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CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Trudie Hughes. Teachers Reflection n Could this problem be a result of inappropriate curriculum or teaching strategies? n What do.

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Presentation on theme: "CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Trudie Hughes. Teachers Reflection n Could this problem be a result of inappropriate curriculum or teaching strategies? n What do."— Presentation transcript:

1 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Trudie Hughes

2 Teachers Reflection n Could this problem be a result of inappropriate curriculum or teaching strategies? n What do I demand and prohibit? n Why do certain behaviors bother me? n Is this behavior developmentally appropriate? n Do I focus on a behavioral excess or a deficiency? n Will resolution of the problem solve anything else? Kauffman, J. M., Hallahan, D. P., Mostert, M.P., Trent, S.C., & Nuttycombe, D.G. (1993). Managing Classroom Behavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

3 Good Teaching n Instructional goals are clear n Knowledgeable of content and strategies for teaching it n Student expectations are clearly described n Provide practice that enrich and clarify content n Teach metacognitive strategies

4 Good Teaching n Knowledgeable about students abilities, adapt instruction according to their needs n Monitor student progress n Provide feedback n Accept responsibility for student outcomes n Are thoughtful and reflective about their practice

5 Teacher Behaviors n Provide frequent positive praise and reinforcement n Ignore minor misbehaviors n Reward positive behaviors n Avoid power struggles with students n Do students like being in the classroom? n Students are achieving academic and social gain n Provide clear expectations

6 Teacher Behaviors Cont. n Provide clear behavioral expectations - rules should state what students should do n Teacher expectations should be high for all students n Signal control:audible or body language to cue student n Blocking: teacher moves between two students to interfere

7 Selecting Rules n Allow students to give input n Base rules on acceptable behavior n State rules positively n Select 5 or 6 rules n Select rules for academic and social behaviors n Change rules when necessary n Relate rules to IEP goals n Consider cultural differences

8 ABCs to Behavior Management n Antecedent n Behavior n Consequences

9 Defining Behavior n Describe behavior objectively and precisely (not: he irritates me) n Can you observe the behavior when it begins and when it stops –can you count the number of occurrences each day –can you measure the duration of the behavior n Can you observe what happens just before and just after it occurs

10 Identifying Antecedents n What are the events or conditions that immediately precede the problem behavior? n Can you manipulate the antecedents to avoid the behavior? (e.g. providing choices for activities)

11 Reading Antecedents n Facial Expressions: tight thin lips, clenched teeth, widened eyes with nostrils flared n Body Posture: head down, slumped shoulders, clenched hands, sucking or chewing n Incidental Behavior: rapid shallow breathing, sighing, kicking, mumbling, tearing paper, breaking pencils

12 Identifying Consequences n What does the student get out of the behavior? n Are students getting attention, avoiding work, receiving stimulus, or enjoy seeing adults upset?

13 Changing Behavior n Provide instruction with simple and clear directions n Gain students full attention before giving instructions n Provide one instruction at a time - do not provide too many different instructions n Monitor compliance - provide time limits n Provide appropriate consequences for compliance

14 Behavior Management Techniques n Positive Reinforcement n Negative Reinforcement n Extinction n Response Cost Punishment n Proximity Control n Decontamination

15 Positive Reinforcement n The positive reinforcement must be rewarding to the student n The reinforcers must be contingent on the behavior you want to increase n The reinforcers should be delivered immediately n Provide appropriate units of rewards for the expected unit of behavior

16 Negative Reinforcement n Definition: reinforcing a behavior by removing or preventing something unpleasant - allows the individual to escape or avoid a negative consequence n Not recommended as a prominent part of classroom management –negative reinforcement relies on the presence or threat of negative consequences –deliberate negative reinforcement sets the stage for coercion/intimidation

17 Extinction n To eliminate a behavior - you eliminate its reinforcement, the behavior no longer produces the desired effect (positive or negative) n Disadvantages: slow process and when extinction procedures are first implemented, the behavior will likely become worse before better

18 Response Cost n The behavior costs something by withholding or withdrawing a positive reinforcer contingent on a specific misbehavior n Example: students receive 10 tokens at the beginning of class, every time a problem behavior occurs, the teacher gets 1 token back. The tokens can be exchanged at the end of the day or class for free time.

19 Proximity Control n Visual - visually monitor student activity from any position in the classroom n Physical - teacher positions her/himself close to each student to inhibit antecedent

20 Decontamination n Preventive action by inspecting classroom for two types of objects –Distractors: entice students to engage in off-task behaviors (e.g. toys, slide projectors, hazards: exposed wires, broken windows –Potential Weapons: letter openers, knives, broom handle, hammer and yard stick

21 Informal Interventions n Attention for compliance - verbal praise –Use social praise consistently –Provide praise only to students who earn it n Ignoring: only appropriate when: –the target behavior is temporarily tolerable –the target behavior is under the influence of a reinforcer that you can control

22 Structured Interventions n Group Consequences n Individual Consequences n Individual Contracts n Self Management

23 Group Consequences n Provide a set of behavior rules or expectations n Determine the interval of time for the contingency - the longer the interval, the more valuable the reward n Provide a menu of choices to avoid satiation n Develop a record keeping system n Determine criterion for reinforcement

24 Individual Consequences n Surprise Tokens: reinforcers are delivered at times that are not predictable by students n Random Drawing: students place their name on a piece of paper and place into a jar when they comply to rules, at the end of the day, conduct a drawing for prizes

25 Individual Contracts n An agreement between the teacher and the student about a desirable change in behavior n Parts of the contract –The parties to the contract –The target behavior –The goal for the target behavior –The time period for the contract –The reward available for meeting the terms –The penalty for failing to honor the contract

26 Self Management n Behavioral Definition: help the student choose a behavior to monitor n Teach the student to record behavior –Event recording –Permanent Product recording n Teach the student how to plot the data n Teach the student how to apply self- reinforcement n Use contracts to provide structure

27 Identifying Coercive Interactions n Starts with an antecedent that is aversive and the student tries to escape or avoid the activity. n Two parties are trying to control each other. –How do these interactions start? –At what point could I avoid the process by disengaging from it? –How could I start a different interaction that does not end in a power struggle? –How could I try to replace coercive interactions with ones ending in positive consequences?

28 Teacher Stress n Burnout Symptoms –Feeling of boredom, overwork, emotional exhaustion, and fatigue –Development of negative, cynical, or depersonalizing attitudes toward students –Lack of sense of accomplishment from the job

29 Managing Teacher Stress n Time management n Student behavior n Interpersonal relationships n Role expectations n Personal concerns

30 Poor Time Management n Uncontrolled rushing n Chronic vacillation between unpleasant alternatives n Fatigue with many hours of unproductive activity n Constantly missed deadlines n Insufficient time for rest and personal relationships n Sense of being overwhelmed

31 Time Management Techniques n Self-Management –Time analysis –Goal setting –Prioritization –Delegation –Action

32 Interpersonal Concerns n Poor staff relations n Insufficient opportunities for professional growth n Administrative ineffectiveness n Lack of recognition

33 Role Expectations n Teachers often set expectations around being liked, helpful, and in control n Role ambiguity: confusion of the scope and specific responsibilities of the job n Role conflict: discrepancy between teachers perception of the job and the perceptions of significant others

34 Personal Solutions n Relaxation n Compartmentalized Thinking: separation between work and personal life n Detached Concern: do not dwell on things over which you have no control n Personal Time n Cognitive Restructuring: focus on strengths not weaknesses


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