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Working Capital Management

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Presentation on theme: "Working Capital Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Working Capital Management
Chapter 10

2 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Firms hold cash balances in checking accounts. Why? Transaction motive: Firms maintain cash balances to conduct normal business transactions. For example, Payroll must be met Supplies and inventory purchases must be paid Trade discounts should be taken if financially attractive Other day-to-day expenses of being in business must be met

3 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Precautionary motive: Firms maintain cash balances to meet precautionary liquidity needs. Two major categories of liquidity needs: To bridge the gaps between cash inflow and cash outflow Recall Chapter 8: to predict these gaps, construct a detailed cash budget To meet unexpected emergencies

4 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Speculative motive: Firms maintain cash balances in order to “speculate” – that is, to take advantage of unanticipated business opportunities that may come along from time to time. The nature of these opportunities may vary.

5 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Firms using bank debt are required to maintain a compensating balance with the bank from which they have borrowed the money. Compensating balance: when a bank makes a loan to a firm, the bank requires this minimum balance in a non-interest-earning checking account equal to a specified percentage of the amount borrowed Common arrangement is a compensating balance equal to 5-10% of amount of loan Bankers maintain that existence of compensating balance prevents firms from overextending cash flow position because it forces them to maintain a reasonable minimum cash balance.

6 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Compensating balance raises effective interest rate on loan. Numerical example: Bank charges 14% interest on $250,000 loan but requires $25,000 compensating balance. Loan amount available to borrowers is $225,000 ($250,000 - $25,000), but interest is charged on $250,000. Monthly interest payment rate: 1.167% (14%/12 months) Monthly interest cost: $2, ( x $250,000) Effective monthly interest rate: 1.297% ($2,917.50/$225,000) Annual percentage rate: 15.56% (1.297 x 12 months)

7 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Marketable securities: short-term, high-quality debt instruments that can be easily converted into cash. In order of priority, three primary criteria for selecting appropriate marketable securities to meet firm’s anticipated short-term cash needs (particularly those arising from precautionary and speculative motives): Safety Liquidity Yield

8 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Safety Implies that there is negligible risk of default of securities purchases Implies that marketable securities will not be subject to excessive market fluctuations due to fluctuations in interest rates

9 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Liquidity Requires that marketable securities can be sold quickly and easily with no loss in principal value due to inability to readily locate purchaser for securities Yield Requires that the highest possible yield be earned and is consistent with safety and liquidity criteria Least important of three in structuring marketable securities portfolio

10 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Safety, liquidity, and yield criteria severely restricts range of securities acceptable as marketable securities. Most major corporations meet marketable securities needs with U.S. Treasury bills or with corporate commercial paper carrying highest credit rating. These securities are short-term, highly liquid, and have reasonably high yields. Treasury bills are default-risk free. High-quality commercial paper carries miniscule default risk. Firms that have sought to achieve higher potential yields via money market funds invested in asset-backed securities have learned that those higher potential yields carried higher risk.

11 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Improving Cash Flow Actions firm may take to improve cash flow pattern: Attempt to synchronize cash inflows and cash outflows Common among large corporations E.g. Firm bills customers on regular schedule throughout month and also pays its own bills according to a regular monthly schedule. This enables firm to match cash receipts with cash disbursements.

12 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Improving Cash Flow Expedite check-clearing process, slow disbursements of cash, and maximize use of “float” in corporate checking accounts Three developments in financial services industry have changed nature of cash management process for corporate treasurers

13 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Improving Cash Flow Impact of electronic funds transfer systems (EFTS) and online banking Includes so-called “remote capture” technology for quickly depositing checks without visiting a bank branch Radically reduced amount of time necessary to turn customer’s check into available cash balance on corporate books Sharply reduced amount of float available, as corporation’s own checks clear more rapidly

14 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Improving Cash Flow Expanded use of money market mutual funds (as substitute for conventional checking accounts) Funds sell shares at constant price of $1.00 per share Proceeds of sales are invested in short-term money market instruments Interest earned is credited daily Fluctuations in market values are credited/debited daily Since large funds hold broadly diversified portfolio of short-term securities, market-value fluctuations of overall portfolio are normally small relative to interest earned Checks written against money market funds continue to earn interest until check clears fund. Available float is continually earning interest for account.

15 Management of Cash and Marketable Securities
Improving Cash Flow Growth in cash management services offered by commercial banks These systems efficiently handle firm’s cash management needs at very competitive price.

16 Accounts Receivable Management
Accounts receivable management requires balance between cost of extending credit and benefit received from extending credit. No universal optimization model to determine credit policy for all firms since each firm has unique operating characteristics that affect its credit policy. However, there are numerous general techniques for credit management.

17 Accounts Receivable Management
Industry conditions Manufacturing firms and wholesalers generally extend credit terms Retailers commonly extend consumer credit, either through store-sponsored charge plan or acceptance of external credits cards Small retailers cannot afford cost of maintaining credit department and thus do not offer store-sponsored charge plans

18 Accounts Receivable Management
“Five Cs” of credit analysis” used to decide whether or not to extend credit to particular customer: Character: moral integrity of credit applicant and whether borrower is likely to give his/her best efforts to honoring credit obligation Capacity: whether borrowing form has financial capacity to meet required account payments Capital: general financial condition of firm as judged by analysis of financial statements Collateral: existence of assets (i.e. inventory, accounts receivable) that may be pledged by borrowing firm as security for credit extended Conditions: operating and financial condition of firm

19 Accounts Receivable Management
Commercial credit services National credit services (e.g. Dun and Bradstreet) provide credit reports on potential new accounts that summarize firm’s financial condition, past history, and other key business information Local credit associations

20 Accounts Receivable Management
Three types of cost: Financing accounts receivable Offering discounts Bad-debt losses Must analyze relationship of these costs to profitability Marginal cost of credit must be compared to expected marginal profit resulting from credit terms

21 Accounts Receivable Management
Example Credit Policy A (see Exhibit 10.1) Credit terms: 2/10, net 60 Average collection period: 50 days Expected sales: $75,000,000 Income after tax: $8,700,000 Return on sales: 11.6% Return on investment: 17.3% Return on equity: 34.4%

22 Accounts Receivable Management
Example (continued) Credit Policy B (see Exhibit 10.2) – preferable to Policy A Tighter collection policy and shorter payment terms: 2/10, net 30 Lower expected sales: $70,000,000 Higher quality of accounts receivable and reduced bad-debt losses Reduced interest expense since lower level of financing for accounts receivable Reduced operating expenses: 15.7%  15.2% Increased return on sales: 11.9% Increased return on investment: 19.0% Increased return on equity: 37.3%

23 Accounts Receivable Management
Supervising collection of accounts receivable Requires close monitoring of average collection period and aging schedule Aging schedule groups accounts by age and then identified quantity of past due accounts Credit manager must develop some skills of diplomacy: balance need to collect account with need to maintain customer goodwill (unless all efforts fail and account cannot pay)

24 Inventory Management Cost of maintaining inventory:
Carrying costs: all costs associated with carrying inventory Storage, handling, loss in value due to obsolescence and physical deterioration, taxes, insurance, financing Ordering costs: Cost of placing orders for new inventory (fixed cost: same dollar amount regardless of quantity ordered) Cost of shipping and receiving new inventory (variable cost: increase with increases in quantity ordered)

25 Inventory Management Total inventory maintenance costs (carrying costs plus ordering costs) vary inversely. Carrying costs increase with increases in average inventory levels and therefore argue in favor of low levels of inventory in order to hold these costs down. Ordering costs decrease with increases in average inventory levels and therefore firm wants to carry high levels of inventory so that it does not have to reorder inventory as often as it would if it carried low levels of inventory.

26 Inventory Management Economic order quantity (EOQ) model: mathematical model designed to determine optimal level of average inventory that firm should maintain to minimize sum of carrying costs and ordering costs (total cost inventory maintenance cost) Explains inventory control problem EOQ = √2FS/CP

27 Inventory Management See Exhibit 10.3
EOQ model determines equation of total cost curve. Minimum point indicates optimal average inventory. Optimal average inventory level dictates how much inventory should be ordered on each order to maintain average inventory level.

28 Inventory Management Basic EOQ model assumes that inventory is used up uniformly and that there are no delivery lags (inventory is delivered instantaneously). Thus, two modifications: Establish reorder point that allows for delivery lead times. Ex. If 2,700 units are ordered every 3 months and normal delivery time is one month after order is placed, then EOQ should be ordered when on-hand amount drops to 900 units. Add quantity of safety stock to base average inventory that allows for uncertainty of estimates used in model and possibility of non-uniform usage. This added quantity is dependent on degree of uncertainty of demand, cost of stockouts, level of carrying costs, and probability of shipping delays Ex. Adequate level of safety stock is 500 units. Reorder point would be increased to 1,400 units ( ) and new order would be placed each time on-hand quantity reached 1,400.

29 Inventory Management Example: Widget Wholesalers, Inc.
Widgets sold per year: 240,000 Cost price per widget: $2 Inventory carrying costs: 20% of average inventory level Fixed cost of ordering: $30 per order Solve EOQ = √(2FS/CP) EOQ = √(2)($30)(240,000)/(0.20)($2) Widget should order 6,000 units per order. If Widget allows ten-day supply as safety stock, then reorder point would be at 6,575 units (10 days divided by 365 days times 240,000) At 6,000 units per order, Widget would place forty orders per year (240,000/6,000)

30 Inventory Management EOQ model can be applied to current asset management. EOQ can also be used to manage other types of “inventories,” such as cash and accounts receivable. Cost of maintaining these assets can be divided into “ordering” and “carrying” costs, and optimal assets levels can be determined.

31 Sources of Short-term Financing
Three major sources of short-term financing: Trade credit (accounts payable) Commercial bank loans Commercial paper

32 Sources of Short-term Financing
Trade credit (“spontaneous financing”): form of “free” financing in the sense that no explicit interest rate is charged on outstanding accounts payable Accounts payable arise spontaneously during normal course of business Commercial firms buy inventory and supplies in open account from their suppliers on whatever credit terms are available rather than cash payments. Two costs associated with trade credit: Cost of missed discounts Cost of financing outstanding accounts receivable (firm offers trade credit) increases cost of doing business over what it would be if firm sold on cash terms only.

33 Sources of Short-term Financing
Commercial bank loans Employed to finance inventory and accounts receivable Used as source of funds to enable firm to take discounts on accounts payable when cost of missed discounts exceeds interest cost of bank debt

34 Sources of Short-term Financing
Commercial bank loans (continued) Two possible structures: Note for a fixed period of time At end of note term (maturity date), face amount of note must be repaid or note must be renewed (“rolled over”). Bank and borrower may enter into formal/informal agreement to renew note at maturity at specified rate, which is tied to prime interest rate (rate charged to bank’s best corporate customers). Ex. Interest rate at prime plus some percentage over prime: “prime plus 2%” Size of premium above interest rate is determined by bank’s assessment of risk involved in making loan Higher risk, higher premium As prime rate changes, bank’s cost of obtaining funds changes, so requiring firm to roll over its notes allows bank to change interest rate on note.

35 Sources of Short-term Financing
2. Commercial bank loans (continued) Two possible structures Line of credit (“revolver”) Bank establishes upper limit on amount firm may borrow and firm draws whatever money it needs against credit line up to maximum. Interest rate may be fixed or float with prime or LIBOR rate. Interest is charged only on amount actually borrowed, not total amount available.

36 Sources of Short-term Financing
2. Commercial bank loans (continued) Unsecured loan: “full faith and credit” obligation of borrowing firm No specific assets are pledged as collateral for loan, but bank has general claim against firm’s assets if firm defaults on loan Secured loan: firm pledges specific asset as collateral for loan (i.e. accounts receivable, inventory) If firm defaults on loan, asset may be seized by bank and liquidated to satisfy loan balance Any excess bank receives above amount of principal and interest due on loan must be returned to borrower

37 Sources of Short-term Financing
3. Commercial paper (recall Chapter 9): short-term corporate IOU that is sold in large dollar amounts through commercial paper dealers Sold by large corporations Usually purchased by other corporations (as an outlet for marketable securities) or by financial institutions (i.e. banks, money market mutual funds) Not available means of financing for small business organizations

38 Sources of Short-term Financing
Financing Accounts Receivable Accounts receivable: used as collateral for short-term loans Three methods of accounts receivable financing: Pledging Assigning Factoring

39 Sources of Short-term Financing
Financing Accounts Receivable Pledging Bank or other lender makes loan of some percentage of value of receivables but does not take possession of them Receivables merely serve as collateral in the event of default If loan is not paid on time, bank has right to take possession of receivables and collect amount necessary to satisfy loan principal and interest due Any excess money collected above amount owed must be returned to borrower Banks commonly loan 50-80% of face amount of receivables Amount loaned depends mainly on credit reputation of borrower and quality of receivables pledged Quality of receivables is a function of credit rating of customer accounts and age of receivables

40 Sources of Short-term Financing
Financing Accounts Receivable 2. Assigning Borrowing firm signs over its right to collect account to lender Lender advances money to borrower up to some predetermined percentage of accounts receivable and then collects directly from customer account Payments received in excess of amount loaned are property of borrower (treated as part of “circulating pot” of money from which borrower may draw funds as needed) Lenders commonly lend 75-90% of face value of receivables assigned Percentage loaned is a function of credit rating of borrower and quality of accounts receivable

41 Sources of Short-term Financing
Financing Accounts Receivable Pledging/Assigning (continued) Lender has recourse to borrower if account fails to pay Lender only acts as supplier of funds so if borrower defaults, borrower suffers bad-debt loss, not lender Cost of pledging and assigning are about equal

42 Sources of Short-term Financing
Financing Accounts Receivable Factoring Lender buys accounts receivable outright from borrower at discount from face value and assumes burden of collecting receivables Burden includes assumption of bad-debt losses If account does not pay, lender has no recourse on borrowing firm

43 Sources of Short-term Financing
Financing Accounts Receivable Factoring (continued) Lenders provides three services Provide financing of accounts receivable for borrowing firms Act as borrowing firm’s credit department Assumes risk of bad-debt losses Transfers risk from borrowing firms to factor Most expensive form of accounts receivable financing

44 Sources of Short-term Financing
Inventory Financing Commonly arranged through: Blanket liens Trust receipts Field-warehousing arrangements

45 Sources of Short-term Financing
Inventory Financing Blanket lien Firm pledges its inventory as collateral for short-term loan, but lender has no physical control over inventory If borrower defaults, lender has right to seize inventory and sell it to pay off loan principal and interest; any funds realized in excess of amount owed must be returned to borrower

46 Sources of Short-term Financing
Inventory Financing Trust receipt Legal document that creates lien on specific item of inventory Commonly arranged for “big ticket” items (i.e. inventory held by automobile dealers, jewelers, or heavy equipment dealers When item is sold, amount loaned against item must be remitted to lender

47 Sources of Short-term Financing
Inventory Financing Field-warehousing arrangement Inventory pledged as collateral is physically maintained on premises of borrower but is under control of lender Physical movement of inventory items into or out of warehouse is supervised by independent third party employed by lender As inventory items are moved into warehouse, loans are made to borrower As items are released and sold, loans are paid off Particularly appropriate for financing seasonal inventory buildups

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