Presentation on theme: "L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Introduction to project management I. What is project management What is project management? Elements of project."— Presentation transcript:
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Introduction to project management I. What is project management What is project management? Elements of project management II. The project management process The project life cycle
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 http://businessbookssales.com/ 076455283X.html Project management is not so difficult
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 I. Project management What is it? It is the planning, scheduling, and controlling of project activities to achieve performance, cost, and time objectives A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service It has a definite beginning and an end The result of a project is a product or service Managing a project means taking control and completing it with the least pain, expense, and casualties
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 The art of directing and coordinating human and material resources throughout the life of a project by using modern management techniques to achieve predetermined objectives of scope, cost, time, quality and participation satisfaction Hendrickson, C. (2003). Project Management for Construction. http:/www.ce.cmu.edu/pmbook/02_Organizing_For_Project_Manage ment.html
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Basic principles They are universal and fundamental to project success A project is a novel undertaking to create a new product or service the delivery of which signals completion Projects are constrained by limited resources They have owners or sponsors They begin when resources are dedicated to its specific goal Early activities include as concept exploration and definition Wideman, M. (2000). First Principles of Project Management http://www.pmforum.org/library/PM1stPrn.pdf
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 TechRepublic.com (2003). The ten commandments of project management
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Elements of project management Basic principles Cost: can be operationalized in many ways Financial cost of the project Management and personnel time Opportunity costs Time Person-hours spent on the project Quality The criteria that will be used to determine success of the project
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Project management responsibilities Integration management Processes required to ensure that elements of the project are properly coordinated Consists of project plan development, project plan execution, and overall change control Scope management Processes required to ensure that all the work required, and only the work required, is included to complete the project successfully Consists of initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change control The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). IEEE Std 1490-1998. http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/pmbok.html
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Time management The processes required to ensure the project is completed in a timely way Consists of activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, schedule development, and schedule control Cost management The processes required to ensure the project is completed within the approved budget Consists of resource planning, cost estimating, cost budgeting, and cost control
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Quality management The processes required to ensure that the project satisfies the needs for which it was undertaken Consists of quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control Human resource management The processes required to most effectively use the people involved in the project Consists of organizational planning, staff acquisition, and team development
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Communications management The processes required to timely and appropriately generate, collect, disseminate, store, and ultimately dispose of project information Consists of communications planning, information distribution, performance reporting, and administrative closure Risk management The processes concerned with identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risk Consists of risk identification, risk quantification, risk response development, and risk response control
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Procurement management The processes required to acquire goods and services from outside the organization Requires good relations with companies and individuals in the supply chain It consists of procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout Requires clear understanding of costs and timing (how quickly goods and services can be delivered) Requires common understanding of quality control issues
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Basic definitions Project success depends on the team sharing an understanding of these concepts Product or service scope Loosely referred to as scope In a narrower sense this describes the projects product or service deliverables Scope of work Describes the work involved in the design, fabrication and assembly of the components of a projects deliverable into a working product or service Product or service The object being built or service being delivered
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Basic definitions Quality The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs Quality grade A particular attribute of a product or service meeting all minimum project requirements The product or service may be delivered according to a class ranging from utility (purely functional) to world class This is a multi-dimensional construct best expressed at the beginning of a project
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Basic definitions Quality grade It should use measurable criteria Meeting key objectives of the project such as the business objectives of the sponsor Meeting benchmarks on time and on budget Eliciting satisfaction from client with the project management process The deliverable is complete, up to standard, is on time and within budget Reflecting general acceptance and satisfaction with the project s deliverables on the part of the project s customer and the majority of the project s community
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Basic definitions Success The measure of success (process and product) must be defined at the beginning of the project This becomes a basis for project management decision making and post-project evaluation Success needs to be defined in terms of Deliverables: scope, quality, relevance, effectiveness Process: time, benchmarks, cost, efficiency Audience: Howe the client and the users react The timing of the measurement of success itself should be specified
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Assumptions of project management These apply to the project team Everyone is working towards the same or similar goals, whatever those might be Everyone is being honest and accepts accountability An appropriate level of skill or experience is available as needed Everyone wants the project to succeed Everyone agrees to the objectives and accepts the benchmarks Everyone is clear and agrees on who the customer is
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 More assumptions Commitment There is an equitable commitment between the client and the project team The team is responsible for developing appropriate strategies, plans and controls for applying the necessary skills and work to carry out the project Equitable commitment means that both parties understand the project They know the processes and risks involved and willingly undertake the challenge The client must understand that even with appropriate management controls in place, that risks are shared
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Introduction to project management I. What is project management what is project management? Elements of project management II. The project management process The project life cycle
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 II.The project management process The project life cycle This aids in maintaining control Initiating phase Meeting client and determining overview of the project Negotiating the basic terms of the contract Gathering the project team Planning phase Begins with project definition Develop a mission statement for the project Delegate team roles
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 The project life cycle Executing phase The design, testing and building of the project Involves complex team activities Issue: how and when to involve users and clients Controlling phase Project roll-out Live testing and feedback Change, if necessary Maintenance and change management Closing phase
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Danish Leadership Institute. (2004). Project Management Services http://www.dieu.com/project_ management/pm-services.asp
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 http://www.amadeus.co.uk/images/diagrams/projectmanagement.gif Another view of the project life cycle
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 http://www.broadcast.ie/images/project_management_process1.jpg And another view
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Initiation phase Initial meetings with the client to discuss the project Selling is going on on both sides Your goal:to understand what the client wants You want to help the client clearly understand the project that you can deliver There will be negotiations covering the major project components This typically include design and process features, costs, resources, personnel, and timelines May also include negotiating access to people and documents for research
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Initiation phase Projects should be organized around a business model It specifies the financial and business process implications of a project IT project teams focus on underlying IT issues The project manager predicts business outcomes of the project for the client These have a significant impact on the success or failure of a project There are business questions that should be considered by every project manager early in a project The project work plan should address these questions or assert that they are not relevant to the project
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Initiation phase Are direct costs associated with this project? These include hardware, software, supplies, personnel costs, and contract services Separate one-time costs from ongoing or permanent costs as an outcome of the project Are indirect costs associated with this project? Added workload to staff, long term infrastructure changes or investment, changes to business procedures, and organizational change Difficult to define in terms of quantity or duration Try to define the lower and upper limits
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Initiation phase Does the project result in a product or service to be cost recovered from groups or departments? One-time reimbursement, fees for service (monthly or per use charges) factored into cost recovery Are there potential savings as a result of this project ? If not, err on the side of caution and don t make representations that might mislead a decision maker A successful project may improve quality or efficiency but not reduce costs or result in added cost Calculate net savings after taking into account new costs to present an accurate picture to clients MIT Information Systems. (2002). Project business models http://web.mit.edu/pm/busmods.html
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Planning phase Strategy A strategy provides a focused set of sequential and progressive phases Project work should be planned and then executed The project life cycle has a series of phased milestones It sets benchmarks through which the project passes following completion of milestones and determines when the project is finished It can be expanded to suit the control requirements of all types of projects in all areas of project management
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Planning phase Project definition Setting business, marketing and technical objectives What will this project do? Specific and attainable outcomes that can be achieved in a specific time frame Clear objectives provide guidelines for the team They are measured empirically and are a basis for accountability Important: how will you know objectives are met? There should always be evidence that an objective has been achieved
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 It is important to have an agreed-upon definition of success http://www.celoxis.com/html/articles/pmmm.jpg
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Planning phase Defining scope Set initial scope of the project with the client Do the work up front to set the boundaries Remember that scope, time, and cost are linked Change one and affect the other two Problem: clients think that making changes is a simple matter of changing markup What is the client's budget? What types of look, features, and services does the client want on the site or service? When does it have to go live?
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Planning phase Outlining the work flow What is the timeline for the project? What are the major benchmarks and when should they be achieved? Clarify the interdependencies among team members Ensure that everyone knows what is expected of them Develop a realistic budget Account for development, personnel, and unforeseen costs
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Executing phase Developing a budget Budget categories come from work breakdown structure Each category is a line item You estimate the cost of each line item Make the assumptions explicit Content from client must be in a specific format Client has a specified amount of time to approve benchmarks and interim deliverables Designer will deliver a specified number of prototypes for initial approval Client will provide market research information
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Executing phase Try to account for hidden costs Getting the team together for meetings Conference calls Research while developing IA Developing supporting documentation Email and administration Setting up the development site This could be an administrative line item that builds in a 10% cushion
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Executing phase Do the research Understand the organization What does the existing system do? What do the key stakeholders want to see in a new system? Understand the information infrastructure What is in place and how well is it working? Understand the intended audience Identify users Who are the audiences for the site?
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Executing phase Stating objectives What is the scope of the assignment? The objectives Business and marketing objectives of the project? What are the short and long term objectives? The target audience What are the demographics, psychographics; buying and usage habits; values, attitudes and lifestyles? Personality What is the tone and manner; what are the overall personality traits the project must communicate?
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Executing phase Understanding the audience Research will be necessary in order to identify the range of people who will use the site or service Understanding who these people are is necessary in order to determine if objectives have been met Take advantage of existing market research Build some market research into the budget Conduct focus groups The process is similar for intranet audiences They may vary by department or functional unit
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Executing phase Current mind set What is the audiences perception of the company or organization What does the target audience think about the brand, its products and services? Selling proposition What is the companys key value proposition? How is this be translated into features of the web site? Key target audience insight What is the most compelling thing we want the target audience to think after they experience the project?
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Executing phase Work breakdown structure is based on mission statement Objective# Objective# Design site Develop navigation Task Develop site architecture Content list Subtask Draw wireframe Create scheme Subtask Client approval IA approval Subtask Develop prototypes Implement scheme The team helps break down tasks and estimate time There are also the generic tasks IA, site design, navigation development, programming, creation of content, prototyping, testing
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Chapman, J. (1997). Work breakdown Structure. http://www.hyperthot.com/ pm_wbs.htm An example of a generic work breakdown structure
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 An example of a specific work breakdown structure St. Norbert College (2003). Project Management http://www.snc.edu/socsci/ chair/333/numbers.html
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 http://www.spottydog.u-net.com/images/wbs.jpg Another example of a specific work breakdown structure
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Execution phase The team needs to understand: Project scope What is the scope of the assignment? Project objectives What are the business and marketing objectives? What are the design and development objectives? Short and long-term? Team responsibilities and timeline Who does what and when must it be done? How will we know when it s done to team standards? http://www.graphicsbydave.com/
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Execution phase The team also needs to know: The target audience What are their demographics and psychographics, values, attitudes and lifestyles? What are their buying and usage habits? Personality What is the tone, look, and feel of the project? What overall personality traits must be communicated? Key target audience insight What is the most compelling thing we want the target to think after they experience the project?
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 http://www.goldfarbconsultants.com/Data/images/psychographic.jpg Findings of a psychographic analysis
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 http://www.1000ventures.com/design_elements/selfmade/customers_ psychographics_6x4.png Another psychographic analysis
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Implementation phase The final stage involves rolling out the live project During the initial rollout, the team should be monitoring the site and working with the client to gather data This is a phase of live testing and feedback There will be changes if necessary The client should be provided with a clear plan for maintenance and updating Should include change management to accommodate organizational work flow and personnel Data should be gathered to measure success according to criteria specified in the project charter document
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Trade-off Four core variables of the project management process: Product scope Quality grade Time-to-produce Total cost-at-completion These must mutually consistent and attainable They are measures of internal project management efficiency If the variables are not mutually consistent and attainable, the commitment is neither equitable nor are key success criteria likely to be met http://www.wayhome.com/images/graphics/proj _mng.jpg
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/s/j/sjm256/portfolio/kbase/IDD/Corpor ate/ProjMgmnt&ISD-cmap.jpg One view of the project management process
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Another view of the project management process http://www.logisticoutsourcing.com/software/images/ project-management.gif
L577: Design of Information Systems Fall 06 Another view of the project management process Business competencies used Perceived technical competencies used Relationship competencies used IT project implementation success Haggerty, N. (2000). Understanding the link between IT project manager skills and project success research in progress. 192-195.
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