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What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) ?. Learning Objectives Create an understanding of IPM Importance of IPM to Producers Importance of IPM to the.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) ?. Learning Objectives Create an understanding of IPM Importance of IPM to Producers Importance of IPM to the."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) ?

2 Learning Objectives Create an understanding of IPM Importance of IPM to Producers Importance of IPM to the environment Importance of IPM to human health and safety What are IPM strategies Advantages and limitations to IPM

3 Why Study IPM? Why a new approach to pest management is needed: Why a new approach to pest management is needed: –1920s cotton pest management –Pesticide Treadmill of 1960s – 1970s Pesticide resistance Secondary pest outbreaks Environmental concerns –IPM concept reborn in 1970s

4 IPM is: IPM is: A pest management philosophy that utilizes all suitable pest management techniques and methods to keep pest populations below economically injurious levels. Each pest management technique must be environmentally sound and compatible with producer objectives.

5 A pest management philosophy….. A pest management philosophy….. –Recognizes there is no cure-all in pest control. Dependence on any one pest management method will have undesirable effects. –Determine and correct the cause of the pest problem. Understanding Pest biology and ecology is essential. Manipulate the environment to the crops advantage and to the detriment of the pest. –Recognizes that eradication of a pest is seldom necessary or even desirable, and generally not possible. Some damage is unavoidable and acceptable Some damage is unavoidable and acceptable

6 IPM is a continuum, not an end. Poor Fair Good Better Best

7 Utilizes all suitable pest management tactics………….. PesticidesCulturalMechanicalSanitaryNaturalBiological Host Plant Resistance NOTE: Some tactics fall Into several categories.

8 Should Pesticides be used in an IPM Program? Pesticides can to be used in an IPM program, however only as a last resort and of course in a manner that is legal. Pesticides are to be used when there is no risk of environmental damage or when benefits outweigh the risks. Use pesticides only when other control practices arent available, economical or practical. Must monitor pest populations in the field. –Identify the pest –Compare pest population and the economic threshold –Life stage susceptible to pesticide? –Crop stage and preventable loss.

9 What is Cultural Control Agronomic practices that are designed to: –Optimize growing conditions for the crop. Anything that increases a crops competitive edge will result in increased tolerance to pests often resulting in reduced pesticide use. –Create unfavorable conditions for the pest

10 What is Mechanical Control? Uses machinery and/or other tools to control pests –Tillage –Physical barriers

11 What is Sanitary Control? Methods to avoid introducing a pest into a field –Cleaning field equipment –Planting certified seed –Quarantines

12 What is Natural Control? –Enhancement of naturally occurring pest management methods Beneficial insects Beneficial diseases

13 What is Biological Control? Manipulation of biological organism to control pests –Release of predators/parasites/disease of an insect or weed –Can be time consuming, expensive and difficult

14 What is Host Plant Resistance? Manipulating the crop to withstand or tolerate pests –Natural breeding method –Genetically modified plants –Not a permanent method of control –Examples: Glandular-haired Alfalfa, Bt Corn,

15 To Keep Pests Below the Economic Injury Level Economic Injury Level: –Cost of control = $ amount of damage caused by the pest Includes amount of pest damage Cost of each control practice –Are determined through extensive research –Economic Injury Level is the information that is necessary to develop an Economic Threshold, which is used by crop advisors

16 Economic Threshold Pest Population at which a grower must take action to prevent a pest populations from reaching the economic injury level –Economic threshold is slightly below the economic injury level –Pest populations must be increasing

17 Time Pest Density Economic Injury Level Economic Threshold Pest Population

18 Economic Threshold Example: European Corn Borer on Corn Field Sampling Data needed: –% plants infested –Ave. number of larvae/plant Crop Management Data Needed –Expected yield (bu/A) –Expected selling price of the crop Cost of pest control

19 European Corn Borer Economic Threshold Worksheet 1st Generation European Corn Borer Economic Threshold Worksheet (1) (1) ___% of 100 plants infested x ___average # of borers/plant A = ___average borers/plant. (2) (2) ___average borers/plant x 5% yield loss per borer = ___% yield loss. (3) (3) ___% yield loss x ___expected yield (bu/A) =___ bu/A loss (4) (4) ___bu/A loss x ___$ expected selling price/bu =___ $ loss/A (5) (5) $__ loss/A x___ % control B = $ ___ preventable loss/A (6) (6) $___ preventable loss/A - $ ___cost of control/A = $ gain (+) or loss (-) per acre if treatment is applied A Determined by checking whorls from 20 plants. B Assume 80% control for most products

20 European Corn Borer Economic Threshold Worksheet 1st Generation European Corn Borer Economic Threshold Worksheet (1) (1) 0.67 (% of 100 plants infested) X 2 (average # of borers/plant) A+ = 1.34 (average borers/plant). (2) (2) 1.34 (average borers/plant) X 5 (% yield loss per borer) = (% yield loss). (3) (3) 0.67 (% yield loss) x 120 (expected yield in bu/A) = 8.04 (bu/A loss) (4) (4) 8.04 bu/A loss x $2.25 expected selling price/bu = $18.09 $ loss/A (5) (5) $18.09 (loss/A) x 80 (% control B) = $ (preventable loss/A) (6) (6) $14.47 (preventable loss/A) - $ (cost of control/A) = - $0.53 (gain (+) or loss (-) per acre if treatment is applied) A Determined by checking whorls from 20 plants. B Assume 80% control for most products

21 Potato Leafhopper Threshold for Alfalfa Alfalfa Height Economic Threshold (leafhoppers/sweep) < 3 inches 0.2/sweep 6 inches 0.5/sweep 8-11 inches 1.0/sweep > 12 inches 2.0/sweep

22 Economic Threshold Concept doesnt work for all pests and pest types InsectsWeedsDiseases

23 Each Pest Control Technique Must be Environmentally Sound Risk vs. Benefits

24 And Compatible with With Producers Objectives

25 What IPM Is and Isnt Stresses a multi disciplinary approach to pest management –Entomology –Plant Pathology –Nematology –Weed Science –Crop Sciences (Horticulture/Agronomy) –Soil Science –Ecology

26 IPM is not static New Pests –Soybean aphids, bean leaf beetle, New Races/strains of pests –Western corn rootworm Weed Species shifts –Roundup ready technology –Tillage system Pesticide Resistance –Colorado Potato Beetle –Common lambsquarters

27 Four Basic Principles of IPM 1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships 2) Requires advanced planning 3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices 4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions 4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions

28 1a. Understanding Crop Growth and Development 1a. Understanding Crop Growth and Development How do you grow a healthy How do you grow a healthy crop? crop? When is the crop most When is the crop most susceptible to pest damage? susceptible to pest damage? When is the crop under stress? When is the crop under stress?

29 1b. Understanding the Pest Proper ID Understanding of Pest Life cycle –When is it present –When is it most susceptible to control- –Weak Link

30 Meadow Spittlebug nymph Potato Leafhopper nymph

31 Giant foxtail Large crabgrass

32 1c. Understanding the Pest and Their Life Cycle When is the pest present When is the pest present When is it most susceptible to When is it most susceptible to control-Weak Link control-Weak Link When is too late to control When is too late to control

33 1d. Understanding the Environment How does it affect crop growth –Stress –Time within susceptible stage How it affects pest development –High mortality –High survival

34 Basic Principles of IPM 1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships 2) Requires Advanced Planning 3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices 4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions

35 Basic Principles of IPM 1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships 2) Requires Advanced Planning 3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices 4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions

36 Basic Principles of IPM 1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships 2) Requires Advanced Planning 3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices 4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions

37 Potato leafhopper scouting Equipment: –15 in diameter insect sweep net. Timing: – Start on regrowth of second crop alfalfa Frequency: –Scout once each week. Scouting pattern: –walk a W-shaped pattern in the field

38 Potato leafhopper scouting Take 20 consecutive sweeps in each of 5 areas along the W-shaped pattern (100 total sweeps) Count the total number of Potato leafhopper nymphs and adults divide by 100 (total number of sweeps)

39 Potato Leafhopper Economic Threshold Alfalfa height Treat if PLH number are = or > than listed 3 inches 0.2/sweep 6 inches 0.5/sweep 8-11 inches 1.0/sweep > 12 inches 2.0/sweep

40 Benefits of an IPM Program Protects environment through elimination of unnecessary pesticide applications Improves Profitability Reduces risk of crop loss by a pest Peace of Mind

41 Disadvantages of an IPM Program Requires a higher degree of management More labor intensive Success can be weather dependent

42 Career opportunities in IPM Crop Advisors –Independent –Industry Ag. Industries –Sales (chemical, seed) –Research –Technical services Teaching –Cooperative Extension –High school –Technical college

43 Education 2 or 4 year degree Major Field of Study –Agronomy –Soil Science Areas of interest –Weed science –Entomology –Plant Pathology

44 Possible coursework Crop Management Weed Management Entomology Plant Nutrition Soil Conservation Ecology Plant Pathology Plant Physiology Business Management


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