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Airway Management Augusto Torres, MD Department of Anesthesiology MetroHealth Medical Center.

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Presentation on theme: "Airway Management Augusto Torres, MD Department of Anesthesiology MetroHealth Medical Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 Airway Management Augusto Torres, MD Department of Anesthesiology MetroHealth Medical Center

2 Outline Review of airway anatomy Airway evaluation Mask ventilation Endotracheal intubation The difficult airway

3 Airway Anatomy Ab-ductor –Posterior cricoarytenoid Tensor –Cricothyroid Ad-ductors –All the rest

4 Airway Anatomy Innervation Vagus n. –Superior laryngeal n. External branch – motor to cricothyroid m. Internal branch – sensory larynx above TVCs –Recurrent laryngeal n. Right – subclavian Left – Aortic arch (board question) Motor to all other muscles, Sensory to TVCs and trachea

5 Airway Anatomy Innervation of oropharynx –Glossopharyngeal n. innervates tongue base and oropharynx

6 Airway Anatomy Membranes –Thyrohyoid –Cricothryoid Cartilages –Hyoid –Thyroid –Cricoid

7

8 Airway Evaluation Take very seriously history of prior difficulty Head and neck movement (extension) –Alignment of oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal axes –Cervical spine arthritis or trauma, burn, radiation, tumor, infection, scleroderma, short and thick neck

9 Airway Evaluation Jaw Movement –Both inter-incisor gap and anterior subluxation –<3.5cm inter-incisor gap concerning –Inability to sublux lower incisors beyond upper incisors Receding mandible Protruding Maxillary Incisors (buck teeth)

10 Airway Evaluation Obesity –Distribution, i. e. short, thick neck more concerning –Neck circumference

11 Airway Evaluation Thyromental distance: bony point on mentum (mandible) to thyroid notch If short (<3FBs or 6cm), pharyngeal and laryngeal axis off

12 Airway Evaluation Oropharyngeal visualization Mallampati Score Sitting position, protrude tongue, dont say AHH

13 Airway Evaluation Difficulty ventilating –Age >55 –Beard –History of snoring –Lack of teeth –BMI >26

14 Preoxygenation Replaces the nitrogen volume of the lungs (69% of FRC) with oxygen Functional residual capacity (residual volume and expiratory reserve volume) Preoxygenation with 100% oxygen via tight-fitting mask for 5 minutes up to 10 min of oxygen reserve following apnea Four vital capacity breaths over 30 seconds (time to desaturation quicker)

15 Patient Positioning Sniffing position –Lower neck flexion –Upper neck extension –Important in obesity

16 Mask Ventilation Induction of anesthesia produces upper airway relaxation and possible collapse Downward displacement of mask with thumb and index finger

17 Mask Ventilation Upward traction of remaining fingers upward Fingers on bony mandible Fifth digit at angle displacing mandible anteriorly

18 Mask Ventilation Oral airway Two-handed technique

19 LMA Placement Carries prominent position in ASA algorithm May be held like a pencil Balloon partially inflated Directed posteriorly and upwards towards the palate Jaw thrust and sniffing position may help placement

20 LMA Placement Verify placement by ventilating –Check for good chest rise, ETCO2, and adequate tidal volumes –Check for leak – if significant leak at around 10cm H2O problematic –May try size larger or smaller –May try to inflate/deflate cuff to obtain better seal –If difficulty passing may try inserting upside down and then flipping around

21 Endotracheal Intubation Open the mouth with right hand –Scissor technique Gently insert laryngoscope into right side of mouth pushing tongue to the left Careful with insertion not to hit teeth Advance laryngoscope further into oropharynx with applied traction 45 degrees

22 Endotracheal Intubation Look for epiglottis –If initially not found insert laryngoscope further –If this maneuver does not work slowly pull laryngoscope back Once epiglottis visualized, push laryngoscope into vallecula and apply traction at 45 degree angle to push epiglottis up and out of the way

23 Endotracheal Intubation Look for vocal cords or arytenoid cartilages and try to optimize view –(i.e. lift head, apply more traction at 45 degree angle if necessary) Do not move once view is optimized! –Assistant will hand you ETT Insert ETT into far right aspect of mouth –Traction of laryngoscope slightly to left may assist –Traction of laryngoscope at 45 degrees will also help keep mouth open

24 Endotracheal Intubation Insert ETT above and between arytenoids and through vocal cords Try to visualize the ETT passing between the vocal cords –If this is not possible, then you must visualize the ETT passing above and between the arytenoids

25 Endotracheal Intubation Common problems: –I cant see anything! Make sure tongue is swept to the left You are probably too shallow or too deep. Even with difficult intubations the epiglottis can be visualized Insert laryngoscope in further looking for epiglottis Pull laryngoscope back if this fails

26 Endotracheal Intubation Common problems –I cant see the cords! –Epiglottis is visualized, vocal cords are not –Removing the epiglottis partly from view is necessary to visualize the vocal cords below –Push the end of the laryngoscope blade further into the vallecula and toe up –Lifting the patients head with your other hand may improve the sniffing position and bring the vocal cords into view

27 Endotracheal Intubation Common problems –I can see the cords. But I cant get the tube there! –You may not be giving yourself adequate room in the oral cavity –Push up and to the left with the laryngoscope to make sure the mouth is still fully opened and the tongue adequately swept away –Slide the ETT in the mouth all the way to the right side, perhaps even sideways

28 Difficult Intubation ASA Difficult Airway Algorithm

29 Fiberoptic Intubation Oral or nasal routes Topicalization is key –Aerosolized lidocaine 4% –Airway blocks Thin bronchoscope inserted into trachea

30 Other airway options GlideScope Needle cricothyroidotomy

31 Conclusion Airway management is an extremely important aspect of the practice of anesthesiology and critical care A firm basis in airway anatomy is needed Skills such as mask ventilation, endotracheal intubation, LMA placement are necessary In the case of a difficult airway, a logical algorithm and airway equipment assist the physician in safely managing the situation


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