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5.Project planning and management l Role of a manager l Charts and Critical Path Analysis l Estimation Techniques l Monitoring.

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Presentation on theme: "5.Project planning and management l Role of a manager l Charts and Critical Path Analysis l Estimation Techniques l Monitoring."— Presentation transcript:

1 5.Project planning and management l Role of a manager l Charts and Critical Path Analysis l Estimation Techniques l Monitoring

2 Role of a manager l Directs resources for the achievement of goals l LEADER also provides – Vision – Inspiration – Rises above the usual l No one right way to manage

3 Management Continuum AutocraticConsultativeParticipate AuthoritarianDemocratic Solves problems alone Dictates decisions Discusses Problems Makes decision Chairperson Agrees problem Creates consensus

4 Managerial Roles – (after Henry Mintzberg) l Interpersonal – Figurehead – Leader – Liaison l Informational Roles – Monitor – Disseminator – Spokesperson l Decisional Roles – Entrepreneur – Resource Allocator – Disturbance Allocator – Negotiator

5 Qualities l Technical/Professional knowledge l Organisational know-how l Ability to grasp situation l Ability to make decisions l Ability to manage change l Creative l Mental flexibility - Learns from experience l Pro-active l Moral courage l Resilience l Social skills l Self Knowledge

6 Variables l Resource l Time l Function l You can have any two of quick, good or cheap, but not all three

7 Development cycle: Effort Time SpecificationAnalysisBuild Test Maintain Alpha Beta

8 Crossing the Chasm l Geoffrey Moore, after Everett Rogers TechUtility

9 Approaches and methodologies l Top Down – Waterfall decomposition l Bottom Up – meta machine l Rapid Prototype – successive refinement l Muddle through

10 Spiral Methodology

11 PhaseDeliverables Envisioning – agreeing the overall direction and the contents of this phase Vision/Scope document Risk assessment Project structure Planning – design for this phase. Functional specification Risk assessment Project schedule Developing – the actual buildFrozen functional specification Risk management plan Source code and executables Performance support elements Test specification and test cases Master project plan and master project schedule Stabilsing – test, debug, rework. Golden release Release notes Performance support elements

12 Pert and Gantt Charts l Visual representation of project l Microsoft Project

13 Example: Getting up in the morning TaskDuration (mins) 1 Alarm rings0 2. Wake Up3 3. Get out of bed5 4. Wash5 5. Get dressed5 6. Put kettle on2 7 Wait for kettle to boil5 8 Put toast on2 9 Wait for Toast3 10 Make coffee3 11 Butter Toast2 12 Eat Breakfast10 13 Leave for Lectures0

14 Pert Chart

15 Critical Path Analysis l Compute earliest and latest start/finish for each task l The difference is the slack l The Critical Path joins the tasks for which there is no slack l Any delay in tasks on the on the critical path affects the whole project

16 Pert Chart

17 Gantt Chart

18 Example

19 Example Pert



22 Levelling l Adjust tasks to match resources available l Automatic systems available, but do not always give an optimum result l Tasks may be delayed within slack without affecting project dates l Otherwise consider extending project, or using more resource l Adding resource to late project may cause RECURSIVE COLLAPSE – consider carefully whether the benefits outweigh the additional learning delays and overheads l Derive costings

23 Larger example

24 Estimation Techniques l Experience l Comparison with similar tasks – 20 lines of code/day – can vary by 2 orders of magnitude l Decomposition l Plan to throw one away l 20 working days per month BUT 200 per year

25 Rules of Thumb l Software projects: – estimate 10 x cost and 3 x time l 1:3:10 rule – 1: cost of prototype – 3: cost of turning prototype into a product – 10: cost of sales and marketing – >>Product costs are dominated by cost of sales l Hartrees Law – The time to completion of any project, as estimated by the project leader, is a constant (Hartrees constant) regardless of the state of the project – A project is 90% complete 90% of the time l 80% Rule – Dont plan to use more than 80% of the available resources Memory, disc, cycles, programming resource....

26 Cynics Project Stages l Enthusiasm l Disillusionment l Panic l Persecution of the innocent l Praise of the bystander

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