2Outline 1. Foundation Data Concepts 2. The Database Management Approach3. Use of Database Software in the BusinessEnvironment4. Types of Databases5. Data Resource Management
3Foundation Data Concepts How Data is Organized in Information Systems:Character - Most basic element of data, consists of asingle alphabetic, numeric, or other symbol.Field - Consists of a grouping of characters.Record - Consists of a grouping of related fields of data.File - Consists of a grouping of related records.Database - Consists of a grouping of related files.
4Database Management Approach The Database Management Approach consolidates data records and objects into databases that can be accessed by many different application programs.This Approach Involves Three Basic Activities:1. Updating and Maintaining Common Databases2. Sharing the Data in Common Databases3. Providing an Inquiry/Response and Reporting Capability
5The Use Of Database Software A software package that uses this approach is the Database Management System(DBMS), which serves as a software interface between users and databases.The Four Major Uses of a DBMS Package are:1. Database Development - Microsoft Access which allow end users to easily develop the databases they need.2. Database Interrogation - Provides a response to questions from a database.3. Database Maintenance - Updates continually to reflect new business transactions and other events.4. Application Development - Develop custom application programs.
6Data Resource Management Benefits of Database Management: Limitations of Database Management:1. Reduces duplication of data 1. Difficult and expensive to install2. Easy to obtain information 2. Greater storage required3. Computer programming is simplified 3. Longer processing time4. Security can be increased 4. Vulnerable to errors
7Types of Databases There are Six Major Types of Databases: 1. Operational Databases - Stores detailed data to support the operations of the entire organization. Ex. Customer database, inventory database.2. Analytical Databases - Stores data and information extracted from selected operational and external databases.3. Data Warehouses - Stores data from current and previous years that has been extracted from the various operational databases of an organization.4. Distributed Databases - Stores copies or parts of databases.5. External Databases - Stores a wealth of information from commercial online services, available to companies with a fee.
8Possible Exam Questions 1. What are the advantages to the database managementapproach?2. Why is data resource management important to anorganization?
9What is a database?A database is an integrated collection of logically related records or objects.A database consolidates records previously stored in separate files into a common pool of data records that provides data for many applications.
10Conclusion Data is a vital organizational resource that needs to be managed like other importantbusiness assets.Most organizations could not survive orsucceed without quality data about theirinternal operations and external environment.
11This Stuff Called Data 1. Facts and figures of potential importance in running a business.2. The basis for frequent business decisions by alltypes and levels of people within an enterprise.3. Information when used by people that applyrelevance.4. Capable of supporting a business strategy thatleads to a competitive advantage.
125. The basis for all endeavors involving information systems.6. Specific and its uniqueness must be identified.e.g. part number, customer number, social securitynumber, etc.7. Needs to be coded in a consistent manner for usein multiple systems.8. Both static and dynamic and must be managedaccordingly.9. Often expensive to obtain with a necessary degreeof accuracy.
1310. Voluminous and relatively expensive to store so that it can be quickly accessed.11. In multiple forms with the expanding scope of ITuse by enterprises.12. Either centralized, decentralized or distributed.13. Either personal, departmental or enterprise-wide.14. An organizational resource that has major valueand needs to be protected.
14A Logical Data Process Capture and identification. Input. Processing. Compression.Storage.Access and retrieval.Transmission.Presentation.
15Saturn Automobile Prospect Project As an employee of BIS Market Research, Inc. you are being assigned as a member of a two person team to assist the Saturn Dealership Group by developing an approach that will help identify good sales prospects to buy an automobile. To meet the needs of the client, you will design a survey questionnaire, build a database and produce a report for the client that provides a list of prospects in priority sequence.You will also produce a report for BIS Market Research management.
16Assignment Steps 1. Interviewing a Saturn representative. 2. Deciding on the appropriate data needed to accomplishthis assignment is critical to the overall success of theproject.3. Deciding on an appropriate and efficient coding systemfor the data is also an important part of the project. Apoor job in this step will result in poor overall results.4. Designing a survey form (questionnaire) that a prospectwould be willing to complete that will also serve as thesource document to the create the database.
175. Inputting the data from the survey forms into the database including editing the source document for accuracy and completeness. You should keep a record of documents that you conclude are not valid to be included in the survey report.6. Determining logical criteria that identifies and prioritizes the better prospects.7. Producing a final report for the client that lists the better prospects in priority sequence. All the prospects should be included in this final report with the best at the top of the report in descending order.8. A second report should be prepared for BIS Market Research management highlighting the major learning points from the project. Think of this as a useful document for the next group that will have a similar assignment.
18Project Time Line10/26/00 Interview a Saturn Dealership Group representative to help determine information to be collected through the survey and begin to lay out the questionnaire (survey form).11/2/00 Turn in questionnaire/source document at the beginning of class.Complete the survey in class using a form provided by the instructor.
195/7/00 Meet in PC Lab in Social Science I, Room 135 5/7/00 Meet in PC Lab in Social Science I, Room between 10:00 and 2:00. (in two groups)Create a database.Better understand the specific aspects of the assignment.Complete the assignment on your own if you do not finish in the scheduled lab.11/21/00 Submit final project as a team.
20PC Project Grade Structure Input form design/layout 25%Input data/editing %Report for client %Prospect priority logic %Report to research company manager 25%
21InformationWeek Survey Has corrupt data ever delayed business?Yes - 70% No - 30%Is your company data acceptably accurate?Yes - 31% No - 69%Are processes in place to check database woes?Yes - 56% No - 44%
22Causes of Poor Data Integrity Entry Errors 32%Incomplete Data 25%Collection Errors 21%System Design 15%Other %
23Responsible for Data Quality? Department Managers 35%IS Manager 32%Administrative Executive 11%Quality Manager 4%Other %
25Traditional FilesSeparate files created for a specific application like an employee master file to support the payroll application.Made up of specific information (fields) necessary to process the payroll.The master file is updated based on the payroll application processing schedule.
26Traditional File Characteristics Redundant data.Could involve an update problem versusincorrect data.Lack of flexibility to use the data.Lack of data sharing and availability.Possible poor security.
29Data Resource Management This slide corresponds to Figure 7.15 on pp. 277 and relates to the material on ppDataAdministrationPlanningDatabaseThe security and integrity of an organization's databases are the major concerns of the database resource management efforts. Key activities of data resource management include:Database Administration. This area is responsible for developing and maintaining the organization's data dictionary discussed earlier, as well as designing and monitoring the performance of databases, and enforcing the standards for database use and security.Data Planning. Data planning is a corporate planning and analysis function responsible for the overall data architecture for the firm. This role ensures that data resources are developed to support the firm's strategic mission and plans.Data Administration. This area involves the establishment and enforcement of policies and procedures for managing data as a strategic corporate resource. This means standardizing data so that it is available to all end users from whatever database they are working from.Teaching Tip: Query students to ensure that they can differentiate between database and data administration.8688888888
30Database Management System This slide corresponds to Figure 7.5 on pp. 269 and relates to the material on ppOperatingSystemDatabaseManagementApplicationProgramsDatabasesDataDictionaryUnder the database management approach data records are consolidated into databases that can be accessed by many different application programs. A database management system (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and use of the databases of an organization and its end users. The four major DBMS uses include:Database Development. A DBMS allows control of development to be placed with database administrators. The administrator uses a data definition language (DDL) to develop and specify the data contents, relationships, and structure of each database, and to modify these specifications when necessary. This approach improves integrity and security for the organizational databases. The information is stored in a data dictionary, which uses data definitions to specify what all the records and files are, can be, and, if desired, to automatically enforce data element definitions when fields, records, or files are modified.Database Interrogation. A DBMS allows end users without programming skills to ask for information from a database using a query language or report generator. Queries are usually made one of two ways:SQL (Structured Query Language). This uses the basic form of SELECT ...FROM...WHERE. After SELECT the user lists the data fields to be retrieved. After FROM the user lists the files or tables from which the data must be retrieved. After WHERE the user specifies conditions that limit the search.QBE (Query by Example). This method allows users to point and click on display boxes for each of the data fields in one or more files to specify the rules of the searchDatabase Maintenance. Updating the databases and other maintenance are conducted by transaction processing programs..Application Development. A DBMS makes application development much easier and quicker by allowing developers to include data manipulation language (DML) statements in their programs that let the DBMS perform necessary data-handling activities.5455555555
31Database Management System Structured Query Language (SQL) has two components:Data Definition Language - Used to physically establish record types, fields and structural relationships.Data Manipulation Language (includes query but any access of data in a relational database is considered a query) - Used to create, read, update and delete records in the database and to navigate between different records and types of records.
32Database Objectives1. Provide for efficient storage, update and retrieval of data.2. Provide high integrity to promote user trust in the data.3. Be adaptable to and scalable to new and unforeseenbusiness requirements and applications.
33Database Administration A data and/or database administrator is responsible for the data planning, definition, architecture and management of data within an organization. This includes:Conducting a physical database design.Conducting a logical database design.Conducting database tuning and capacity planning.Establishing and maintaining a data dictionary.Evaluating and selecting database hardware andsoftware.
34Definition of Data Dictionary A computer-based catalog containingmetadata (data about data).An integral part of most databasemanagement systems (DBMS).A significant tool of database administration.
35Data Dictionary Software The software manages a database of data definitions, that is, metadata about the structure, data elements and other characteristics of the organization’s database.Contains a list of all files in the database, the number of records in each file and the names and types of each field.Does not contain any of the actual data in the database.
36Information in the Data Dictionary Names and descriptions of all types of data records and their interrelationships.Requirements for end users access.Requirements for use of application programs.Database maintenance.Security information.
37Abilities of the Data Dictionary Can report the status of any aspect of a firm’smetadata.DBA’s can make changes to definitions.Active data dictionaries automatically enforcestandard data element definitions meaning endusers must follow the rules of the program’s dataentry procedure.
38Why Data DictionariesRemember that this tool is primarily used by programmers.Assures consistency of naming within different programs so that data integrity is improved.Is integrated within the database so it facilitates the use of the RDBMS.Facilitates conversion from one software system to another.Does make data use by users easier because of the naming consistency.
39Two Possible Exam Questions 1. What is metadata?2. Why is the use of a data dictionaryincreasingly more important withinmany companies?
41Book Definition Data Warehouses are an integrated collection of data extracted from operational, historical,and external databases, and screened, edited,and standardized for retrieval and analysis(data mining), to provide business intelligencefor managerial (empowered employee)decision making.
42Data WarehousesAn important and very logical type of database used by organizations and end users.Stores data from current and previous years that has been extracted from various operational databases of an organization.May be subdivided into data marts, which hold specific subsets of data from the warehouse.
43Data Warehouse Challenge The task of extracting, cleaning and loading information into a data warehouse takes an enormous amount of time and effort.Estimates are that on average 80% of the effort to build an effective data warehouse goes into this task.
44A Data Warehouse and its Data Mart Subsets Applications Data MartsFinished GoodsInventoryControlSales andMarketingDataWarehousePurchasingSystemManagementReportingOrderEntry SystemAccountingRaw MaterialInventoryProductionControl
45Data Mining A major use of data warehouse databases Processes data in a data warehouse to identify key factors and trends in historical factors of business activitiesCan be used to help make decisions about strategic changes in business operations to gain operational efficiencies, improve customer service and/or gain competitive advantages in the market place
46Wal-Mart IT StrategyA data warehouse is an integral part of Wal-Mart’s Information Systems strategy that says:It is no longer good enough to link just internal information systems. You have to integrate them from one end of the business value chain to the other--from suppliers through to customers.
47Retail Link System Vendors manage inventory replenishment. Vendors receive a profit and loss statement for products thatthey provide to Wal-Mart.4,000 vendors access a data warehouse that provides themwith the same information provided to internal employees.The data warehouse has 7.5 terrabytes of data that includes52 weeks of rolling history of transactions by product, store,supplier and date.Inquiries exceed 10,000 a day.
48Joint ForecastingWal-Mart is also implementing Collaborative Forecasting and Replenishment (CFAR) to coordinate product forecasting.This produces a better forecast than one done independently.Both Wal-Mart and its vendors are willing to live with the forecast.Suppliers gain the ability to better plan capacity and production levels.Wal-Mart wants to address its 30% stockouts that result in lost business.The data warehouse also supports this application.
49Summary A data warehouse is a central source of data It includes edited, standardized, integrated and frequently updated data.Data within the data warehouse is used by managers and other end user professionals for a variety of forms of business analysis, market research, and decision support.
50Possible Exam Questions 1. Explain the basic concept of datawarehousing.2. How can data warehouses help a companyto gain a competitive advantage in themarket place?
51Web Based Systems Network Server The Internet Intranets Extranets This slide corresponds to Figure 7.13 on pp. 275 and relates to the material on ppWeb Based SystemsNetworkServerThe InternetIntranetsExtranetsHypermediaDatabasesWeb ServerSoftwareWebBrowserThe rapid growth of web sites on the Internet and corporate intranets and extranets has dramatically increased the use of databases of hypertext and hypermedia documents.Hypermedia Database: A web site stores information in a hypermedia database consisting of a home page and other hyperlinked pages of multimedia or mixed media (text, graphic and photographic images, video clips, audio segments, and so on).Browser: A web browser on your client PC is used to connect with a web network server. This server runs web software to access and transfer the web pages you request.Web Site: the web site uses a hypermedia database consisting of HTML (hypertext Markup Language) pages, GIF (graphics image files) files, and video files.Web Server Software: Acts as a database management system to manage the use of the interrelated hypermedia pages of the web site.HTML pagesGIF image filesVideo FilesClient PCsor NCs777777777
53Definitions A database is a collection of logically related records or files. It consolidates many records previouslystored in separate files so that a common pool ofdata records serves many applications.Distributing databases or portions of a database to remote sites where the data are most frequently used is made possible through the use of a network that interconnects the distributed databases.
54Distributed Database Examples Operational databases: Store detailed data needed to support the operations of an entire organization.Analytical databases: Data extracted from selected operational and external databases.Hypermedia databases: Consisting of a home page and other hyper-linked pages of multimedia or mixed media (text, photographic images, video clips, etc.)
55Why Distributed Data? Improve performance of remote operations. Cost effective. (lower operating costs)Faster response time to improve productivity and allow for better decision making. (faster local networks)Send smaller amounts of data over distance.(lessen capacity demands on the network)
56Ways to Distribute Data Programmatic UpdatesReplicationPartitioning
57Programmatic UpdatesA change in a primary record sends an automatic update to all secondary recordsAdds to programming overhead.Keeping track of where data goes can be complex.Involves a significant amount of logic.
58Replication One master database, many servants. Replication in two ways (master to servant) or (master to servant AND servant to master)Updated in real-time, nightly, weekly or monthly.Lower possible cost.Conflict resolution can be a problem.Restart and recovery is also an issue.
59PartitioningOne master and many servants but each servant can be different.Regional databases.Update only those that are relevant.
60Korn Ferry International International recruitment company.Has operations in 77 cities in 41 countries.Database of employers and employees.Partitioned databases for seven different countries.How do you combine data for cross country searches?How do you keep data consistent?
61Choosing the Best Data Approach Determine the high priority business needs.Analyze the structure and the way a business functions.Assess the maturity and capabilities of existing systems.Assess the data management and related technical skills needed to support a distributed data approach.
62Key Considerations 1. Systems performance. i.e. access time to data 2. Cost to implement and support the system.3. Data integrity implications.Which of these three factors always seems to be a distant third consideration?
63Worth Remembering Don’t! If you have a choice as to whether to distribute data or not.Don’t!Why distribute data if a single copy will do the job?
64Systems ApproachDistributed databases can reside on network servers, on the World Wide Web, on corporate intranets, extranets or on other company networks.
65SummaryDistribution of a database is done to improve performance, lower cost and gain a higher level of responsibility for the management of data.There are several possible ways to distribute data including:PartitioningReplicationProgrammatic UpdatesAnalyze the structure and needs of a business to determine the right approach regarding data and data management.
66Possible Exam Questions 1. Why is there a need and a trend for distributeddatabases?2. What criteria should be used to decide whether todistribute a database and which factors usuallyreceive the highest priority?
67Business and IT IssuesIn creating a distributed system, where do you put:The computer nodes?The applications?The data?The users?The telecommunications function?The network control?The authority and responsibility?
68Distributed DataStatic data is much easier to distribute than dynamic data.Product descriptionsProduct pricesProduct inventoryCustomer ID informationCustomer Account status
69Distributed SystemsGeographic distribution does not necessarily mean great distances.To have a true distributed system (database) there must be a comprehensive, coordinated system that manages the data.
70Database Structures Hierarchical Structure Network Structure This slide corresponds to Figure 7.16 on pp. 281 and relates to the material on ppHierarchical StructureNetwork StructureThe relationships among the records stored in databases are based upon one of several logical database structures or models. The five fundamental database structures are described below. The first three structures are illustrated on the slide.Hierarchical Structure. Under this tree-like structure, each data element is related only to one element above it, a so-called one-to-many relationship. All records are dependent and arranged in multilevel structures.Network Structure. This structure features a many-to-many arrangement whereby the DBMS can access a data element by following one of several paths.Relational Structure. This model has become the most popular structure and is used by most microcomputers. All data elements within the database are viewed as being stored in the form of simple tables. The DBMS can link data elements from various tables to provide information to end users.Object-Oriented. Objects consist of data values describing the attributes of an entity and the operations that can be performed on the data. This is called encapsulation and allows object-oriented databases structures to better handle complex types of data such as video and audio. Copied objects and combined objects retain some or all of their functions, allowing very rapid development of new database solutions.Multidimensional. This structure uses cells within a multidimensional framework to aggregate data related to elements within a given dimension. Each cell combines with similar cells to form a coherent "cube" of information and data, which in turn is combined with other cubes to form dimensions.Relational StructureDeptEmplo.DeptA1AB2BC3C9979999999
71Database AdvantagesCentralized management of data, access, utilization and security.Provides greater data flexibility.Increases access and availability.Reduction of redundant data.Eliminates data confusion and misinterpretation.Program data dependence is reduced.Reduces program development and maintenance cost.
72Database Development User Needs Description 1. Data Planning This slide corresponds to Figure 7.24 on pp. 289 and relates to the material on ppUser NeedsDescription1. Data PlanningEnterprise Model2. RequirementsSpecifications3. Conceptual Design4. Logical DesignPhysical Models5. Physical DesignData ModelsLogical ModelsDatabase planning beyond that of a personal or small business end user database created by a database management package typically requires use of a top-down data planning process based upon the systems development model covered earlier:1. Data Planning. At this stage, planners develop a model of business processes. This results in an enterprise model of business processes with documentation.2. Requirements Specification. This stage defines the information needs of end users in a business process. Description of needs may be provided in natural language or using the tools of a particular design methodology.3. Conceptual Design. This stage expresses all information requirements in the form of a high-level model.4. Logical Design. This stage translates the conceptual models into the data model of a DBMS.5. Physical Design. This stage determines the data storage structures and access methods.1181111111111111111
75Oracle Corporation Profile Oracle is a supplier of software for information management. The company develops, manufactures, markets and distributes computer software to manage and grow their business. Its product line includes database, server, application development and decision support tools.Founded: 1977 by CEO Lawrence J. EllisonFortune 500 rank: 195Headquarters: Redwood City, CAEmployees : 43,800 as of 1999* Oracle software is utilized by 90% of Fortune 500 companies and government organizations worldwide. It is the 2nd world‘s second largest software company with annual sales more than $9.7 billion
76Core Strategy and Company Values Core Strategy: Giving their customers unprecedented speed and capability in the execution of technology strategies in the advent of the Internet age and B2B e-commerce.Company Values: Delivered are through the integration of services capability, comprised of Oracle Consulting, Oracle Support Services, and Oracle Education.
77Oracle’s Software Products Two broad categories:Systems software:- complete internet platform to develop and deploy applications for computing on the internet and corporate intranets.Business applications software:- automates the performance of specific business data processing functions for customer relationship management, strategic procurement, project management and human resources management.
78Oracle 8iOracle 8i : an object-relational database that supports the close integration of objects and complex data types with a relational database engine’s mission-critical infrastructure, including management tools, data integrity, and query capabilities.* Yahoo selected Oracle as the backbone of its data warehouse because of the speed, scalability, and performance, which made them earn a high recognition by users and advertisers.
79Enterprise Resource Planning Financial Applications: to capitalize on global opportunities, drive profitability, and build a smarter business.Human Resource Applications: to lower HR administrative costs, improve and leverage the skills of the workforce, compensate to compete for scarce resources, and empower managers with the right information.Purchasing Applications: to acquire goods and services at the lowest total cost by automating the entire purchasing lifecycle from planning to procurement and payment.
80Enterprise Resource Planning Order Management Applications: to achieve on time delivery at lowest cost through robust sales configuration functionality, integrated delivery planning and coordination with logistics partner.Projects Applications: to bridge between operations and finance, internet-enabled ebusiness applications that manage lifecycle of project.Manufacturing Applications: to increase revenue, profitability, and customer loyalty by increasing customer responsiveness and quality, reducing costs across the supply chain, and increasing operational efficiency.
81Customer Relationship Management Marketing ApplicationsSales ApplicationsService ApplicationsCall Center ApplicationsE-commerce applicationsBusiness Intelligence ApplicationsCommunications Utilities Applications:Financial Services ApplicationsArchitecture and Tools
82Why is Oracle So Popular? The software makes it easier for large businesses to enter, store, retrieve data like customer product orders, sales records, and personnel information.It is the only company to implement complete global e-business solutions that extend from front office customer relationship management to back office operational applications to platform infrastructure.Oracle software runs on PCs, workstations, minicomputers, mainframes and massively parallel computers as well as on personal digital assistants and set-top devices.
83Why is Oracle so popular (cont’d) Oracle helps their customers in a cost effective way to expand market opportunities, improve business process efficiencies, attract and retain customers. Their full suite of e-business products includes1) internet-ready platform2) internet-enabled business applications.3) professional services for help in formulating business strategy, as well as in designing, customizing, and implementing e-business solutions.Oracle demonstrates the scalability and partitioning capabilities needed to grow its data on a nightly basis without worry, the flexibility to take advantage of new selling strategies devised by the sales force, and the query response speed to deliver information upon demand.
84Database Management Products 1. Data definition language.2. Data query/manipulation language.3. Data dictionary (an automated or manualtool about data maintained in thedatabase.
85Related Database Tools Data WarehousingData MiningOnline Application Processing (OLAP)
86Possible Exam Questions 1. Give three examples of key elements of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software provided by Oracle.2. Explain two reasons why Oracle gained a competitive edge in the database market within the computer industry.
87Management Implications Assure consistent and uniform control of data across the entire enterprise.Insure the correct definition of data across the entire enterprise.Ensure consistent data collection and input.Define responsibility for data management.
88Key Terms in Chapter 7 Data Administration Data Dictionary Data ModelingData PlanningData Resource ManagementDatabase AdministrationDatabase AdministratorDatabase ManagementApproachSystemDatabase AccessDirectSequentialDatabase Structures:HierarchicalNetworkMultidimensionalObject-OrientedRelationalDBMS Uses:Application DevelopmentDatabase DevelopmentDatabase InterrogationDatabase MaintenanceKey FieldLogical Data ElementsCharacterFieldRecordFileDatabaseQuery LanguageReport GeneratorTypes of DatabasesAnalytical ExternalData Warehouse HypermediaDistributed OperationalEnd UserUniform Resource Locator(URL)Key Terms Notes12121210121212121212