identify problem areas.External Factors are internal to govts, regional institutions, associations & pressure groups.Contd…
147Model of Internal Productivity Factors Soft FactorsHard FactorsService or ProductPeoplePlant and EquipmentOrganization and SystemsTechnologyWork MethodsMaterials and EnergyManagement
148Productivity Simple Rule# 1 How can Organizations Improve Their Productivity?Productivity is composite of people & operations variables.To improve productivity, mgt needs to focus on both.