Presentation on theme: "DINOSAURS? What do we know about How long ago did they live?"— Presentation transcript:
1DINOSAURS? What do we know about How long ago did they live? What were they?Where did they come from ?How did they die?Are any still alive today?
2WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO “KNOW” SOMETHING? 1. Personal Experiencethrough the five senses.I know a bee sting hurts;I know how to ride a bike.2. Reliance on Authority.I know the sun is 93million miles away;Jesus loves me, this I know,for the Bible tells me so.3. Logic.I know 2 million + 2 million =4 million, even though I’venever counted that high.I know I have a brain, eventhough I’ve never seen it.4. Feeling or Intuition.I know she’s the one forme; I know God hascalled me to the ministry.6. Bluffing (lying) - you try to persuadeothers for an ulterior motive.You should buy these tickets from mebecause I know this team is goingto the Super Bowl this year;I know this car will give you yearsof faithful service!5. Wishful Thinking (youreally want it to be true)I just know I’m going towin the lottery!
3THE PREHISTORIC PAST: 1. No living person has personal experience. 2. There are no eyewitness accounts except the Bible, which is unacceptable to skeptics.SO HOW DO WE “KNOW” ABOUT THEBEGINNING? Through LOGIC ONLY.
4Both sideslook at thesame fossilevidence…- We justinterpretitdifferently.
5MEANING OF THE ROCK STRATA In general, the earth’s rock layers contain fossils that seem to increase in complexity from bottom to top. However, there are hundreds of exceptions where individual fossils or entire strata are in the wrong order.CREATION SAYS:Suites of fossils represent ecological communities which fit their environment. Those near the bottom of the ocean have shapes appropriate to their habitat and only appear simpler.Misplaced fossils and strata are probably the result of hydraulic flood action moving them out of their normal habitat, or deformation while the sediment was still soft.EVOLUTION SAYS:Suites of fossils represent time periods. Those near the bottom look simpler because they evolved first and are simpler.Misplaced fossils and strata are the result of geologic processes such as faulting and overthrusting, millionsof years after the rocks had fully hardened.
6Ecological Communities Around the World Animals and plants live in interdependent communities, or biomes. These vary with climate, elevation above or below sea level, etc.Shown are two of the ecosystems found in Colorado. The same is true worldwide.(Denver Museum of Natural History – photos by the author)
7Factors Determining the Success of a Biome In order for a community of animals and plants to survive and thrive, they must fit with their environment. For example, factors determining success on land include:1. Elevation above or below sea level2. Average temperature3. Extremes of temperature4. Amount and timing of rainfall (e.g., monsoon seasons)5. Amount of sunlight6. Wind patterns7. Natural disastersand so on.Because of all the possible combinations, there aredozens of distinct biomes in the modern world.
8Where are Dinosaurs on the Geologic Time Scale? ERA PERIOD EPOCH Approx. Beginning (Years Ago)Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent) 10,000Pleistocene 1.8 millionTertiary Pliocene 5.3 millionMiocene millionOligocene millionEocene millionPaleocene 65 millionMesozoic Cretaceous (3 divisions) 144 millionJurassic (3 divisions) 206 millionTriassic (upper only) 248 millionPaleozoic Permian millionPennsylvanian million } CARBON-Mississippian million } IFEROUSDevonian millionSilurian millionOrdovician millionCambrian millionArchaeozoic Precambrian billion(incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million)Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology
9IN WHICH LAYERS ARE DINOSAURS FOUND? Most strata are subdivided into lower, middle, and upper.The lowest layer containing dinosaurs is the Upper Triassic.There are also distinct dinosaur suites in Lower, Middle, and Upper Jurassic.The majority of dinosaur types occur in Lower, Middle, and Upper Cretaceous.There is occasional overlapping where a typeoccurs in two or three adjacent layers, butthe broad pattern seems to be that dinosaurs lived in seven distinct ecological communities.
10WHAT WERE DINOSAURS? The Biological Classification System Kingdom Scientists classify animals and plants according to the system shown below. While there are differences between types ofreptiles, their bones are easy to identify as reptilianbecause all of them have a similar jaw structure.The Biological Classification SystemKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesReptiles belong to Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Chordata (Subphylum Vertebrata), and Class Reptilia. Dinosaurs and other extinct reptiles comprised several orders, as shown on the next page.
11One of many ways to divide CLASS REPTILIA (Peter Uetz, 2002) SUBCLASS: ORDERS CONTAINED:ANAPSIDALEPIDOSAURIAARCHOSAURIAPARAPSIDA *ARAEOSCELIDA *EURYAPSIDA *SYNAPSIDA *Cotylosauria * - “stem reptiles”Chelonia or Testudinata - turtlesEosuchia * - obscure Permian reptiles, seemingly aquaticRhynchocephalia – sphenodons (New Zealand lizards)Squamata – modern lizards/snakes, some extinct marine formsThecodontia * - supposed ancestors of dinos & birdsCrocodilia – crocs & gatorsSaurischia * - dinos w/ lizard-type pelvisOrnithischia * - dinos w/ bird-type pelvisPterosauria * - flying reptilesIchthyosauria * - fishlike marine reptilesTrilophosauria * - lizard-like Triassic reptilesWeigeltisauria * - obscureProtorosauria * - obscure lizard-like Permian reptilesSauropterygia * - marine reptiles w/ paddle-like limbs (plesiosaurs)Pelycosauria * - “mammal-like” reptilesTherapsida * - “advanced” reptilesMesosauria * - Permian reptile, thought to be aquatic* Forms believed to be extinct
12LIVING Reptiles Have Certain Features in Common: 1. Jaw structure.2. Scales.3. Cold-blooded (match the temperature of their surroundings).4. Babies are hatched/born as miniature versions of adults. They can immediately start to eat what adults do.5. Reptiles grow as long as they live, as long as they can move around to get enough food.Also, most reptiles lay eggs,though one ichthyosaurfossil was preserved in theact of giving live birth.Denver Museum of Nat. Hist.
13A Major Difference Between Living and Extinct Reptiles: In living reptiles (except snakes), the legs arepositioned to the side of the body sothat the animal rests on itsstomach when not moving. This limits themaximum size, because eventually theanimal would become too big to move.Dinosaurs and “mammal-like” reptiles had legs directly under the body. This meant they could grow to enormous sizes.Bradysaurus – Permian“mammal-like” reptileStegosaurusEdmontosaurus T. rexPhotos by the author
14“Mammal-Like Reptiles” Since mammals are considered to be more advanced than any reptiles, those reptiles most similar to them (the mammal-like reptiles) should be the most highly evolved. We would expect to find them in “more recent” rock layers than the more primitive dinosaurs.However, mammal-like reptiles are first found in lower strata than dinosaurs. They are far out of the sequence evolution leads us to expect.Diictodon – Permian(photo by author)Bradysaurus – Permian(by WIKIMEDIA user Baini)Sinokannemeyeria - lower Triassic (WIKIMEDIA)
15FLYING REPTILESFlying reptiles were not dinosaurs, though they are supposed to have died out at the same time. The first ones appear in the fossil record suddenly and fully formed, with no known ancestry.Flying reptiles belonged to Order Pterosauria,which is divided into two suborders.Pterodactyloids (12 known fami-lies, Jurassicand Creta-ceous), sup-posed to be descendants of rhamphorynch-oids, had short tails.Rhampho-rynchoids (four known families, found in Triassic and Jurassic rocks) had long tails.Image from Wiki-pedia CommonsDenver Museum
16MARINE REPTILESMarine reptiles were also not dinosaurs. They, too, appear in the fossil record suddenly and fully formed, with no known ancestry.Order Saurop-terygia / Plesio-sauria (Jurassic& Cretaceous)had fat bodies,short tails, andpaddle-shapedlimbs –like the way we imaginethe Loch Ness Monster.Order Ichthyosauria (Triassic throughCretaceous) included very fishlike forms.No one believes theywere a transitionfrom fish to rep-tile; instead, their ancestorssupposedlyevolved outof the seaonto theland, thenlater the ich-thyosaursevolved backinto the sea.Elasmosaurus, a Cretaceous plesiosaur (cars evolved much later!)Ichthyosaur giving live birthOrder Squamosa (Mosasaurs) were longand snakelike, with webbed feet. They ranged from about 10 – 50 feet long.photos taken at Denver MuseumPlatycarpus, a Cretaceous mosasaur
17The Two Orders of Dinosaurs There are about eighteen living or extinct orders of reptiles. Only two of these orders, Saurischia and Ornithischia, were dinosaurs.It is easy to tell the differ-ence between the two orders, because all mem-bers of Order Ornithischia had a “bird-type” pelvis as shown at left while all mem-bers of Order Saurischia had a “lizard-type” pelvis as shown at right.Ornithischian pelvisSaurischianpelvisDrawings by O. C. Marsh, 1896Left: fragments of the pelvis of the ornithischian dinosaur Edmontosaurus being exca-vated by the author in Wyo-ming, 2008.Right: complete Edmontosaurus skeleton (Denver Museum of Natural History, 2008). Note the ornithischian pelvis.Photos by the author
18DINOSAUR SIZE RANGE Others never grew much bigger than a chicken! A few types of dinosaurs grew to enormous sizes.Apatosaurus compared to human (scale in feet)Others never grew much bigger than a chicken!Compsognathus compared to humanEven large dinosaurs had smalleggs. Shown is a T. rex egg --about the size of a football.Photo by the author
19DINOSAURS? What do we know about How long ago did they live? What were they?Where did they come from ?How did they die?Are any still alive today?
21IF YOU CAN’T OBSERVE, IT’S NOT SCIENCE -- WHAT WE ACTUALLY FIND:a bunch of jumbled up bone fragmentsThat we put togetherand make upstoriesabout!IF YOU CAN’T OBSERVE, IT’S NOT SCIENCE --IT’S STORYTELLING!
22HOW MANY TYPES OF DINOSAURS WERE THERE? Whoever discovers the first fossil of an extinct creature gets to name it. However, discoveries are often fragmentary – a few teeth, some pieces of bone, etc.A number of times, someone named what they thought was a new type, only to find later that it had already been named. Some of the multiple names are still around.For instance, some believe that Tyrannosauruus, Tarbosaurus, and Albertosaurus are the same creature and that Nanotyrannus was just a juvenile Tyrannosaurus.The actual number of dinosaur types is probably farless than the number of names assigned.
23A Major Difference Between Living Reptiles and Dinosaurs: Modern baby reptiles hatch as miniature versions of adults. They can immediately eat what adults do.Dinosaurs seem to have undergone radical changesas they grew (likemammals do.)For instance, sometypes had no headfrill as babies, butgrew them later.Adult Zuniceratops with fully formed head frill-- from Wikimedia user Arthur WeasleyIn some cases such as Nanotyrannus and Tyranno-saurus, normal changes due to aging have resultedin multiple names being assigned by mistake.
24Why the Uncertainty in the Number of Extinct Types? To a biologist, a species is a group whose mem-bers cannot breed with any other group. However, it is impos-sible to do breeding experiments on extinct animals. Researchers have to simply guess whether they belong to different species, based on how different the specimens seem to be.If you had only bones to go by, would you guess that Andre the Giant (7 ft 4 in) and Verne Troyer (2 ft 8 in) were the same species? They are! Unless you were there, though, you might even think they belonged to different genera.Pictures from andrethegiant.comand rotttentomatoes.comThere is no way to be sure whether differences in extinctcreatures mean they belonged to different species, orjust showed normal variation within the same species.
25Where are Dinosaurs on the Geologic Time Scale? ERA PERIOD EPOCH Approx. Beginning (Years Ago)Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent) 10,000Pleistocene 1.8 millionTertiary Pliocene 5.3 millionMiocene millionOligocene millionEocene millionPaleocene 65 millionMesozoic Cretaceous (3 divisions) 144 millionJurassic (3 divisions) 206 millionTriassic (upper only) 248 millionPaleozoic Permian millionPennsylvanian million } CARBON-Mississippian million } IFEROUSDevonian millionSilurian millionOrdovician millionCambrian millionArchaeozoic Precambrian billion(incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million)Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology
26UPPER TRIASSIC: HOW MANY TYPES OF DINOSAURS WERE THERE? somewhere around 50 types have been named. Can we be sure there were 50 different genera, or could there have been variations within the Genesis “kinds”?Herrerasaurus – the “oldest” (lowest) dinosaur known. It appears suddenly and fully formed, with nothing leading up to it. (Photo by WIKImedia user Zach Tirrell)Turfanosaurus (China) (WIKImedia image)Guaibasaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user Sergio Kaminski)
27MORE TRIASSIC REPTILES Hupehsuchus - Triassic ichthyosaur (not a dinosaur!) (WIKImedia image)Sinokannemeyeria - “Mammal-like” Lower Triassic reptile,also not a dinosaur. (WIKImedia image)Since mammals are supposed to have evolved after dino-saurs, why are the “more advanced” mammal-like rep-tiles found in lower layersthan any of the dinosaurs?
28JURASSIC DINOSAURSThere are supposed to have been around 220 types of Jurassic dinosaurs: some Lower, some Middle, some Upper. This is an average of about 70 types in each biome. However, the actual number could have been less because of duplicate names.All the Jurassic dinosaurs appear suddenly and fully formed, with nothing leading up to them. Once they arrive, they don’t evolve.Big mistake in “Jurassic Park”: T. rex was a Creta-ceous dinosaur, not Jurassic.Above: Diloph-osaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user Farley Katz)Right: Yangchu-anosaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user “Phreakster”)Sinraptor (Photo by WIKImedia user Farley Katz)Kentrosaurus (WIKImedia image)Dryosaurus (WIKImedia image)
29MORE JURASSIC REPTILES Europasaurus skull (Photo by WIKImedia user Nils Knotschke)Flipper of Macroplata -plesiosaur, not a dinosaur(Photo by the author)Camarasaurusskull (WIKImediaimage)Mamenchisaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user Farley Katz)Brachiosaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user Axel Mauruszat)
30CRETACEOUS DINOSAURSOver 500 types of dinosaurs have been named in Lower, Middle, and Upper Cre-taceous rocks. Taking into ac-count the pos-sibility of dupli-cate names, each of these fossil communities may have averaged a hundred or more types of dinosaur.Like all the others, Creta-ceous dinosaurs appear suddenly and fully formed, with nothing leading up to them. Once they arrive, they don’t evolve.Ankylosaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user Douggers)Deinonychus (WIKImedia image)Gallimimus (WIKImedia image)Gigantosaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user Cas Liber)Triceratops (Photo by WIKImedia user Michael Gray)
31Let’s use birds for comparison. Because of duplication and uncertainty, the number of types of dinosaurs is probably much less than a thousand. Even if there really were hundreds of types of dinosaurs, it wouldn’t prove anything about evolution.Let’s use birds for comparison.There are over 2800 genera of birds living in the world today, divided into well over ten thousand species. The large number of types does not indicate that they are evolving.Likewise, a large number of types of dinosaurs has nothing to do with evolution.
32DINOSAURS: NOTHING TO DO WITH EVOLUTION Every single type of dinosaurappears in the fossil recordsuddenly and fully formed with allits identifying characteristics intact.The “last” representatives of each type are easily recognizable asthe same type as the “first.”Evolution is nowhere to be seen.
33MORE CRETACEOUS REPTILES Saurolophus - crested head (1877 photo)Elasmosaurus (plesiosaur) (Author photo)MORECRETACEOUSREPTILESTarbosaurus - similar to T. rex (Photo by WIKImedia user Thomas Ihle)The author excavating Edmontosaurus bonesin Wyoming (Author photo)Edmontosaurus - found in vast herdsTsintaosaurus (WIKImedia image)
34WHY WOULD ANYTHING EVOLVE? Every living thing gets its physical characteristicsfrom the information in its DNA.Mutations are random copying mistakes during DNA reproduction. In order for anything to evolve, there would have to be a series of perhaps millions of beneficial mutations in DNA, building up generation after generation. Mutations would have to be the source of new structures (bones, eyes, wings, feathers, etc.)However, though some mutations benefit individuals, we have never seen a single one that helped the affected species, or that added any genetic information.
35MAJOR TYPES OF DINOSAURS: IMPORTANT TYPES OF ORNITHISCIANS:Ceratopsia - Long horns on the face (Triceratops, etc.)Armored dinosaurs (Ankyosaurus, etc.)Thick skulls (Pachycephalosaurus, etc.)Duck-billed dinosaurs (hadrosaurs, e.g., Edmontosaurus)IMPORTANT TYPES OF SAURISCIANS:Sauropods (“lizard-foot”) – largest plant eatersTheropods (“beast-foot”) – thought to eat meat. Includedseveral groups:Carnosaurs, e.g., T. rexCoelosaurs – included “bird-mimics”Ceratosaurs – short horns on face, like a horned toadBirds are supposed to have evolved from some sort of theropod, though no one has a specific candidate.
36Are Birds Just Feathered Dinosaurs? Archaeopteryx - dated about 225 million years old.1. It had a long bonytail. So do swans.2. It had claws on itswings. So do theliving ostrich, ho-atzin, and touraco.3. It had teeth. Sodid two undispu-ted fossil birds,Hesperornis andIchthyornis.4. It had a shallow breastbone. So does the hoatzin.5. It had hollowbones typical ofall birds.6. It had featherstypical of allbirds.7. Since its discov-ery, other truebirds have beenfound in rocksdated even older.ALSO:Photo by the author(1) Birds have tube-type lungs as compared to the sacs on mammals and reptiles;(2) They are warm-blooded;(3) They have a highly developed cerebellum and cerebralhemisphere to control fine motor activities;(4) Flapping uses the opposite motion from walking and grasping;(5) They occur in the earliest dinosaur-bearing strata, not the latest.
37The Pelvis: Major Diagnostic Feature of Dinosaurs Model of Struthio-mimus, a typical“bird-like” dinosaur that was very un-birdlike on the inside. (Utah State Museum, Vernal, Utah)Order Ornithischia (the other major type ofdinosaur) had a “bird type” pelviswith three protru sions.Since this order is not considered to be the ancestor of birds, evolutionists believe the bird-type pelvis had to evolve independently two separate times -- once in Saurischia, and again in true birds.There is no explanation for how either group could have walked while their pelvis was mutating.Photo by the authorAll the dinosaursthat had a some-what birdlike ex-ternal appearance werevery unbirdlike on theinside, with the typi-cal “lizard-type” pel-vis with four protru-sions characteristicof Order Saur-ischia.
38Were Dinosaurs Ferocious Hunters? The teeth of T. rex were up to about 7 inches long. Only about half of the tooth was embedded in the jaw. If it bit a large animal, there would be a great deal of leverage pull-ing against the roots of its teeth.A T. rex fool-ish enough to bite a large dinosaur that was trying to get away would probably have lost some teeth. If T. rex ate meat at all, it was probably small or dead animals.Photo by the author
39How Fast Could a T. rex Run? A 1991 analysis of T. rex leg bones in Scientific American shows that based on known bone measurements, a large T. rex could not have run faster than about 15 miles per hour without breaking its legs!Any time you take a step, you put a certain amount of impact on your leg bones. The heavier you are and the faster you move, the more the stress due to the impact.Photo by the author
40WHAT KILLED OFF THE DINOSAURS? EVOLUTION:Asteroid impact, orVolcanos, orGlobal cooling, orExtinction of plants that servedas natural laxatives (death byconstipation!), or Disease?CREATION:The Flood.
41Could Dinosaurs or Other Large Reptiles be Mentioned in the Bible? 15 Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox. 16 Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his belly. 17 He moveth his tail like a cedar: the sinews of his stones are wrapped together. 18 His bones are as strong pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron. 19 He is the chief of the ways of God: he that made him can make his sword to approach unto him. 20 Surely the mountains bring him forth food, where all the beasts of the field play. 21 He lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed, and fens. 22 The shady trees cover him with their shadow; the willows of the brook compass him about. 23 Behold, he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not: he trusteth that he can draw up Jordan into his mouth. 24 He taketh it with his eyes: his nose pierceth through snares.Job 40:15-24 (KJV)
42BEHEMOTH WAS NO ELEPHANT. An elephant has a tail like a rope, not a cedar tree.
43Could Dinosaurs or Other Large Reptiles be Mentioned in the Bible? 1 Canst thou draw out leviathan with an hook? or his tongue with a cord which thou lettest down? 2 Canst thou put an hook into his nose? or bore his jaw through with a thorn? 3 Will he make many supplications unto thee? will he speak soft words unto thee? 4 Will he make a covenant with thee? wilt thou take him for a servant for ever? 5 Wilt thou play with him as with a bird? or wilt thou bind him for thy maidens? 6 Shall the companions make a banquet of him? shall they part him among the merchants? 7 Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? or his head with fish spears? 8 Lay thine hand upon him, remember the battle, do no more. 9 Behold, the hope of him is in vain: shall not one be cast down even at the sight of him? 10 None is so fierce that dare stir him up: who then is able to stand before me?15 His scales are his pride, shut up together as with a close seal. 16 One is so near to another, that no air can come between them. 17 They are joined one to another, they stick together, that they cannot be sundered. 18 By his neesings a light doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning. 19 Out of his mouth go burning lamps, and sparks of fire leap out. 20 Out of his nostrils goeth smoke, as out of a seething pot or caldron. 21 His breath kindleth coals, and a flame goeth out of his mouth.Job 41:1-10, (KJV)
44Could Dinosaurs or Other Large Reptiles be Mentioned in the Bible? Nine times the Old Testament mentions the “Unicorn” (Hebrew re’ēm). When the Hebrew text was translatedinto the Greek Septuagint, the translators chose theGreek word “monocera,” meaning “one horn.”Here’s a one-horned creature!Monoclonius (WIKImedia image)
45HAVE HUMANS EVER SEEN LIVING DINOSAURS? Most probably drowned in Noah’s Flood. However, there have been reports of “dragons” throughout recorded history.The Book of Job describes Behemoth and Leviathan; ancient Chinese, Roman, and Irish legends tell of dragons.There have also been reports of dinosaurs (Mokele M’bembe) in central Africa as recently as 2003, and flying reptiles around the world within the last 10 years!Want to see a picture of a dinosaur madeby somebody that must have seen it?
46Dinosaurs were discovered in the 1800s Dinosaurs were discovered in the 1800s. We recently concluded they had stripes and fat bodies and did not drag their tails.Photo by the authorMosaic floor at Zippori in North Israel – ca. 300 A.D. – a striped, fat bodied reptile with its tail raised. Sure looks like some sort of dinosaur!
47Other than the lack of a frill at the back of the skull, there is not much difference between the Zippori mosaic and ceratopsian dinosaurs such as this one.Artist’s conception of the two-horned dinosaur Zuniceratops by Arthur Weasley (Wikimedia Commons)
48Same mosaic floor in Zippori. What in the world is this creature? Photo by the authorIt has a crested head, and something coming out of its mouth. Could it be fire?
49HAVE HUMANS EVER BEEN WITH DINOSAURS? Paluxy River track on the “Taylor Trail” in Glenrose,Texas – courtesy of Don Patton. 5-toed human footprint is preserved inside a much larger 3-toed dinosaur print.
50HAVE HUMANS EVER SEEN LIVING DINOSAURS? Carving at Ta Promh Temple in the jun-gle of Cambodia, dating to the late 1100s --seems to be an unknown dinosaur similar to StegosaurusDesert carving in ArizonaCarvings over a thousand years old in MexicoPictures on left courtesy of Dr. Don Patton
51These are real- istic carvings. SOMEBODY MUST HAVE SEEN A DINOSAUR. Most car-vings near the dinosaur show recog-nizable crea-tures. Just above is a deer. Below is some type of upright animalthat alsohas a rowof plateson its back.Ruins of Ta Prohm Tem-ple. If they look familiar it’s because they were used in the movie “Lara Croft: Tomb Raider.”These are real-istic carvings. SOMEBODY MUST HAVE SEEN A DINOSAUR.A wild boar typical of the area.This carving (the next one down) is not a mythical creature. It looks odd until you compare it to some monkeys and baboons in the world today.
52Okay, People Have Seen Dinosaurs Okay, People Have Seen Dinosaurs. But What Should We Learn From Them About God?1 Then Job answered the LORD, and said,2 I know that thou canst do every thing, and that no thought can be withholden from thee.3 Who is he that hideth counsel without knowledge? therefore have I uttered that I understood not; things too wonderful for me, which I knew not.4 Hear, I beseech thee, and I will speak: I will demand of thee, and declare thou unto me.5 I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear: but now mine eye seeth thee.6 Wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes.(Job 42:1 - 6 )
53WHAT DO DINO- SAURS HAVE TO DO WITH THE GOSPEL? They were created to show the power and majesty of God, and to lead us to humbly repent before Him!Have YOU ever done that?WHAT DO DINO-SAURSHAVE TODO WITH THE GOSPEL?