5Technology and science Technology refers to the theoretical and practical knowledge, skills, and artifacts that can be used to develop products and services as well as their production and delivery systems.A process, technique, or methodology embodied in a product design or in a manufacturing or service process which transforms inputs of labor, capital, information, material, and energy into outputs of greater value.Basic science versus Applied science
6Innovation To make something new A process of turning opportunity into new ideas and of putting these into widely used practiceChange (product or process)Sociocultural evolutionary processes of variation, selection, and retention.
7Types of innovation: Incremental innovations Radical innovations ArchitecturalModular
8Innovation at the System Level CompetitorsInnovationactivitiesin the firmLeading edgecustomersSuppliersStrategicpartnerships
10PLANNING CONTROLLING ORGANIZING LEADING FOUR FUNCTIONS OF THE MANAGERIAL PROCESSPLANNINGCONTROLLINGORGANIZINGLEADING3
11Efficiency= making best use of resources in achieving goals TWO PERFORMANCE DIMENSIONSEfficiency=making best useof resourcesin achieving goalsEffectiveness=choosing effectivegoals and achievingthemPeopleMoneyMachinesMaterialsDoing things rightDoing the right things6
12The manager’s/economist’s view of innovation What’s going onin there?Technologythe black box
13The engineer’s view of innovation What’s going onout there?
15Technology management is a link among engineering, science and management disciplines to plan, develop and implement technological capabilities to shape and accomplish the strategic and operational objectives of an organization.Knowledge on how to solve technical problems, embedded in business and social contexts.
21Porter model Industry-competitor analysis Positioning Strategic investments
22Teece model (1)Dynamic capabilities build, integrate, or reconfigure operational capabilities that are defined as ‘a high-level routine (or collection of routines) that, together with its implementing input flows, confers upon an organisation’s management a set of decision options for producing significant outputs of a particular type’ (Winter, 2000: 983).A routine refers to a ‘repetitive pattern of activity’. Similarly, competencies refer to activities to be performed by assembling firm-specific assets/resources. That is why dynamic capabilities are conceived as routines/activities/competencies embedded in firms.
23Teece Model (2) Advantages: The capability to generate a stream of product, service and process changes that matter for long-term performanceDynamic approachTake the market or the product as given but as objects of strategic reconstitutionas firms develop and respond to productive opportunities, they alter and further differentiate and, in the process, re-characterise the parameters (technological, product, organisational) of the ‘market’
24Crossing disciplines: Innovation, technology and knowledge management
26Dynamics behind TM: Change in production systems Change in managerial and engineering cultures!!!Change in competitionIncreasing returnsTechnology as a source of competitive advantage
27Context affects technology management: Sector (e.g. scale-intensive, science-intensive)Size (e.g. small firms, large firms)National systems of innovation (e.g. different countries have more or less supportive contexts)Life cycle (of technology, industry, etc.) (e.g. new versus mature established firms)