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DIFFICULT AIRWAY ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT BY DR AZHAR.

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Presentation on theme: "DIFFICULT AIRWAY ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT BY DR AZHAR."— Presentation transcript:

1 DIFFICULT AIRWAY ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT BY DR AZHAR

2 DEFFINATION American society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) suggested that when sign of inadequate ventilation could not be reversed by mask ventilation or oxygen saturation could not be maintained above 90% or if a trained Anaesthetist usinig conventional larangoscope takes more than 3 attempts or if a trained Anaesthetist usinig conventional larangoscope takes more than 3 attempts or more than 10 minute are required to complete tracheal intubation

3 Anatomy of oropharynex and larynx

4 PREVALENCE Fact of the matter is even with proper evaluation only 15 to 50 % were picked up while difficult face mask ventilation in general is about 1:10,000 out of which again 15% proved to be the difficult intubation,while incidence of extreme difficult or abandons intubation in general surgery patients are 1:2000 but in obstetrics is 1:300 and of course most critical incidence is Hypoxia

5 BASIC AIRWAY EVALUATION 1. Previous anaesthetic problems and general appearance of the patient. 2. Neck, face, maxilla and mandible with jaw movements. 3. Head extension and movements, teeth, oropharanx and soft tissue of the neck.

6 Why does it happens ? 1. Exaggerated idea of personal ability. 2. Not requesting for experienced help. 3. No discussion with colleagues about proposed management of the case. 4. Ill conceived plan (A) with no proper back up plan (B). 5. Even poorly conducted plan (A) or sticking extra time to the plan (A) other way delaying the rescue plan late. 6. Last not the least not involving surgical friends.

7 CAUSES OF DIFFICULT INTUBATION Anaesthetist 1. Inadequate preoperative assessment. 2. Inadequate equipments. 3. Experience not enough. 4. Poor technique. 5. Malfunctioning of equipment. 6. Inexperience assistanance Patient 1. Congenital causes 2. Acquired causes

8 Anatomical factors affecting Larangoscopy 1. Short Neck. 2. Protruding incisor teeth. 3. Long high arched palate. 4. Poor mobility of neck. 5. Increase in either anterior depth or Posterior depth of the mandible decrease in Atlanto Occipital distance that's why role of Radiology has increased in our specialty

9 ASSESSMENT OF AIRWAY Mallampati classification with larangoscopic view. Patils Test

10 Measurement of Atlanto-Occepital Angle

11 MANAGEMENT PLAN OF ANTICEPATED DIFFICULT AIRWAY 1. Discussion with colleagues in advance. 2. Equipment tested before. 3. Senior help backup. 4. Definite initial plan (A) for ventilation and intubation. 5. Definite plan (B) than option of awake intubation. 6. Ideal situation surgery team standby.

12 UNEXPECTED DIFFICULT AIRWAY Problems 1. Unexpected encounter with difficult airway is mostly gone worse because mainly GA is already given including (NMB,S). 2. Equipment may not be in hand. 3. Senior and back up plan not available so delay occur in active resuscitation TECHNIQUE OF MANAGEMENT 1. Manipulation of the patients airway. 2. Laryngeal pressure. 3. Nasal or oral airway. 4. Different blades of larangoscope like Miller, Magill, Robershaw, Mackintosh and relatively new laryngoscope McCoy. 5. Bougies and stylet 6. LMA. 7. Combitube.

13 1 alternative 2 alternative 3 alternative 4 alternative 1 Manipulation of airway different blade, bugie 2 LMA, ILMA, Combitube 3 Trantracheal Jet Ventilation 4 Cricothireotomy, Tracheostomy

14 GALLERY OF TOOLS

15 Bullard laryngoscope Fiber optic

16 Mini Tracheostomy

17 Mini Tracheostomy (Cont.)

18 BLIND NASAL, RETROGRADE AND HIGH FREQUENCY VENTILATION

19 Awake Intubation

20 ASA ALLOGORYTHAM

21 ASA ALLGORYTHAM

22 C-SPINE OA

23 THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION FOR YOUR ATTENTION


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