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Surprising Insights: Literacy and Music? Music Across the Curriculum Darlene M. Michener, Ph.D. - CSULA Holly A. Reed, M.Ed., Vista School District.

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Presentation on theme: "Surprising Insights: Literacy and Music? Music Across the Curriculum Darlene M. Michener, Ph.D. - CSULA Holly A. Reed, M.Ed., Vista School District."— Presentation transcript:

1 Surprising Insights: Literacy and Music? Music Across the Curriculum Darlene M. Michener, Ph.D. - CSULA Holly A. Reed, M.Ed., Vista School District

2 When the economy slows, many districts cut pieces of the Curriculum. Quick Fix? Poor Solution? You decide...

3 Lets examine - research … 1 of those pieces often cut from the curriculum… Music Literacy & Music I.Q. Test Well use a Fun Little

4 Jot down your answers to the following Questions… Does music increase the power of the Brain? Music cant really increase Reading Achievement Test Scores…or can it? Can Music contribute to increasing the literacy skills of At-Risk students? Can music help students Read better? Does music help students - learn language, and assist with - second language acquisition? Water Music (Handel)

5 6. 6. Music in the schools increases Attendance (thereby enhancing literacy). --True or False? Can learning through music increase achievement in Other Curricular areas? Is there any evidence that increased literacy through music, helps more students get into and do better in College? Bonus Question Which is proper? Egg yolks is white Egg yolks are white

6 Think You better think (think) think about what you're trying to do to me. Yeah, think (think, think), let your mind go, let yourself be free. 1. Does Music increase the Power of the Brain?

7 Let's go back, let's go back, let's go way on back when I didn't even know you, you came to me and too much you wouldn't take I ain't no psychiatrist, I ain't no doctor with degree It don't take too much high IQ's to see what you're doing to me You better think (think) think about what you're trying to do to me Yeah, think (think, think) let your mind go, let yourself be free. Oh freedom (freedom), freedom (freedom), freedom, yeah freedom Freedom (freedom), freedom (freedom), freedom, ooh freedom There ain't nothing you could ask I could answer you but I won't (I won't) I was gonna change, but I'm not, to keep doing things I don't You better think (think) think about what you're trying to do to me Yeah, think (think, think), let your mind go, let yourself be free People walking around everyday, playing games that they can score And I ain't gonna be the loser my way, ah, be careful you don't lose yours You better think (think) think about what you're trying to do to me Yeah, think (think, think), let your mind go, let yourself be free You need me (need me) and I need you (don't you know) Without each other there ain't nothing people can do Oh freedom (freedom), freedom (freedom), freedom, yeah freedom Freedom (freedom), freedom (freedom), freedom, ooh freedom There ain't nothing you could ask I could answer you but I won't (I won't) I was gonna change, but I'm not, if you're doing things I don't You better think (think) think about what you're trying to do to me Yeah, think (think, think), let your mind go, let yourself be free You need me (need me) and I need you (don't you know) Without each other there ain't nothing people can do (Think about, ah me, think about, ah me, Think about, ah me, think about it) (Think about, ah me, think about, ah me, Think about, ah me, think about it) (Think about, ah me, think about, ah me, Think about, ah me, think about it) (Think about, ah me, think about, ah me, Think about, ah me, think about it) You had better stop and think before you think, think!!

8 Latest Brain Research …beginning to show… 1. 1.Music Education increasesNeuroplasticity (….changes in neural pathways and synapses ) (~ Piagets Assimilation and Accommodation) … actuallyPhysically increases Brain Development (Wesson, 2003) For example - Section of the Brain responsible for Planning, Coordination, (the front of the corpus callosum that connects the two sides of the prefrontal cortex) Substantially Larger for musicians (Begley, 2000) … Musicians become more efficient at - Organizing - Multi-tasking (Ratey, 2001) …important for balancing Reading Skills -Decoding, -Comprehension

9 Latest Brain Research 2. 2.Multi-Sensory Experiences (like Music) - Create Additional Linkages with the sub-corticalsub-cortical brain structures (~inner part of an orange) responsible for basic reflex processes - circulation, movement) - Strengthen Brain Connections throughout the whole cerebral cortex cerebral cortex (Wesson, 2009) (~skin of an orange) deeply folded 6-layer neural tissue sheet, divided into left and right hemispheres - memory, paying attention, thinking, language… - and Speeds Up the brains network of activity …which Increases Intelligence (van den Heuvel, 2009) … the Neurological Explanation for …that Famous Study from the 80s (Royer, 1987) - Addition of Music Education Raised I.Q. scores for 2nd graders

10 Latest Brain Research --beginning to show… 3. 3.Students who begin music before age 7 have thicker Corpus Callosums …the bundle of nerve fibers that connects (and helps with communication between) the two brain hemispheres (Ester, 2009)

11 …the more Connections through the Corpus Callosum …by something affecting both sides of the brain ( ex. multisensory experiences like Music) Left - Language Right - distinguishing Musical Intonations …the more integrated the information becomes in a persons memory, …better Learned, and better Retained (Campbell,1992)

12 Research example… 3-year study - Univ. of Washington …5 th graders With music, surpassed 5 th graders Without music Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) (Holmes, 1989) 2. Music cant really increase Reading Achievement Test Scores …or can it?

13 In 1999, the College Board documented a 100 point gap in SAT scores students who had music instruction in their early elementary school years students who did not …The longer students studied music, the greater the gap in scores! (U.S. House of Representatives Education Caucus Testimony, July 1999) In fact…..Life…twins!

14 1. 1.Develop essential Test Taking skills Memory Concentration (Demorest & Morrison, 2000; Fujioka, et. al., 2006) 2. Learn to Think Creatively …and Become Better Problem-Solvers by imagining various solutions and rejecting outdated assumptions (Phillips, 2009) Research Shows that Students of the Arts

15 Research also shows that Music can help increase Scores for Reading -Fluency -Vocabulary - Comprehension …Reading with Expression …How to Read Poetry (stopping at end of sentence, not end of line…) …etc. Other Curricular Standards

16 Reading Fluency …a major focus in current curriculum standards The best way to develop Reading Fluency is - R eading and Re-Reading familiar material Reading Song Lyrics …is perfect! >>>>>>> So, lets take a look at how Music can enhance…

17 What a Wonderful World (Louis Armstrong) I see trees of green, Red Roses too. I see them bloom For me and you. And I think to myself, what a wonderful world. I see skies of blue, And clouds of white. The bright blessed day, dark sacred night. And I think to myself, what a wonderful world. The colors of the rainbow, so pretty in the sky Are also on the faces, of people going by I see friends shaking hands, sayin', "How do you do?" They're really sayin', "I love you" I hear babies cryin', I watch them grow They'll learn much more, than I'll ever know And I think to myself What a wonderful world Yes, I think to myself What a wonderful world Oh yeah

18 Using a Popular (or obsure) song your kids will like: 1.Full Group – the Song Sing the Song as they sing (Karaoke style) Reading the lyrics as they sing (Karaoke style) … from an overhead, powerpoint, or chart. … from an overhead, powerpoint, or chart. 2.Small Groups – Re-read verses Re-read verses …to practice Fluency Discuss their opinions about Discuss their opinions about the meanings behind the lyrics …vocabulary; comprehension

19 3.Group Share – Share their group discussion highlights Share their group discussion highlights 4.Individuals – Individual students Re-Read Parts of the Lyrics Individual students Re-Read Parts of the Lyrics until all lyrics are read. ….until all lyrics are read. 5. Mini-lesson – Reading Lyrics Reading Lyrics as Poetry as Poetry …stopping at ends of sentences rather than at breaks in lyrics/rhythm with Expression with Expression

20 6.Small Groups/Individuals – Write and Perform Write and Perform …a new verse Generic Follow-Up Ideas (See Handout)

21 Language Arts – Language Arts – …find a Song that exemplifies a language arts focus (grammar/punctuation/spelling…) Students Students re-read lyrics silently re-read lyrics silently search for examples of that object ive search for examples of that object ive ex. search for adjectives in the song, discuss ex. search for adjectives in the song, discuss compound words, find –ing endings or prepositions… compound words, find –ing endings or prepositions… Map Reading Skills Reinforcement – Map Reading Skills Reinforcement – … a song to reinforce map locations … a song to reinforce map locations (ex. …Route 66) invent a make-believe travelogue invent a make-believe travelogue Comprehension – (5th grade) Comprehension – (5th grade) …ex. Analyze the words of Star Spangled Banner …ex. Analyze the words of Star Spangled Banner

22 Vocabulary – Vocabulary – …find a Song where the words from the song include vocabulary words Comprehension/Vocabulary/Art – Comprehension/Vocabulary/Art – … illustrate a picture/collage/painting … illustrate a picture/collage/painting using the words from the song Spelling – Spelling – …Making Words with letter tiles for song word(s) ex. Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious -- How many words can you make out of the letters of that word? Poetry – Poetry – …using a song such as De Colores read the song text as a poem

23 Writing – Writing – …write a script that would lead up to the song, or would come after the song and perform it as a Readers Theater and perform it as a Readers Theater (ex. Day- O) … This would also allow the students to learn the aspects of script writing. Anticipatory Set of a Lesson - Anticipatory Set of a Lesson - …songs can be a great engagement for a new lesson Social Studies – Social Studies – …students learn 50 Nifty United States to have students learn names of all the states …and putting them in alphabetical order

24 Characterization, Setting… – Characterization, Setting… – …discuss attributes; characteristics; historical setting (ex. Oh, Susanna) (ex. Oh, Susanna) Music – Music – …read a story …then use instruments to represent the characters (as in Peter and the Wolf) Drama –– Drama –– …sing the words to a story as a song to a familiar tune (such as Mary Had a Little Lamb melody) Vocal Music Performance – Vocal Music Performance – …listen to / read / sing …listen to / read / sing the same song by different artists Math – Math – …draw a Venn diagram …compare two or more versions of the song

25 The Climb Listen to a little bit of The Climb (Miley Cyrus) (Miley Cyrus) I can almost see it. That dream I'm dreaming, but There's a voice inside my head saying You'll never reach it. Every step I'm takin' Every move I make Feels lost with no direction, My faith is shakin But I, I gotta keep tryin' Gotta keep my head held high… 3. Can Music contribute to Increasing the Literacy Skills of At-Risk students?

26 There's always gonna be another mountain I'm always gonna wanna make it move Always gonna be an uphill battle Sometimes I'm gonna have to lose Ain't about how fast I get there Ain't about what's waitin' on the other side It's the climb The struggles I'm facing The chances I'm taking Sometimes might knock me down, but No I'm not breaking I may not know it, but These are the moments that I'm gonna remember most, yeah Just gotta keep goin', And I, I gotta be strong Just keep pushing on, 'cause There's always gonna be another mountain I'm always gonna wanna make it move Always gonna be an uphill battle Sometimes I'm gonna have to lose Ain't about how fast I get there Ain't about what's waitin' on the other side It's the climb Yeah There's always gonna be another mountain I'm always gonna wanna make it move Always gonna be an uphill battle Somebody's gonna have to lose Ain't about how fast I get there Ain't about what's waitin' on the other side It's the climb Yeah, yeah Keep on movin' Keep climbin' Keep the faith baby It's all about, it's all about The climb Keep the faith, keep your faith, whoa

27 At-Risk students who participate in music show significant increases in Self-Concept (Barry, 1992) … Theres a +.35 Correlation between Self-Concept & Reading Ability …Music Education teachers, …Mentor same students, Over Several Academic Years, …Consistently enhancing students self-esteem

28 Lower Dropout rates Ensemble Performance Experience Dropout Rate 0 years experience = 7.4% dropout 1-2 years =1% dropout (Chute, 1998) Lower Arrest records Criminal Records, Rhode Island residents (birth – 30) the more music involvement, the lower the arrest record (Gardiner, 1996) Students are Less Disruptive in Total student Population= 12.14% in Music student Population= 8.08% (National Data Resource Center -Aleman, et al., 2003) Research with At-Risk Students also shows…

29 Music students less likely - - drugs - - alcohol & tobacco - - involved with Gangs (ex. H. Con. Res. 266, US Senate, June 13, 2000) (Rural and Urban Inner-City schools) --Music and Arts Program Students - better at Critical-Thinking - better Problem-Solving skills (Stevenson & Deasy, 2006) 7 studies consistently show Music Education Helps Students disengaged from school more effectively Connect with Peers (Champions of Change - Fiske, 1999)

30 Lets Listen to a little bit of this one… What song is this? What song is this?ABC… (Twinkle Twinkle) 4. Can Music help students Read better?

31 Dr. Joyce Bales (Former Superintendent -Vista Unified School District ) Correspondence, 8/1/09 I believe you are right about the connection between music and literacy. Most of us learned to sing our ABCs at a very young age.

32 There appears to be Cross-disciplinary Learning decoding musical notes and decoding symbols (The College Board, 2001) Music = ordered and predictable sequences of sounds and symbols Reading = ordered and predictable sequences of sounds and symbols too! Decoding sound and symbol patterns in music, sets up Electrical & Chemical Pathways (synapses) in the Brain ~ a Roadmap for Decoding Symbol Patterns in Reading (Elliott, 1995)

33 Music Training… 1. helps Hearing – to distinguish precise acoustics (Phonemic Awareness) 2.teaches How to Transpose those sounds, into symbols (Phonics) 3.and How to Translate those Symbols, in context into auditory images (Reading) … and conversely, the reversal, Encoding (Writing) (Madaule, 1997; Milley et. al., 1983)

34 More Physical Evidence… The BRAINs Planum Temporale (tem-pə- ˈ rā-lē) region …auditory region of the left cerebral cortex related to language skills: Speaking, Reading, Writing, Spelling… is Larger in musicians (Pantev et al., 1998) …and they show increases in reading achievement that same Planum Temporale (tem-pə- ˈ rā-lē) region is Smaller in students with dyslexia (a brain related reading difficulty) (Sherman, 2009)

35 Research with Rhythm Training … 1.Students with ADHD given rhythm training improve in Focus and in - Math - Language - Spelling - Reading (Shaffer et al., 2001) 2. Students who can perform complex Rhythms… make faster and more precise Corrections in many academic situations …that agility appears to assist music students achieve more accurate Comprehension

36 Comprehension Strategy Songs from Capo Unified School District Visualize …to the tune of Jingle Bells Visualize, visualize I can visualize! Words make pictures in my head, of all that Ive just read! Visualize, visualize I can visualize! People, places come alive, when I visualize! Questioning …to the tune of Are you Sleeping? I ask questions, I ask quesitons, As I read- Who… Who… what, where, when and why Who… Ill find answers.

37 Monitor and Clarify …to the tune of This Old Man Monitor,Clarify, When youre reading you must try… To decode a word, that you havent read before. Look for clues, and youll learn more! Making Connections …to the tune of La Cucaracha Make a connection, make a connection, To things I already know. Its happened to me. or I read it be-fore, Then I want to read some more!

38 Predicting (to the tune of Row, Row, Row Your Boat) What will happen next? I wonder what will be? I think Ill predict and then, Ill read and I will see… Was I right or wrong? Now I will confirm. Predicting helps me understand, All that I have learned. Summarize (to the the of Jingle Bells) Summarize, summarize I can summarize! Retell the parts that I just read, Remember what I read! Summarize, summarize I can summarize The story makes a lot more sense When I summarize! (repeat)

39 Vocabulary in the songs is great context and also …the related background information can lead to great discussions! Example:Star Spangled Banner Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming? … 5. Does Music help students Learn Language, and even Assist with Second Language Acquisition?

40 Whose broad stripes and bright stars… thro' the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watch'd, were so gallantly streaming? And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there. O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? On the shore dimly seen thro' the mists of the deep, Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes, What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep, As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses? Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam, In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream: 'Tis the star-spangled banner: O, long may it wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave! And where is that band who so vauntingly swore That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion A home and a country should leave us no more? Their blood has wash'd out their foul footsteps' pollution. No refuge could save the hireling and slave From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave: And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. O, thus be it ever when freemen shall stand, Between their lov'd homes and the war's desolation; Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land Praise the Pow'r that hath made and preserv'd us a nation! Then conquer we must, when our cause is just, And this be our motto: "In God is our trust" And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

41 Music is the Universal Language one of the Multiple Intelligences identified by Howard Gardner (1983) one of the Core Academic Subjects in No Child Left Behind act (2002)

42 Music and Language are Linked in the Brain from the earliest stages of infancy! (…as the infant processes sounds of voices) (Garifias, 1990) Music is linked to a greater capacity to process All Sounds …including Speech (Aleman et al., 2003)

43 Music students – are trained to listen precisely …which contributes significantly to ability for language acquisition communication in school (Madaule, 1998; Tucker, 1981) 2 year Swiss Study – 1,200 children in 50 schools - better at Languages - learned to Read more easily - had Lower Stress levels (Weber et al., 1993 in Phillips, 2009)

44 Krashens Affective Filter Hypothesis (Krashen, 1985) Music (primarily Right side of the Brain …which involves Emotion) facilitates Concentration and Relaxation reduces Stress of Second Language Learning

45 Day O Harry Belafonte Harry Belafonte Day-o, day-ay-ay-o Daylight come and he wan' go home. Day, he say day, he say day, he say day, he say day, he say day-ay-ay-o. Daylight come and he wan' go home. 6. Music in the schools Increases Attendance thereby Enhancing Literacy. --True or False?

46 Research has discovered - music helps math critical thinking Reading SAT scores self-discipline and… School Attendance! Thats right, a summary of studies revealed (Critical Links, 2006) …a connection between The Arts and increased student Motivation improved School Attendance and Higher Education Aspirations!

47 Students involved in music have Significantly Higher Attendance rates than their comparison groups …due to increased interest in learning (Aschbache & Herman, 1991) Harris Poll 96% of Principals Agree music education encourages and motivates students to stay in school 89% of Principals Agree music contributes to schools higher graduation rates! (Harris, 2006)

48 Students failing - in other subjects often find they can be successful in Music …so they suddenly become more motivated to succeed in reading, math, and all of their subjects! However, Dr. Kenneth Wesson (expert on brain & learning) points out an interesting paradox:

49 Unfortunately schools spend an inordinate amount of Time identifying Academic Deficiencies and devote even greater numbers of hours to subsequent Remediation by concentrating on a students Problem Areas Instead schools should focus on further Cultivation of a students Strengths …that indicate the presence of Healthy, Efficiently working Neural Networks. (e.g., Clifton & Anderson, 2002; Kovalik & Olsen, 2001) This focus will result in far more Cognitive Resources to work with in any plan for …skill level enhancements in the classroom. (Wesson, 2009, p. 6).

50 The Causal relationship discovered Music and Spatial Intelligence… also helps students form Mental Pictures of things solve Advanced Mathematics Problems visualize Elements that should Go Together (Cutietta & Booth, 1996) … which also helps students pack up a book-bag with everything they need …for each of those extra days they attend school!!! (Droscher, 2006; Rauscher et al., 1997; Ratey, 2001)

51 7. Can learning through Music Increase Achievement in Other Curricular Areas? Research study - how many of the United States 5 th grade music students could identify Pretest- identified an average of 24 of the 50 Pretest- identified an average of 24 of the 50 After learning the song 50 Nifty United States by Ray Charles After learning the song 50 Nifty United States by Ray Charles (a song remembered from own 5th grade) Posttest - able to write down and recall on of the 50 Posttest - able to write down and recall on average 47 of the 50 …most in alphabetical order …most in alphabetical order …in less than 5 minutes! (Reed, 2007) …in less than 5 minutes! (Reed, 2007)

52 50 Nifty United States by Ray Charles 50 Nifty United States, from 13 original colonies; 50 Nifty stars in the flag, that billows so beautifully in the breeze. Each individual state contributes a quality, that is great. Each individual state deserves a bow (deserves a bow), lets salute them now (salute them now). 50 Nifty United States, from 13 original colonies, Shout 'em, scout 'em, tell all about 'em, One by one, til we've given a name to every state, thats in the USA, in the USA, in the USA (…hold out all the A's for 3 beats)

53 Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan. Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

54 North, South, East, West In our cool, considerate, objective, unprejudiced opinion… California Is the Best …of the 50 Nifty United States, from 13 original colonies; 50 Nifty stars on the flag, that billows so beautifully in the breeze. Each individual state contributes a quality, that is great. Each individual state deserves a bow (deserves a bow), lets salute them now (salute them now). 50 Nifty United States, from 13 original colonies Add up to U S A !

55 Math Rhythm Tree – works with fractions 2 nd & 3 rd graders scored 100% higher on fractions tests (Graziano et al., 1999) School House Rock (on TV) …teaches math and grammar CDs teach addition, subtraction, multiplication and division …through songs! Short Musical Performances - teach U.S. History Clapping different Rhythms - classroom management Rap - teaches poetry (even the ABCs in one reading program!)

56 Chunking Up! Whats easier to remember: (323) The Brain … only capable of assimilating about 5 +/- 2 pieces of information in its short term (working) memory and holding it there for approximately 5 seconds at a time without rehearsing to help strengthen the new synapses 5 +/- 2 chunks of information at a time (Huitt, 2008) (previously thought to be 7 +/- 2) (Miller, 1956) - Phone # = 7 +area code ( 323) SS # = 9 ( ) - Zip Code = Linking new information - to familiar tunes …chunks -up the new information (less pieces…bigger chunks of Information) …helps imprint that information on young minds ( Phillips, 2009; Reed, 2007)

57 With music…Chunking things like the 26 letters of the alphabet, or the names of the 50 United States …teaches them i n a more effective period of time -- Chunks different pieces of information into larger, more meaningful units …and its a multi-modal approach! You can dance to it feel the vibrations going through your body as you hear it, play it on various rhythm and other musical instruments (kinesthetic/tactile); read the notes watch performances of it (visual) sing with it hear its changes in pitch (auditory) …Putting any new information to music helps students retain the information for years to come through repetition (both in and out of classroom) …the song gets stuck their heads and those new synapses extend into long-term memory!

58 Anchor Songs (Musical Cues) …from Kim Morgan, Lake Elementary School, Vista School District Other… Cleaning Up the Room - Move It, Move It Turning in Homework - Mission Impossible U.A. Switch - Funky Town New Student? - Youve Got a Friend in Me Beginning of the Day - Come On Over (Shania Twain) - Come On Over Baby (Christina Aguilera) Stretch Break - Wipe Out- Electric Slide - I Can See Clearly Now Beginning of Various Subjects P.E. - Rocky Math - Star Wars Social Studies - Oh Susannah Science - Time for Weird Science Before Tests - We Are The Champions - We Will Rock You - Dont Worry, Be Happy

59 Since music enhances SAT scores …increases likelihood of admission Music students outperformed non-music students by 61 points on the verbal SAT 42 points higher on the math (Demorest & Morrison, 2000) Students who study piano or voice average a significant ( 7 point) Gain ! on the Weschler IQ test …2.7 points higher than other students (Mundell, 2009) 8. Is there any evidence that Increased Literacy through Music helps more students Get Into and Do Better in College?

60 College Admissions Officers consider music participation one of several important factors in making admissions decisions demonstrates good time management (Hartman, 1999) They consider it 1 of 6 basic academic subjects students should study - to succeed in college

61 Be True to your School (Beach Boys) (Beach Boys) When some loud braggart tries to put me down And says his school is great, I tell him right away "Now what's the matter buddy Ain't you heard of my school? It's number one in the state So be true to your school…

62 Just like you would to your girl or guy Be true to your school now And let your colors fly Be true to your school I got a letterman's sweater with a letter in front I got for football and track I'm proud to wear it now When I cruise around the other parts of the town I got my decal in back [ From: ] So be true to your school now Just like you would to your girl or guy Be true to your school now And let your colors fly Be true to your school Come Friday we'll be jacked up on the football game And I'll be ready to fight We're gonna smash 'em now My girl will be working on her pom-poms now And she'll be yelling tonight So be true to your school now Just like you would to your girl or guy Be true to your school now And let your colors fly Be true to your school Don't let it down Don't put it down

63 5-year Longitudinal study - over 7,500 university students - Highest Reading scores of any students on campus music majors music education majors...higher than All Other Majors including chemistry and biology majors, math majors even English majors! (Wood, 1988)

64 Self-confidence -important for college success A major study of 2,046 children - grades 4, 5, 7, and public schools - New York, Connecticut, Virginia, and South Carolina using several measures - Teacher Perception Scale - Classroom Teacher Arts Inventory - Student Arts Background questionnaire results… >

65 Type of Self-Confidence Level of Arts Involvement Highest Quartile Lowest Quartile Physical Ability 30%20% Physical Appearance 27%24% Peer Relations 29%23% Parent Relations 35%24% General 37%27% Reading 40%20% Mathematics 30%15% General School… 36%19% Total Non-Academic 33%24% Total Academic 41%18% Total 34%18% (Burton et al., 1999)

66 Something else to consider… An interesting study of Engineers Technical Designers …in the Silicon Valley industry of California --nearly without exception-- the very best were also practicing musicians! (Venerable, 1989)

67 so …in Our Inter-Connected School Curriculum School Curriculum

68 Music certainly appears to be 1 of the ImportantPieces for enhancing Literacy Music certainly appears to be 1 of the Important Pieces for enhancing Literacy so …in Our Inter-Connected School Curriculum School Curriculum

69 Cutting curricular areas (such as music) Quick Fix? Poor Solution? You can decide… …BUT if you really want to know, if music is important in schools --ask a 1 st or a 2 nd grader to put 10 words in alphabetical order and see if you dont hear him (or her) singing that ABC song! So going back to our original question…

70 Oh, the Bonus Question… Which is proper? Egg yolks is white or or Egg yolks are white Egg yolks are white …Egg Yolks are YELLOW! hummm…maybe we should have put that to music?

71 OK, add up how many you got Correct… If you scored: 0-4=Novice …maybe at first, but not after today! 5-6=Intermediate …pretty good understanding about this connection! 7+=Informed …came into this with a strong foundation – and now that knowledge base is even stronger! Congratulations!

72 Try teaching with Music! Your students will love it, …and youll be happy with the results! Thanks for coming! For a copy of todays powerpoint show Dr. Darlene

73 Got The Beat lyrics See the people walking down the street Fall in line just watching all their feet They don't know where they wanna go But they're walking in time They got the beat They got the beat Yeah They got the beat See the kids just getting out of school They can't wait to hang out and be cool Hang around 'til quarter after twelve That's when they fall in line Kids got the beat They got the beat They got the beat Yeah Kids got the beat Go-Go music really makes us dance Do the Pony puts us in a trance Do the Watusi just give us a chance That's when we fall in line We got the beat We got the beat We got the beat Yeah We got the beat Everybody get on your feet We know you can dance to the beat Jumpin' - get down Round and round and round

74 A Sampling of Helpful Websites…

75 A great way to get easy ideas for using music across (not only reading and language arts) the entire curriculum is having your district purchase: Making Music with the Arts Across the Curriculum (California edition) Great for General Ed. Teachers

76 1. Visual Arts – with color transparences 2. Music – with CDs with lesson plans 3. Dance – with step by step directions 4. Theater – with poems or script writing assistance 5. English Language Learners assistance 6. Math ideas 7. Social Studies 8. Science It includes…

77 Bibliography… Adkins, S. (1997). Connecting the powers of music to the learning of languages. Journal of the Imagination in the Language Learning and Teacher. IV. Akin, J. (1987). A study of the evidence that music education is a positive factor in K-8 student academic achievement. (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Sacramento. Aleman, A., Nieuwenstein, M.R., Bocker, K.B.& de Hann,, E.H.F. (2003). Music training and mental imagery ability. Neuropsychologica, 38, Aschbacher, P. and J. Herman, (1991). The humanitas program evaluation UCLA Center for the Study of Evaluation. Retrieved from : Retrieved July 14, 2009.http://www.cse.ucla.edu/products/misc/cse_asch_program.pdf Barry, N.H. (1992). Meeting the needs of disadvantaged students through the arts. Auburn University, Project ARISE. Begley, S. (2000). Music on the mind: Scientists are finding that the human brain is pre-wired for music. Could this sublime expression of culture be as much about biology as art? Newsweek, 136(4), Burton, J., R. Horowitz, & H. Abeles (1999). Learning in and through the arts: Curriculum implications. In Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning. The Arts Education Partnership & The Presidents Committee on the Arts and Humanities. Campell, D.G. (1992). Introduction to the musical brain, Saint Louis, MMB Music Inc. Catterall, J.S., R. Chapleau, and J. Iwanaga (1999). Involvement in the arts and human development: General involvement and intensive involvement in music and theater arts. The Imagination Project, UCLA Graduate School of Education and Information Studies. Catterall, J.S.& Waldorf, L. (2002). Chicago arts partnership in education (CAPE): Evaluation summary. In R. Deasy (Ed.), Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Achievement and Social Development, Washington, DC: AEP. Catterall, J.S. and L. Waldorf (1999). Chicago arts partnership: Summary evaluation, champions of change: The impact of the arts on learning. The Arts Education Partnership & The Presidents Committee on the Arts and Humanities. Critical Links compendium (2006). Highlights: learning in the arts and student academic and social development, Retrieved July 12, Arts Education Partnership. Retrieved from Chan, A.S., Y. Ho, & M. Cheung (1998). Music training improves verbal memory. Nature. doi: /24075 Chesky, K.S. & J. Hipple (1997). Performance anxiety, alcohol-related problems, and social/emotional difficulties of college students: A comparative study between lower-division music and non-music majors. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 12 (4), Chute, E. (1998, April 13). Music and art lessons do more than complement three Rs. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.

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80 Ratey, J.J. (2001). A users guide to the brain, New York: Pantheon Books. Reed, H. (2007). How can I use music to differentiate instruction for all learners? Masters Thesis, Gevirtz Graduate School of Education: University of California, Santa Barbara. Royer, R. (1987). A study of evidence that music education is a positive factor in K-8 student academic achievement, California State University. Schellenberg, G. (2004). Music lessons enhance IQ. Psychological Science, 15(8). Shaffer, R.J., Jacokes, L.E., Cassily, J.F., Greenspan, S.I., Tuckman, R.F. & Stemmer, P.J. (2001). Effect of interactive metronome training on children with ADHD. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 55(2). Sherman, G. (2009). Structural brain differences in kids with dyslexia. Retrieved from dyslexia/structural-brain-differences-in-kids-with-dyslexia. Smith, F.(1983). Essays into literacy. Exeter, NH: Heinemann. Stevenson, L., & Deasy, R. (2006). Third space: When learning matter. Washington, DC: Arts Education Partnership. The College Board (2001). Profile of college- bound seniors national report. Tucker, A.B. (1981). Music and the teaching of reading. Reading Improvement, 18, van den Heuvel, M. (2009). Speeding up the brains networks may boost intelligence. Retrieved August 23, Vaughn, K. & Winner, E. (2000). SAT scores of students who study the arts: What we can and cannot conclude about the association. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34 (3/4), Special Issue: The arts and academic achievement: What the evidence shows (Autumn - Winter), University of Illinois Press. Retrieved from of Illinois Presshttp://www.jstor.org/stable/ Venerable, G. (1989). The paradox of the silicon savior. In the Case for Sequential Music Education in the Core Curriculum of the Public Schools. New York: The Center for the Arts in the Basic Curriculum. Wesson, K.A. (2003). Brain basics for the teaching professional: What are the most important questions that educators should ask about the human brain? Retrieved July 10, Wesson, K.A. (2008). Keynote Address: Vista Unified School District, California, Fall. Verified in correspondence, September 25, Wesson, K.A. (2009) From synapses to learningUnderstanding brain processes. Retrieved August 2, Wishey, A. (1980). Music as the source of learning. Baltimore: University Park Press. Wood, P.H. (1988). The Comparative Academic Abilities of Students in Education and in Other Areas of A Multi-Focused University. ERIC Document Number ED U.S. Congressional Record, H. Con. Res. 266, United States Senate, June 13, U.S. Department of Education, No Child Left Behind Act of 2002, Title IX, Part A, Sec (11) Retrieved from


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