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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Longenecker Moore Petty Palich © 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 18 Professional Management in the Entrepreneurial Firm Managing Growth in the Small Business Part 5
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–2 Looking AHEAD 1.Discuss the entrepreneurs leadership role. 2.Explain the distinctive features of small firm management. 3.Identify the managerial tasks of entrepreneurs. 4.Describe the problem of time pressure and suggest solutions. 5.Explain the various types of outside management assistance. After you have read this chapter, you should be able to:
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–3 Entrepreneurial Leadership What is Leadership? Involves pointing the way: creating and communicating the entrepreneurs vision of the firm Varies in a business as it grows larger and more mature. Leadership Qualities of Founders A tolerance for ambiguity A capacity for adaptation
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–4 Entrepreneurial Leadership (contd) What Makes an Effective Leader? One who is focused intently on attaining the firms business goals. One who creates a significant personal relationship with employees based on loyalty and respect. One who directly influences employees understanding of how the firm operates (e.g., its ethics). One who makes the firm attractive to new employees.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–5 Entrepreneurial Leadership (contd) Leadership Styles 1. Coercive leaders demand immediate compliance. 2. Authoritative leaders mobilize people toward a vision. 3. Affiliative leaders create emotional bonds. 4. Democratic leaders build consensus. 5. Pacesetting leaders set high standards and expect excellence. 6. Coaching leaders develop people.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–6 Entrepreneurial Leadership (contd) Leadership That Builds Enthusiasm Empowerment Giving employees authority to make decisions or take actions on their own Work teams Groups of self-managed employees with the freedom to function without close supervision Benefits Workers are more satisfied with their working environment. Productivity and profitability are enhanced.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–7 Steps to a Positive Attitude Recognize accomplishments at the end of each day. 2.At the close of business, take time to set goals for the next day. 3.Take care of yourself. 4.Spend time with friends who are upbeat. 5.Imagine your way to success. 6.Use thoughts of failure as a signal to turn your attention back to achievement. Source: Adapted from Romanus Wolter, A Brand New Day, Entrepreneur, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2005), pp. 134–135.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–8 Distinctive Characteristics of Small Firm Management Professional-Level Management Managerial Weakness Management of Small Firms Resource Constraints Firm Growth and Managerial Practices Founders as Managers
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–9 Organizational Stages of Small Business Growth 18-2
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–10 Stages in Firm Growth and Management Growth StageEntrepreneurs Workload Stage 1. One-Person OperationDoing all of the work. Making contact with customers. Stage 2. Player-CoachContinuing to do some of the basic work, although learning to hire and supervise. Stage 3. Intermediate SupervisionRising above hands-on management; working through intermediate managers. Stage 4. Formal OrganizationUsing plans and budgets; following policies and procedures.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–11 Managing Versus Doing STAGE 1STAGE 2STAGE 3STAGE 4 One-Person Operation Player-Coach Intermediate Supervision Formal Organization Time spent managing Time spent doing
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–12 Managerial Tasks of Entrepreneurs Creating an Organizational Structure Controlling Operations Planning Activities Leading and Delegating Entrepreneurial Management
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–13 Planning Activities The Benefits of Formal Planning Improved productivity Better focus on goal attainment Increased credibility with stakeholders Planning Time Tyranny of the urgent Planning requires discipline Planning should not be postponed Employee Participation Employees are an excellent planning resource
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–14 Planning Activities: Types of Plans Type of PlanPurpose Long-range plan (strategic plan) A firms overall plan for the future Short-range planA plan that governs a firms operations for one year or less BudgetA document that expresses future plans in monetary terms Business policiesBasic statements that provide guidance for managerial decision making ProceduresSpecific work methods to be followed in business activities Standard operating proceduresAn established method of conducting a business activity
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–15 Creating an Organizational Structure The Unplanned Structure Structure evolves as the firm evolves. Growth creates the need for structural change. Chain of Command The official, vertical channel of communication in an organization A channel for two-way communication Span of Control The number of subordinates supervised by one manager
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–16 Creating Organizational Structure (contd) Line Organization A simple organization in which each person reports to one supervisor Line and Staff Organization An organizational structure that includes staff specialists who assist management Line activities Activities contributing directly to the primary objectives of the firm Staff activities Activities that support line activities
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–17 Line-and-Staff Organization 18-3
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–18 Factors Determining Optimum Span of Control Many Subordinates Simple work Very experienced workers Superior with much ability Few Subordinates Complex work Inexperienced workers Superior with limited ability More Subordinates Moderately difficult work Moderately experienced workers Superior with moderate ability
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–19 Creating Organizational Structure (contd) Understanding Informal Groups Have something in common. Have an informal leadership hierarchy. Are beneficial if group goals are aligned with organizational goals.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–20 Delegating Authority Delegation of Authority Granting to a subordinate the right to act or make decisions Benefits of delegation Frees up superior to perform more important tasks Develops subordinates skills Improves two-way communications
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–21 Measuring Performance Controlling Operations Establishing standards Planning and Goal Setting Taking Corrective Action
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–22 Stages of the Control Process 18-4
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–23 Communicating Stimulating Two-Way Communication Conduct periodic performance review sessions to get employee feedback. Use bulletin boards to keep employees informed. Use suggestion boxes to solicit employees ideas. Hold staff meetings to discuss issues and problems. Hold informal meetings with employees to socialize and talk.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–24 Negotiating Negotiation Two-way communication used to resolve differences in needs, goals, or ideas. Win-lose negotiations One party must win and the other party must lose. Win-win negotiations Both parties find a solution that satisfies both parties basic interests. End result of negotiations promotes long-term continuing relationships.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–25 Presentation Tips Do your homework. 2.Know your material spot on. 3.Be interactive. 4.Make vivid mental connections in the minds of listeners. 5.Emphasize relevance. 6.Be dynamic, but be yourself. 7.Use PowerPoint with care. 8.Dress appropriately. 9.Avoid food and drink that make speaking difficult for you. 10.Practice, practice, practice. Sources: Adapted from Naomi Rockler-Gladen, Fear of Public Speaking, January 12, 2007, article.cfm/fear_of_public_speaking, accessed March 15, 2007; Presentation Tips for Public Speaking, A Research Guide for Students, accessed March 15, 2007; and Kimberly L. McCall, All That Jazz, Entrepreneur, Vol. 34, No. 1 (March 2006), p. 36.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–26 Personal Time Management The Problem of Time Pressure Many owner-managers work hours per week. Effect of overwork is inefficient work performance. Time Savers for Busy Managers Effective use of time (time management) Analyze how time is normally spent Eliminate practices that waste time Carefully plan available time Use a daily planner to prioritize activities Dont avoid unpleasant or difficult tasks Limit conference and meeting times
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–27 Outside Management Assistance The Need for Outside Assistance To supplement entrepreneurs personal knowledge and experience. To provide opportunities to share ideas with peers. To reduce feelings of loneliness and working in isolation. To have access to outsiders detached, objective viewpoints, insights and ideas. To gain fresh knowledge of methods, approaches, and solutions beyond the experience of the entrepreneur.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–28 Outside Management Assistance Business Incubators Student Consulting Teams Service Corps of Retired Executives (SCORE) Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) Management Consultants Entrepreneurial Networks Other Business and Professional Services Source of Outside Management Assistance
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–29 Services Provided by Business Incubators to New Firms 18-6
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.18–30 Key TERMS empowerment work teams professional manager long-range plan (strategic plan) short-range plan budget chain of command line organization line-and-staff organization span of control delegation of authority negotiation Service Corps of Retired Executives (SCORE) small business development centers (SBDCs) networking
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