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The UK is very small compared with many other countries in the world. Most of England consists of rolling lowland terrain, divided from more mountainous.

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Presentation on theme: "The UK is very small compared with many other countries in the world. Most of England consists of rolling lowland terrain, divided from more mountainous."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The UK is very small compared with many other countries in the world. Most of England consists of rolling lowland terrain, divided from more mountainous terrain in the northwest, north and southwest by the Tees-Exe line. Lower ranges include the limestone hills of the Isle of Purbeck, Cotswolds and Lincolnshire Wolds, and the chalk downs of the Southern England Chalk Formation. The main rivers and estuaries are the Thames, Severn and the Humber Estuary. There are only nine other countries with more people, and London is the world's seventh biggest city. Near Dover, the Channel Tunnel links the United Kingdom with France. The main areas of highland are in Scotland, Wales and Cumbria. Scotland's geography is varied, with lowlands in the south and east and highlands in the north and west, including Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the British Isles at 1,343 metres. There are many long and deep-sea arms, firths, and lochs. Scotland has nearly eight hundred islands, mainly west and north of the mainland, notably the Hebrides, Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands. The capital city is Edinburgh, the centre of which is a World Heritage Site. The largest city is Glasgow. In total, it is estimated that the UK includes around one thousand islands. Wales is mostly mountainous, the highest peak being Snowdon at 1,085 metres above sea level. North of the mainland is the island of Anglesey. The largest and capital city is Cardiff in South Wales; it has been the Welsh capital city since The greatest concentration of people live in the south, in the cities of Swansea and Newport, as well as Cardiff, and the South Wales Valleys. The largest town in North Wales is Wrexham.

3 Holy Island Northumberland Yorkshire Tyne and Wear Shropshire Isles of Scilly Cornwall Devon Isle of Wight Brighton Dover Warwick Stratford upon Avon Gloucester Cambridge Next

4 The four capitals of the United Kingdom's constituent countries are London (England), Edinburgh (Scotland), Cardiff (Wales) and Belfast (Northern Ireland). London is by far the UK's largest city, with a population of more than seven million. Birmingham is next with around 970,000, followed by Glasgow, with a population of around 590,000. There are many different statistics and debates on which cities are the UK's largest, due to differences between the administrative boundaries and metropolitan areas of cities, and because of merging of settlements into conurbations. After London, the West Midlands conurbation (which contains the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton) is the second largest urban area with around 2.28 million, followed by the Greater Manchester Urban Area (which contains the cities of Manchester and Salford) with 2.24 million. At the April 2001 UK Census, the United Kingdom's population was 58,789,194, the third-largest in the European Union (behind Germany and France) and the twenty-first largest in the world. This had been estimated up to 59,834,300 by the Office for National Statistics in Two years later it had increased to 60.2 million, largely from net immigration, but also because of a rising birth rate and increasing life expectancy. The UK's overall population density is one of the highest in the world. About a quarter of the population lives in England's prosperous south-east and is predominantly urban and suburban, with an estimated 7,517,700 in the capital of London.

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7 Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. At the 2001 census, the town of Dover proper had a population of 28,156 inhabitants, while the population of the whole urban area of Dover, as calculated by the Office for National Statistics, was 39,078 inhabitants.The town is the administrative centre of the Dover district. Dover is famous for its white cliffs, which are made of chalk. The cliffs gave Britain its nickname of Albion, meaning "white". The town's name derives from the Brythonic Dubrās ("the waters"). Its closeness to continental Europe it is only 34 kilometres (21 miles) from the French port of Calais – makes Dover one of the United Kingdom's busiest cross- Channel ports, with 18 million passengers passing through each year.

8 The white cliffs of Dover, immortalized in popular song and verse, are cliffs which form part of the British coastline facing the Strait of Dover and France. The cliffs are part of the North Downs formation. The cliff face, which reaches up to 350 feet high, owes its striking façade to its composition of chalk (pure white lime) accentuated by streaks of black flint. The cliffs spread east and west from the town of Dover in the county of Kent, an ancient and still important English port.

9 The cliffs have great symbolic value for Britain because they face towards Continental Europe across the narrowest part of the English Channel, where invasions have historically threatened and against which the cliffs form a symbolic guard. Because crossing at Dover was the primary route to the continent before air travel, the white line of cliffs also formed the first (or last) sight of the UK for travellers. On a clear day, the cliffs are easily visible from the French coast.

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12 Cambridge is best known for the University of Cambridge, which includes the renowned Cavendish Laboratory, King's College Chapel, and the Cambridge University Library. The Cambridge skyline is dominated by the last two, along with the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital in the far south of the city and St John's College Chapel tower in the north. According to the 2001 census, the City's population was 108,863 (including 22,153 students). However, the population of the urban area, which includes parts of South Cambridgeshire district is estimated to be 130,000. The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire. It lies approximately 50 miles (80 km) north-northeast of London and is surrounded by a number of smaller towns and villages. It is also at the heart of the high- technology centre known as Silicon Fen.

13 The University of Cambridge is rich in history - its famous Colleges and University buildings attract visitors from all over the world. But the University's museums and collections also hold many treasures which give an exciting insight into some of the scholarly activities, both past and present, of the University's academics and students.

14 The University of Cambridge is one of the oldest universities in the world and one of the largest in the United Kingdom. Its reputation for outstanding academic achievement is known world-wide and reflects the intellectual achievement of its students, as well as the world-class original research carried out by the staff of the University and the Colleges. Many of the University's customs and unusual terminology can be traced to roots in the early years of the University's long history, and this booklet looks to the past to find the origins of much that is distinctive in the University of today. The University of Cambridge has more Nobel Prize winners than any other institution.

15 In 1209, students escaping from hostile townspeople in Oxford fled to Cambridge and formed a University there. The oldest college that still exists, Peterhouse, was founded in One of the most impressive buildings in Cambridge, King's College Chapel, was begun in 1446 by King Henry VI. The project was completed in 1515 during the reign of King Henry VIII. Cambridge University Press originated with a printing licence issued in Hobson's Conduit, the first project to bring clean drinking water to the town centre, was built in 1610 (by the Hobson of Hobson's choice). Parts of it survive today. Addenbrooke's Hospital was founded in The railway and station were built in According to legend, the University dictated their location: well away from the centre of town, so that the possibility of quick access to London would not distract students from their work. However, there is no basis for this in fact. Despite having a University, Cambridge was not granted its city charter until Cambridge does not have a cathedral, which was traditionally a pre-requisite for city status. Drawing on its links with the University, the Cambridge area today is sometimes referred to as Silicon Fen, due to the growth of high tech businesses and technology incubators that have sprung up in the series of science parks and other developments in and around the city. Such companies include Acorn Computers and Sinclair. The University was joined by the larger part of Anglia Ruskin University, and the educational reputation has led to other bodies (such as the Open University in East Anglia) basing themselves in the city. The University has a large number of museums that are open to the public.

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18 Brighton is located on the south coast of England, and together with its immediate neighbour Hove forms the city of Brighton and Hove. Brighton is one of the largest and most famous seaside resorts in the United Kingdom. With origins dating before the Domesday Book (1086), the ancient settlement of Brighthelmston emerged as an important health resort during the 18th century and a popular destination for day-trippers after the arrival of the railway in Brighton experienced rapid population growth reaching a peak of over 160,000 by Modern Brighton forms part of a conurbation stretching along the coast, known as the Brighton urban area by the Office for National Statistics, with a population of around 480,000. Brighton is a popular tourist resort with numerous hotels, restaurants and entertainment facilities, which additionally serve a substantial business conference industry. The modern city of Brighton and Hove is also an important educational centre with two universities and many English language schools.

19 A major tourist attraction is the pebble beach, which has a variety of bars, restaurants, night clubs and amusement arcades. Together with the attractions further inland, these contribute to Brighton being sometimes referred to as "London-by- the-sea"; it certainly offers one of the most accessible tourist beaches from London. Brighton beach has a designated official nudist area (south of the easterly part of Kemptown). This is unusual in that very few naturist beaches in the United Kingdom are located within urban areas. Brighton is associated with notable popular music artists including The Levellers, The Kooks and Fatboy Slim. There are over 365 pubs and many nightclubs. There are also many live music venues including the large Brighton Centre and the Concorde II'.

20 Brighton hosts a number of conferences including those held annually by major political parties, often based around the Brighton Centre, Grand Hotel and Metropole Hotel. A wide range of sport and leisure clubs, in particular cycling and motoring clubs, annually hold London to Brighton events, culminating in a display on the Madeira Drive section of the seafront, which is closed to traffic for this purpose on many Sundays throughout the summer months. Each May the city of Brighton and Hove hosts an arts festival. This includes organised processions such as the Children's Parade, outdoor spectaculars often involving pyrotechnics, and theatre, music and visual arts in venues throughout the city, some of which are brought into this use exclusively for the festival. The earliest feature of the festival, "Open Houses", are homes of artists and craftspeople, opened up to the public as galleries and usually selling the work of the inhabitant and their friends.

21 Brighton has a number of museums including the City- run Brighton Museum and Art Gallery, the Booth Museum of Natural History, the Brighton Fishing Museum and the Brighton Toy and Model Museum. There are many privately run galleries, including some in the arches on the seafront. A widespread practice is to display and sell art in cafés, and even bars. Churchill Square is an indoor shopping centre with a floor space of 470,000 sq ft (43,663 m²) and includes 85 shops, 5 restaurants and 1,600 car parking spaces. It was originally built in the 1960s as an open-air pedestrianised shopping centre, but was completely rebuilt in Further mainstream retail areas include Western Road and London Road. Brighton has a high density of businesses involved in media in general, particularly digital or "new media" companies, and since the 1990s has sometimes been referred to as "Silicon Beach".

22 The University of Brighton, the former Brighton Polytechnic, has a student population of 20,017 of which 80% are undergraduates. The University is located on several separate sites in Brighton, with additional buildings in Falmer and Eastbourne. The University of Sussex is a "plate glass university" based on a campus between Stanmer Park and Falmer, four miles from the city centre. It has a student population of 10,563 of which 70% are undergraduates. A wide range of non- university courses for students aged over 16, mainly in vocational education subjects, is provided at the further education college, City College Brighton & Hove.

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24 Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, Dorset and Somerset to the east. It is unique among English counties, in that it has two separated coastlines. Both parts of the Devon coastline are part of the South West Coast Path. Although Devon is now the formal and generally accepted name, for many centuries the county had been called "Devon" or "Devonshire", according to personal taste, and the latter remains in common usage. The name Devonshire still features in some names and titles (such as the Duke of Devonshire - although this title is not actually linked to Devon, the family estates being based in Derbyshire. The Earl of Devon was more closely linked with Devon), and is still to be seen on occasional signposts in the county and elsewhere. The Dorset and East Devon Coast, otherwise known as the Jurassic Coast, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Geologically, Devon, along with its neighbour Cornwall is known as the "Cornubian massif". Back to the Map

25 Cornwall (Cornish: Kernow) is a county in South West England, United Kingdom on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar. The administrative centre and only city is Truro, although historical capitals have been Launceston and Bodmin. Cornwall covers an area of 1,376 square miles (3,563 km²), including the Isles of Scilly, located 28 miles (45 km) offshore. Cornwall has a population of 513,528, with a population density of 144 people/km², or 373/mile². Tourism forms a significant part of the local economy; however, Cornwall is one of the poorest areas in the United Kingdom with the lowest per capita contribution to the national economy. Cornwall is the historic homeland of the Cornish people and also is considered one of the six historic "Celtic nations" by many residents. Some inhabitants question the present constitutional status of Cornwall, referring to it not as a county, but as a Duchy separate from England. Back to the Map

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27 The Isles of Scilly (Cornish: Ynysek Syllan) form an archipelago of islands off the southwesternmost tip of England. Traditionally administered as part of the county of Cornwall, the islands now have their own Council of the Isles of Scilly. They are also designated the Isles of Scilly Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The islands are correctly referred to as the Isles of Scilly, or simply as Scilly; the terms "Scillies" and "Scilly Isles" are considered incorrect by locals. The Isles of Scilly form an archipelago of six inhabited islands and numerous other small rocky islets (around 140 in total) lying 45 km (28 miles) off Land's End – the most southwesterly point of England. Back to the Map

28 IslandPopulation (Census 2001) Area km² Main town St. Mary's (main island)1, Hugh Town Tresco New Grimsby St. Martin's (with White Island) Higher Town St. Agnes Saint Agnes Gugh3 Bryher (with Gweal)921.32Bryher Samson-0.38 Annet-0.21 St. Helen's-0.20 Teän-0.16 Great Ganilly-0.13 Others-0.50 Isles of Scilly2, Hugh Town

29 Popular from Victorian times as a holiday resort, the Isle of Wight is known for its natural beauty and as home to the Royal Yacht Squadron at Cowes, a town that hosts a world famous annual regatta. Colloquially, it is known as "The Island" by its residents. It possesses a rich history including its own brief status as a vassal kingdom in the fifteenth century, home to poet Alfred Lord Tennyson and Queen Victoria's much loved summer residence and final home Osborne House. Its maritime history encompasses boat building and sail making through to the manufacture of flying boats and the world's first hovercraft. Its space history includes the launch of the Black Arrow and Black Knight space rockets. The Isle of Wight is an English island and county, off the southern English coast, to the south of the county of Hampshire. It is part of the United Kingdom. Back to the Map

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31 It is home to the Isle of Wight Festival, which, in 1970, was one of the largest rock music events ever held, with estimates reaching 600,000 attendees, overtaking the record set at Woodstock a year earlier. The Isle of Wight Festival was revived in 2002 to critical acclaim, headliners in 2006 were Coldplay, Foo Fighters and The Prodigy. The island is also one of the richest fossil locations for dinosaurs in Europe. The island is the smallest ceremonial county in England (when not including Bristol or the City of London) at 380 km², just beating the revived Rutland at 382 km². With just one Member of Parliament and 132,731 permanent residents in the 2001 census, it is also the most populated Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom. In 686 AD, it became the last part of the British Isles to convert to Christianity, almost a century after the rest of Great Britain.

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33 Ironbridge is a settlement beside the River Severn, at the heart of the Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, England. It lies in the parish of The Gorge, in the borough of Telford and Wrekin. The village grew up beside, and takes its name from the famous Iron Bridge, a 30 metre (100 foot) cast iron bridge that was built across the river there in The area around Ironbridge is described as the "Birthplace of the Industrial Revolution" because it includes Coalbrookdale and Broseley, where Abraham Darby I perfected the technique of smelting iron with coke, allowing much cheaper production of iron. The grandson of the first Abraham Darby, Abraham Darby III, built the famous bridge to link the two areas in Soon afterwards the ancient Madeley market was relocated to the new purpose built Square and Georgian Butter Cross and the former dispersed settlement of Madeley Wood gained a planned urban focus as Ironbridge, the commercial and administrative centre of the Coalbrookdale coalfield. The Iron Bridge proprietors also built the Tontine Hotel to accommodate visitors to the new Bridge and the industrial sights of the Gorge. On the hillside above the river are situated, the stone-built 16th century hunting Lodge at Lincoln Hill, many 17th and 18th century workers cottages, some imposing Georgian houses built by ironmasters and mine and barge owners, and many early Victorian villas built from the various coloured bricks and tiles of the locality.

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35 The Ironbridge By the 19th century, Ironbridge had had many well-known visitors including Benjamin Disraeli, but by the mid-20th century the village was in decline. In 1986 though, Ironbridge became part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site (which covers the wider Ironbridge Gorge area) and has become a tourist attraction. Most industries in Ironbridge are now tourist related; however, the Merrythought teddy bear company (established in 1931) was still manufacturing in Ironbridge until December 2006, when the factory was closed. An annual Coracle Regatta is held in August on the River Severn at Ironbridge, along with many other events throughout the year.

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37 The Severn Valley is a rural area of mid-western England, through which the River Severn runs and the Severn Valley Railway steam heritage line operates, starting at its northernmost point in Bridgnorth Shropshire and running south for 25km (15 miles) to Bewdley Worcestershire and the Wyre Forest. The area is about 40km (25 miles) due west of Birmingham in the Midlands. There is also use of this term to apply to areas around the River Severn as far south as as Gloucester, and as far north as Ironbridge. To the north of Bridgnorth, the area around the river becomes much steeper and is known as Ironbridge Gorge. From Bewdley south to Gloucester, the riverside has a much larger flood plain and loses its distinctive "valley" hillsides. To the south of Gloucester, it becomes the Severn Estuary.

38 There are riverside footpaths throughout almost the entire length of the Severn Valley on both sides, including the Severn Way long distance footpath, making it a popular haunt for anglers and ramblers, often combining a leisurely walk with a return trip on the Severn Valley Railway. A number of traditional pubs cater for the tourist trade. At the centre of the area, between Highley and Alveley, is the Severn Valley Country Park, with level-access and wide flat footpaths for wheelchair users, plus conveniences and a small visitors' centre. During summer, it is sometimes possible to ford the river at almost any point along the Severn Valley, but due to the deep, fast-flowing and often non-visible river channels, it can be dangerous to do so without specific local knowledge.

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41 The town is also famous for the impressive Warwick Castle, the construction of which began in 1068, which attracts huge numbers of tourists from around the world. The town centre is also known for its historic architecture, and contains a mixture of Tudor and 17th-century buildings. At the Heart of England, Warwick has a wealth of specialist independent shops, restaurants, pubs and accommodation. There is also a vibrant cultural scene with three internationally renowned annual festivals ranging from the Spoken Word, Classical and Contemporary Music to a Folk Festival and the World Famous Victorian Evening, held in late November or early December. Warwick Chamber of Trade helps to promote the town for visitors, residents and businesses.

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43 Warwick Castle overlooking the River Avon, lies in the town of Warwick of the English county of Warwickshire. It is traditionally associated with the earldom of Warwick, one of the oldest in England. In the year 1264, the castle was seized by the forces of Simon de Montfort, who consequently imprisoned the current Earl, William Mauduit, and his countess at Kenilworth (who were supporters of the king and loyals to the barons) until a ransom was paid. After the death of William Mauduit, the title and castle were passed to William de Beauchamp. Following the death of William de Beauchamp, Warwick Castle subsequently passed through seven generations of the Beauchamp family, who over the next 180 years were responsible for the majority of the additions made to Warwick Castle.

44 After the death of the last direct-line Beauchamp, Anne, the title of Earl of Warwick, as well as the castle, passed to Richard Neville ("the Kingmaker"), who married the sister of the last Earl (Warwick was unusual in that the earldom could be inherited through the female line). Warwick Castle then passed from Neville to his son-in-law (and brother of Edward IV of England), George Plantagenet, and shortly before the Duke's death, to his son, Edward. After passing through the hands of 20 more Earls (and three more creations of the title), Warwick Castle has now become a member of the Treasure Houses of England, a heritage consortium founded in the early 1970s by ten of the foremost stately homes in England still in private ownership with the aim of marketing and promoting themselves as tourist venues. In 1978, Warwick Castle was sold to the Tussauds Group, a large visitor attraction business. The Tussauds Group have performed extensive restorations to the castle and grounds in addition to opening its gates to the public.

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46 Gloucester is the county town of Gloucestershire. In 2003 the city proper had a population of 110,207. It is located on the eastern bank of the River Severn 114 miles west-north-west of London. It is sheltered by the Cotswolds to the east, while the Forest of Dean and the Malvernh Hills rise prominently to the west and north-west, respectively. Gloucester is a port, linked via the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal to the Severn Estuary, allowing larger ships to reach the docks than would be possible on the tidal reaches of the river itself.

47 Gloucester Cathedral Gloucester Cathedral, in the north of the city near the river, originates in the foundation of an abbey dedicated to Saint Peter in 681. It is the burial place of King Edward II of England, Walter de Lacy and was recently used in scenes for the Harry Potter films. Attached to the deanery is the Norman prior's chapel. In St Mary's Square outside the Abbey gate, Bishop Hooper suffered martyrdom under Queen Mary I in 1555.

48 Churches There may be many churches now, but in the past there were also many dissenting chapels. Four of the churches that are of special interest are: St Mary de Lode, this has a Norman tower and chancel and a monument of Bishop Hooper. It was built on the site of an Ancient Roman temple which became the first Christian church to be in Britain St Mary de Crypt, is a cruciform structure of the 12th century. It has later additions, such as the beautiful and lofty tower The St Michael church was said to have been connected with the St Peter ancient abbey The St Nicholas church that was originally from the Norman erection possessed a tower and other objects since then In the neighbourhood where St Mary de Crypt is there are slight remains of Greyfriars and Blackfriars monasteries, and also of the city wall. Under the Fleece and Saracen's Head inns early vaulted cellars still remain.

49 Schools There are three endowed schools: The King's School, refounded by Henry VIII of England as part of the cathedral establishment; the school of St Mary de Crypt, founded by Dame Joan Cooke in the same reign (1539); and Sir Thomas Rich's Blue Coat Hospital for boys (1666). At the Crypt school the famous preacher George Whitefield ( ) was educated, and he preached his first sermon in the church. Modern buildings Noteworthy modern buildings include the museum and school of art and science, the county gaol (on the site of a Saxon and Norman castle), the Shire Hall and the Whitefield memorial church. A park in the south of the city contains a spa, a chalybeate spring having been discovered in West of this, across the canal, are the remains (a gateway and some walls) of Llanthony Priory, a cell of the mother abbey in the vale of Ewyas, Monmouthshire, which in the reign of Edward IV became the secondary establishment. King's Square is at the heart of the city centre and occupies what was once a cattle market and bus station. Officially opened in 1972, it was the centrepiece of a radical redesign of the city, The Jellicoe Plan, which was first proposed in Many of the features of the redevelopment have since been dismantled; the brutalist concrete fountains in the middle of the square have gone and the overhead roadways which linked three multi storey car parks around the centre have been either closed or dismantled. The present main bus station received a Civic Trust Award in 1963 but is now tatty and unwelcoming. An indoor market opened in Eastgate Street in 1968, followed shortly afterwards by the Eastgate Shopping Centre.

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53 Stratford-upon-Avon is a town on the River Avon in south Warwickshire, England. In 2001 the town had a population of 23,676. The town is the birthplace and deathbed of William Shakespeare and because of its Shakespearian connections the area is a popular tourist destination, receiving about three million visitors a year from all over the world. But what is claimed to be Shakespeare's birthplace is not in fact his origin of birth; he was born in the house next door which was mistakenly demolished. The local district is named after the town, but the district is called Stratford-on-Avon, whereas the town is officially called Stratford-upon-Avon. Locally, the town is known as Stratford for short, and as such can be confused with the Stratford in the London Borough of Newham.

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55 The town is located on the Avon, on the banks of which stands the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, home of the Royal Shakespeare Company. The RSC also runs two smaller theatres, the Swan, which is modelled on an Elizabethan theatre, and The Other Place, a black box theatre. There is currently also the temporary Courtyard Theatre, opened in July 2006, which will become the home of the RSC while the RST is being refurbished, beginning in mid Early in 2006 The Other Place temporarily ceased to exist because the space it occupied is being used as the Courtyard Theatre's foyer space, cloakroom, bar areas, dressing room and rehearsal space. The Other Place will be reinstated after the RST refurbishment is complete and the Courtyard Theatre is dismantled. Other tourist attractions within the town include the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust and two contemporary buildings, Hall's Croft (the one-time home of Shakespeare's daughter, Susannah) and New Place, which stands on the site of an earlier house originally owned by the playwright himself. Also within the town is Holy Trinity Church, where Shakespeare was baptised and is buried. Near to the town are several other properties associated with Shakespeare: Anne Hathaway's Cottage at Shottery, the former home of Shakespeare's wife, Mary Arden's House, the former home of his mother, and farms and buildings at Snitterfield, the former home of his father.

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59 For more than 2000 years Yorkshire has dared to be different. Once a kingdom in its own right, the region has never lost that sense of being special. The drama of its landscapes, the raw power of its history ad the vigour of its culture mark his as a place where ordinary just wont do.

60 The Yorkshire Dales offers a priceless gift and a landscape to be carefully enjoyed for generations to come. The beauty of the Dales is well known. It is an area of many moods. It can be described as wild, expansive, tranquil, charming and, at times, even awesome. However you wish to describe it, the Dales unquestionably includes some of the finest upland scenery in the country, making it the perfect place to enjoy, whatever the season. The most popular trademark of the area is the network of dry stone walls, marking ancient field boundaries. Although this is a dying art, expert wallers still hold contests in the Dales, attracting visitors from miles around. Timeless landscapes beckon the visitor to sample. From Arkengarthdale in the north to Wharfedale in the south, majestic scenery is the setting for picturesque villages, bustling market towns, caves, castles and rivers.

61 York is one of the most intriguing cities in England. A city layered with history, beauty and variety. Superbly preserved, York has witnessed more than 2000 years of vibrant history. Attractions in York: Castle Museum - England's most popular museum of everyday life including reconstructed streets and period rooms, costume and jewellery, arms and armour, craft workshops; Let 21st century technology transport you back to Viking Age York at JORVIK Clifford's Tower - Once the central stronghold of York Castle, the tower has much more turbulent origins. It was at the heart of William the Conqueror's fearsome Harrying of the North campaign after his 1066 invasion. For centuries after, the King's Tower played a key role in the control of England surviving flood, fire and siege. The ruin still bears the name of the medieval aristocratic traitor who was hung from the walls - uncover the story behind this and other great events in York as you take in the majestic views over the North's first city.

62 York Dungeon - wander through the terrifying Castle Howard - home to the Howard family since 1699, Castle Howard is so much more than just a magnificent 18th Century house with extensive collections and breathtaking parkland and gardens. Welcoming around 200,000 visitors a year, Castle Howard provides a range of activities to suit both groups and individuals. Newby Hall & Garden - one of England's renowned Adam houses, an exceptional example of 18thC interior decoration. Contents include unique Gobelins tapestry room, classical statuary and fine Chippendale furniture. With 25 acres of award-winning gardens, exciting adventure garden for children, miniature railway, woodland discovery walk, contemporary sculpture park, garden restaurant and plant centre. Collection of chamberpots, replica collection of Crown Jewels plus national collection of genus cornus.

63 Duncombe Park - the only stately home in the North York Moors National Park, 60 years a school, now restored to a magnificent family home by Lord and Lady Feversham. The original 18thC house was remodelled after a serious fire in the late 19thC. Grand interiors and fine family pictures. Unique 35-acre, 18thC landscaped garden with terraces, lawns, superb trees, temples and fine views, a 400-acre park with waymarked country walks. Exhibitions and events. Parkland centre, licensed tearoom, playground, nature reserve and orienteering.

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65 This is a stunning region of country walks and strolls along a picturesque coast. An historic area of castles and magnificent gardens with heritage around every corner. A friendly county of family hotels, country pubs and charming cottages

66 NORTHUMBERLAND NATIONAL PARK Northumberland National Park is an area of wild moorland, spectacular views and open spaces, located close to the English and Scottish border between the city of Newcastle and the border town of Carlisle. At its southern end, it encompasses the Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site - a stone wall built by the Roman Emperor Hadrian in AD122. The route of the Wall, in many parts well preserved, is closely followed by the Hadrian's Wall Path National Trail, linking many Roman forts, museums and visitor attractions. Another long distance trail, the Pennine Way also follows sections of the Hadrian's Wall. There are also two National Cycle Routes in the Hadrian's Wall Corridor, and many rides are possible using quiet roads and lanes.

67 NORTHUMBERLAND Unwind in wide, wide spaces and on long, long beaches; explore grand castles and charming market towns, hear echoes of Roman legionaries and the silence of green forests. Northumberland's peaceful nature belies a turbulent past: there more castles here than anywhere else in England. Some are still lived in, such as Alnwick, familiar as Harry Potter's Hogwarts School, while others are romantic ruins. Much of the 1900-year-old Hadrian's Wall still stands, and its route is now a World Heritage Site and National Trail. Walkers and picnickers can enjoy Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty at the North Pennines and Northumberland Coast, and the rolling Cheviot Hills in the Northumberland National Park. You can also sit in a Skyspace and get lost in a maze, two of the fascinating sculptures around Kielder Water and Forest.

68 HADRIANS WALL The peaceful byways of Hadrian's Wall Country are ideal for exploring the beautiful northern countryside. And when you visit, you will know that the emphasis is on the country. From the Scottish border in the North the area contains the widest range of different landscapes that anyone could wish to explore. The ridge of the Great Whin Sill forms crags and cliffs, which acted as a natural defence in Roman times. Today they provide a vantage point over looking the rolling hills of the Northumberland National Park, and further afield across the Tyne valley to the moors of the North Pennines. Hadrian's Wall Country is steeped in history and will reveal a wealth of things to see, and numerous attractions to visit en route. Castles, gardens, visitor centres and museums all now nestle in the country the Romans left behind.

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70 Newcastle upon Tyne (most usually shortened to Newcastle) is a city in north-east England. Situated inside the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear. Newcastle is situated on the north bank of the River Tyne, and was founded in Roman times under the name Pons Aelius.

71 County Durham, Land of the Prince Bishops is a short drive from Newcastle and Teesside Airports and North Shields Ferry Terminal. Located on the London – Edinburgh railway and motorway routes. The Countys fascinating heritage and outstanding scenery make it an ideal holiday destinatin. Once the Prince Bishops of Durham ruled this land like Kings. Their magnificent Norman cathedral and castle dominate the skyline of historic Durhan city. In their shadow, twisting medieval streets and wooded riverbanks delight the visitor to this ancient city best explored on foot. New facilities in Durhan include the Gala Theatre and Visitor Centre. County Durhams impressive castles were built to defend Englands North Country. Auckland, Durham, Raby and Barnard Castles are all open to the public and Lumley Castle is a luxurious hotel famous for its Elizabethan banquets. The Durham Dales from part of the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Wooded valleys, meandering rivers, waterfalls, high moorland, spectacular views and attractive stone built villages captivate the visitors. Barnard Castle, a traditional market town, is full of character and home to the spectacular Bowes Museum, a treasure house of paintings and decorative arts.

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73 Back to the Map

74 Lindisfarne, Also called Holy Island, is a tidal island off the north-east coast of England, which is connected to the mainland of Northumberland by a causeway and is cut off twice a day by tides. Lindisfarne Castle Sited atop the volcanic mound known as Beblowe Craig, Lindisfarne Castle is one of the most distinct and picturesque features of the Island and can be seen for many miles around.

75 Lindisfarne Priori - following the Norman conquest and the ensuing religious changes the famous Benedictine Priory was built during the late 11th century. Contrary to popular belief it appears not to have been built on the site of the Irish monastery founded by St.Aidan. Indeed there may be evidence that the new landlords went to a great deal of trouble to remove all traces of the old order. Nevertheless, the Priory was undoubtedly, even for its time, a great feat of civil engineering. There are many unique features for the visitor to discover and it is certainly well worth spending some time in the associated museum. While you are there, do look around the Parish Church which does have connections with the ancient 7th century monastery as well as traces of Saxon architecture.

76 So as you can see, England is worth visiting, not only for language courses or job, but also for sightseeing. And I don't mean only London or Liverpool, but also not as well known areas like Ironbridge, Yorkshire, Devon etc. Wykonanie: Bartoszczyk Krystian – materiały Bielicka Malwina – grafika/dtp/skład - visual, materiały Ciesielski Michał – układ, audio, materiały Fałkowska Anna – materiały Godyń Katarzyna – materiały Kubacka Ewelina – materiały Zawitowska Katarzyna - materiały Once again?


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