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What do we know about DINOSAURS? What do we know about DINOSAURS? How long ago did they live? What were they? Where did they come from ? How did they die?

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Presentation on theme: "What do we know about DINOSAURS? What do we know about DINOSAURS? How long ago did they live? What were they? Where did they come from ? How did they die?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What do we know about DINOSAURS? What do we know about DINOSAURS? How long ago did they live? What were they? Where did they come from ? How did they die? Are any still alive today? How long ago did they live? What were they? Where did they come from ? How did they die? Are any still alive today?

2 1. Personal Experience through the five senses. I know a bee sting hurts; I know how to ride a bike. 1. Personal Experience through the five senses. I know a bee sting hurts; I know how to ride a bike. 2. Reliance on Authority. I know the sun is 93 million miles away; Jesus loves me, this I know, for the Bible tells me so. 2. Reliance on Authority. I know the sun is 93 million miles away; Jesus loves me, this I know, for the Bible tells me so. 3. Logic. I know 2 million + 2 million = 4 million, even though Ive never counted that high. I know I have a brain, even though Ive never seen it. 3. Logic. I know 2 million + 2 million = 4 million, even though Ive never counted that high. I know I have a brain, even though Ive never seen it. 4. Feeling or Intuition. I know shes the one for me; I know God has called me to the ministry. 4. Feeling or Intuition. I know shes the one for me; I know God has called me to the ministry. 5. Wishful Thinking (you really want it to be true) I just know Im going to win the lottery! 5. Wishful Thinking (you really want it to be true) I just know Im going to win the lottery! 6. Bluffing (lying) - you try to persuade others for an ulterior motive. You should buy these tickets from me because I know this team is going to the Super Bowl this year; I know this car will give you years of faithful service! 6. Bluffing (lying) - you try to persuade others for an ulterior motive. You should buy these tickets from me because I know this team is going to the Super Bowl this year; I know this car will give you years of faithful service! WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO KNOW SOMETHING?

3 THE PREHISTORIC PAST: 1. No living person has personal experience. 2. There are no eyewitness accounts except the Bible, which is unacceptable to skeptics. SO HOW DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE BEGINNING? Through LOGIC ONLY. SO HOW DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE BEGINNING? Through LOGIC ONLY.

4 Both sides look at the same fossil evidence… - We just interpret it differently. Both sides look at the same fossil evidence… - We just interpret it differently.

5 MEANING OF THE ROCK STRATA In general, the earths rock layers contain fossils that seem to increase in complexity from bottom to top. However, there are hundreds of exceptions where individual fossils or entire strata are in the wrong order. CREATION SAYS: Suites of fossils represent ecological communities which fit their environment. Those near the bottom of the ocean have shapes appropriate to their habitat and only appear simpler. Misplaced fossils and strata are probably the result of hydraulic flood action moving them out of their normal habitat, or deformation while the sediment was still soft. EVOLUTION SAYS: Suites of fossils represent time periods. Those near the bottom look simpler because they evolved first and are simpler. Misplaced fossils and strata are the result of geologic processes such as faulting and overthrusting, millions of years after the rocks had fully hardened.

6 Ecological Communities Around the World Animals and plants live in interdependent communities, or biomes. These vary with climate, elevation above or below sea level, etc. Shown are two of the ecosystems found in Colorado. The same is true worldwide. (Denver Museum of Natural History – photos by the author)

7 Factors Determining the Success of a Biome In order for a community of animals and plants to survive and thrive, they must fit with their environment. For example, factors determining success on land include: 1. Elevation above or below sea level 2. Average temperature 3. Extremes of temperature 4. Amount and timing of rainfall (e.g., monsoon seasons) 5. Amount of sunlight 6. Wind patterns 7. Natural disasters and so on. 1. Elevation above or below sea level 2. Average temperature 3. Extremes of temperature 4. Amount and timing of rainfall (e.g., monsoon seasons) 5. Amount of sunlight 6. Wind patterns 7. Natural disasters and so on. Because of all the possible combinations, there are dozens of distinct biomes in the modern world. Because of all the possible combinations, there are dozens of distinct biomes in the modern world.

8 ERA PERIODEPOCH Approx. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent)10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene 23.8 million Oligocene 33.7 million Eocene 54.8 million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous (3 divisions)144 million Jurassic (3 divisions) 206 million Triassic (upper only)248 million Paleozoic Permian 290 million Pennsylvanian 323 million} CARBON- Mississippian 354 million} IFEROUS Devonian 417 million Silurian 443 million Ordovician 490 million Cambrian 543 million ArchaeozoicPrecambrian 4.5 billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) Where are Dinosaurs on the Geologic Time Scale? Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology

9 IN WHICH LAYERS ARE DINOSAURS FOUND? Most strata are subdivided into lower, middle, and upper. There is occasional overlapping where a type occurs in two or three adjacent layers, but the broad pattern seems to be that dinosaurs lived in seven distinct ecological communities. There is occasional overlapping where a type occurs in two or three adjacent layers, but the broad pattern seems to be that dinosaurs lived in seven distinct ecological communities. The lowest layer containing dinosaurs is the Upper Triassic. There are also distinct dinosaur suites in Lower, Middle, and Upper Jurassic. The majority of dinosaur types occur in Lower, Middle, and Upper Cretaceous.

10 Scientists classify animals and plants according to the system shown below. While there are differences between types of reptiles, their bones are easy to identify as reptilian because all of them have a similar jaw structure. Scientists classify animals and plants according to the system shown below. While there are differences between types of reptiles, their bones are easy to identify as reptilian because all of them have a similar jaw structure. The Biological Classification System Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Reptiles belong to Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Chordata (Subphylum Vertebrata), and Class Reptilia. Dinosaurs and other extinct reptiles comprised several orders, as shown on the next page. The Biological Classification System Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Reptiles belong to Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Chordata (Subphylum Vertebrata), and Class Reptilia. Dinosaurs and other extinct reptiles comprised several orders, as shown on the next page. WHAT WERE DINOSAURS?

11 One of many ways to divide CLASS REPTILIA (Peter Uetz, 2002) ANAPSIDA LEPIDOSAURIA ARCHOSAURIA PARAPSIDA * ARAEOSCELIDA * EURYAPSIDA * SYNAPSIDA * Cotylosauria * - stem reptiles Chelonia or Testudinata - turtles Eosuchia * - obscure Permian reptiles, seemingly aquatic Rhynchocephalia – sphenodons (New Zealand lizards) Squamata – modern lizards/snakes, some extinct marine forms Thecodontia * - supposed ancestors of dinos & birds Crocodilia – crocs & gators Saurischia * - dinos w/ lizard-type pelvis Ornithischia * - dinos w/ bird-type pelvis Pterosauria * - flying reptiles Ichthyosauria * - fishlike marine reptiles Trilophosauria * - lizard-like Triassic reptiles Weigeltisauria * - obscure Protorosauria * - obscure lizard-like Permian reptiles Sauropterygia * - marine reptiles w/ paddle-like limbs (plesiosaurs) Pelycosauria * - mammal-like reptiles Therapsida * - advanced reptiles Mesosauria * - Permian reptile, thought to be aquatic * Forms believed to be extinct SUBCLASS: ORDERS CONTAINED:

12 LIVING Reptiles Have Certain Features in Common: 1. Jaw structure. 2. Scales. 3. Cold-blooded (match the temperature of their surroundings). 4. Babies are hatched/born as miniature versions of adults. They can immediately start to eat what adults do. 5. Reptiles grow as long as they live, as long as they can move around to get enough food. Also, most reptiles lay eggs, though one ichthyosaur fossil was preserved in the act of giving live birth. Denver Museum of Nat. Hist.

13 A Major Difference Between Living and Extinct Reptiles: In living reptiles (except snakes), the legs are positioned to the side of the body so that the animal rests on its stomach when not moving. This limits the maximum size, because eventually the animal would become too big to move. Bradysaurus – Permian mammal-like reptile Edmontosaurus T. rex Stegosaurus Dinosaurs and mammal-like reptiles had legs directly under the body. This meant they could grow to enormous sizes. Photos by the author

14 Mammal-Like Reptiles Since mammals are considered to be more advanced than any reptiles, those reptiles most similar to them (the mammal-like reptiles) should be the most highly evolved. We would expect to find them in more recent rock layers than the more primitive dinosaurs. However, mammal-like reptiles are first found in lower strata than dinosaurs. They are far out of the sequence evolution leads us to expect. Bradysaurus – Permian (by WIKIMEDIA user Baini) Sinokannemeyeria - lower Triassic (WIKIMEDIA) Diictodon – Permian (photo by author)

15 Flying reptiles were not dinosaurs, though they are supposed to have died out at the same time. The first ones appear in the fossil record suddenly and fully formed, with no known ancestry. FLYING REPTILES Flying reptiles belonged to Order Pterosauria, which is divided into two suborders. Flying reptiles belonged to Order Pterosauria, which is divided into two suborders. Pterodactyloids (12 known fami- lies, Jurassic and Creta- ceous), sup- posed to be descendants of rhamphorynch- oids, had short tails. Pterodactyloids (12 known fami- lies, Jurassic and Creta- ceous), sup- posed to be descendants of rhamphorynch- oids, had short tails. Denver Museum Image from Wiki- pedia Commons Rhampho- rynchoids (four known families, found in Triassic and Jurassic rocks) had long tails.

16 MARINE REPTILES Marine reptiles were also not dinosaurs. They, too, appear in the fossil record suddenly and fully formed, with no known ancestry. Order Ichthyosauria (Triassic through Cretaceous) included very fishlike forms. No one believes they were a transition from fish to rep- tile; instead, their ancestors supposedly evolved out of the sea onto the land, then later the ich- thyosaurs evolved back into the sea. Order Ichthyosauria (Triassic through Cretaceous) included very fishlike forms. No one believes they were a transition from fish to rep- tile; instead, their ancestors supposedly evolved out of the sea onto the land, then later the ich- thyosaurs evolved back into the sea. Ichthyosaur giving live birth photos taken at Denver Museum Order Saurop- terygia / Plesio- sauria (Jurassic & Cretaceous) had fat bodies, short tails, and paddle-shaped limbs – like the way we imagine the Loch Ness Monster. Order Saurop- terygia / Plesio- sauria (Jurassic & Cretaceous) had fat bodies, short tails, and paddle-shaped limbs – like the way we imagine the Loch Ness Monster. Elasmosaurus, a Cretaceous plesiosaur (cars evolved much later!) Order Squamosa (Mosasaurs) were long and snakelike, with webbed feet. They ranged from about 10 – 50 feet long. Order Squamosa (Mosasaurs) were long and snakelike, with webbed feet. They ranged from about 10 – 50 feet long. Platycarpus, a Cretaceous mosasaur

17 There are about eighteen living or extinct orders of reptiles. Only two of these orders, Saurischia and Ornithischia, were dinosaurs. The Two Orders of Dinosaurs It is easy to tell the differ- ence between the two orders, because all mem- bers of Order Ornithischia had a bird-type pelvis as shown at left while all mem- bers of Order Saurischia had a lizard-type pelvis as shown at right. Left: fragments of the pelvis of the ornithischian dinosaur Edmontosaurus being exca- vated by the author in Wyo- ming, Right: complete Edmontosaurus skeleton (Denver Museum of Natural History, 2008). Note the ornithischian pelvis. Left: fragments of the pelvis of the ornithischian dinosaur Edmontosaurus being exca- vated by the author in Wyo- ming, Right: complete Edmontosaurus skeleton (Denver Museum of Natural History, 2008). Note the ornithischian pelvis. Ornithischian pelvis Saurischian pelvis Saurischian pelvis Drawings by O. C. Marsh, 1896 Photos by the author

18 DINOSAUR SIZE RANGE A few types of dinosaurs grew to enormous sizes. Others never grew much bigger than a chicken! Apatosaurus compared to human (scale in feet) Compsognathus compared to human Even large dinosaurs had small eggs. Shown is a T. rex egg -- about the size of a football. Even large dinosaurs had small eggs. Shown is a T. rex egg -- about the size of a football. Photo by the author

19 What do we know about DINOSAURS? What do we know about DINOSAURS? How long ago did they live? What were they? Where did they come from ? How did they die? Are any still alive today? How long ago did they live? What were they? Where did they come from ? How did they die? Are any still alive today?

20 WHAT TV AND TEXTBOOKS SHOW US...

21 WHAT WE ACTUALLY FIND: a bunch of jumbled up bone fragments a bunch of jumbled up bone fragments That we put together and make up stories about! That we put together and make up stories about! IF YOU CANT OBSERVE, ITS NOT SCIENCE -- ITS STORYTELLING! IF YOU CANT OBSERVE, ITS NOT SCIENCE -- ITS STORYTELLING!

22 HOW MANY TYPES OF DINOSAURS WERE THERE? Whoever discovers the first fossil of an extinct creature gets to name it. However, discoveries are often fragmentary – a few teeth, some pieces of bone, etc. A number of times, someone named what they thought was a new type, only to find later that it had already been named. Some of the multiple names are still around. For instance, some believe that Tyrannosauruus, Tarbosaurus, and Albertosaurus are the same creature and that Nanotyrannus was just a juvenile Tyrannosaurus. The actual number of dinosaur types is probably far less than the number of names assigned. The actual number of dinosaur types is probably far less than the number of names assigned.

23 A Major Difference Between Living Reptiles and Dinosaurs: Modern baby reptiles hatch as miniature versions of adults. They can immediately eat what adults do. Dinosaurs seem to have undergone radical changes as they grew (like mammals do.) For instance, some types had no head frill as babies, but grew them later. Adult Zuniceratops with fully formed head frill -- from Wikimedia user Arthur Weasley In some cases such as Nanotyrannus and Tyranno- saurus, normal changes due to aging have resulted in multiple names being assigned by mistake. In some cases such as Nanotyrannus and Tyranno- saurus, normal changes due to aging have resulted in multiple names being assigned by mistake.

24 Why the Uncertainty in the Number of Extinct Types? Pictures from andrethegiant.com and rotttentomatoes.com Pictures from andrethegiant.com and rotttentomatoes.com To a biologist, a species is a group whose mem- bers cannot breed with any other group. However, it is impos- sible to do breeding experiments on extinct animals. Researchers have to simply guess whether they belong to different species, based on how different the specimens seem to be. If you had only bones to go by, would you guess that Andre the Giant (7 ft 4 in) and Verne Troyer (2 ft 8 in) were the same species? They are! Unless you were there, though, you might even think they belonged to different genera. There is no way to be sure whether differences in extinct creatures mean they belonged to different species, or just showed normal variation within the same species. There is no way to be sure whether differences in extinct creatures mean they belonged to different species, or just showed normal variation within the same species.

25 ERA PERIODEPOCH Approx. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent)10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene 23.8 million Oligocene 33.7 million Eocene 54.8 million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous (3 divisions)144 million Jurassic (3 divisions) 206 million Triassic (upper only)248 million Paleozoic Permian 290 million Pennsylvanian 323 million} CARBON- Mississippian 354 million} IFEROUS Devonian 417 million Silurian 443 million Ordovician 490 million Cambrian 543 million ArchaeozoicPrecambrian 4.5 billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) Where are Dinosaurs on the Geologic Time Scale? Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology

26 HOW MANY TYPES OF DINOSAURS WERE THERE? UPPER TRIASSIC: Turfanosaurus (China) (WIKImedia image) Guaibasaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user Sergio Kaminski) Herrerasaurus – the oldest (lowest) dinosaur known. It appears suddenly and fully formed, with nothing leading up to it. (Photo by WIKImedia user Zach Tirrell) somewhere around 50 types have been named. Can we be sure there were 50 different genera, or could there have been variations within the Genesis kinds?

27 Hupehsuchus - Triassic ichthyosaur (not a dinosaur!) (WIKImedia image) Sinokannemeyeria - Mammal- like Lower Triassic reptile, also not a dinosaur. (WIKImedia image) Since mammals are supposed to have evolved after dino- saurs, why are the more advanced mammal-like rep- tiles found in lower layers than any of the dinosaurs? MORE TRIASSIC REPTILES

28 JURASSIC DINOSAURS There are supposed to have been around 220 types of Jurassic dinosaurs: some Lower, some Middle, some Upper. This is an average of about 70 types in each biome. However, the actual number could have been less because of duplicate names. Big mistake in Jurassic Park: T. rex was a Creta- ceous dinosaur, not Jurassic. Above: Diloph- osaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user Farley Katz) Right: Yangchu- anosaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user Phreakster) Sinraptor (Photo by WIKImedia user Farley Katz) Kentrosaurus (WIKImedia image) Dryosaurus (WIKImedia image) All the Jurassic dinosaurs appear suddenly and fully formed, with nothing leading up to them. Once they arrive, they dont evolve.

29 Brachiosaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user Axel Mauruszat) Flipper of Macroplata - plesiosaur, not a dinosaur (Photo by the author) Europasaurus skull (Photo by WIKImedia user Nils Knotschke) MORE JURASSIC REPTILES MORE JURASSIC REPTILES Mamenchisaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user Farley Katz) Camarasaurus skull (WIKImedia image)

30 CRETACEOUS DINOSAURS Over 500 types of dinosaurs have been named in Lower, Middle, and Upper Cre- taceous rocks. Taking into ac- count the pos- sibility of dupli- cate names, each of these fossil communities may have averaged a hundred or more types of dinosaur. Ankylosaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user Douggers) Triceratops (Photo by WIKImedia user Michael Gray) Gigantosaurus (Photo by WIKImedia user Cas Liber) Like all the others, Creta- ceous dinosaurs appear suddenly and fully formed, with nothing leading up to them. Once they arrive, they dont evolve. Gallimimus (WIKImedia image) Deinonychus (WIKImedia image)

31 Because of duplication and uncertainty, the number of types of dinosaurs is probably much less than a thousand. Even if there really were hundreds of types of dinosaurs, it wouldnt prove anything about evolution. Lets use birds for comparison. There are over 2800 genera of birds living in the world today, divided into well over ten thousand species. The large number of types does not indicate that they are evolving. Likewise, a large number of types of dinosaurs has nothing to do with evolution. There are over 2800 genera of birds living in the world today, divided into well over ten thousand species. The large number of types does not indicate that they are evolving. Likewise, a large number of types of dinosaurs has nothing to do with evolution.

32 DINOSAURS: NOTHING TO DO WITH EVOLUTION Every single type of dinosaur appears in the fossil record suddenly and fully formed with all its identifying characteristics intact. The last representatives of each type are easily recognizable as the same type as the first. Evolution is nowhere to be seen. Every single type of dinosaur appears in the fossil record suddenly and fully formed with all its identifying characteristics intact. The last representatives of each type are easily recognizable as the same type as the first. Evolution is nowhere to be seen.

33 MORE CRETACEOUS REPTILES MORE CRETACEOUS REPTILES Edmontosaurus - found in vast herds Tarbosaurus - similar to T. rex (Photo by WIKImedia user Thomas Ihle) Saurolophus - crested head (1877 photo) Elasmosaurus (plesiosaur) (Author photo) Tsintaosaurus (WIKImedia image) The author excavating Edmontosaurus bones in Wyoming (Author photo)

34 WHY WOULD ANYTHING EVOLVE? Every living thing gets its physical characteristics from the information in its DNA. Every living thing gets its physical characteristics from the information in its DNA. Mutations are random copying mistakes during DNA reproduction. In order for anything to evolve, there would have to be a series of perhaps millions of beneficial mutations in DNA, building up generation after generation. Mutations would have to be the source of new structures (bones, eyes, wings, feathers, etc.) However, though some mutations benefit individuals, we have never seen a single one that helped the affected species, or that added any genetic information. Mutations are random copying mistakes during DNA reproduction. In order for anything to evolve, there would have to be a series of perhaps millions of beneficial mutations in DNA, building up generation after generation. Mutations would have to be the source of new structures (bones, eyes, wings, feathers, etc.) However, though some mutations benefit individuals, we have never seen a single one that helped the affected species, or that added any genetic information.

35 IMPORTANT TYPES OF SAURISCIANS: Sauropods (lizard-foot) – largest plant eaters Theropods (beast-foot) – thought to eat meat. Included several groups: Carnosaurs, e.g., T. rex Coelosaurs – included bird-mimics Ceratosaurs – short horns on face, like a horned toad Birds are supposed to have evolved from some sort of theropod, though no one has a specific candidate. MAJOR TYPES OF DINOSAURS: IMPORTANT TYPES OF ORNITHISCIANS: Ceratopsia - Long horns on the face (Triceratops, etc.) Armored dinosaurs (Ankyosaurus, etc.) Thick skulls (Pachycephalosaurus, etc.) Duck-billed dinosaurs (hadrosaurs, e.g., Edmontosaurus)

36 Are Birds Just Feathered Dinosaurs? Archaeopteryx - dated about 225 million years old. 1. It had a long bony tail. So do swans. 2. It had claws on its wings. So do the living ostrich, ho- atzin, and touraco. 3. It had teeth. So did two undispu- ted fossil birds, Hesperornis and Ichthyornis. 4. It had a shallow breastbone. So does the hoatzin. 5. It had hollow bones typical of all birds. 6. It had feathers typical of all birds. 7. Since its discov- ery, other true birds have been found in rocks dated even older. ALSO: (1) Birds have tube-type lungs as compared to the sacs on mammals and reptiles; (2) They are warm-blooded; (3) They have a highly developed cerebellum and cerebral (1) Birds have tube-type lungs as compared to the sacs on mammals and reptiles; (2) They are warm-blooded; (3) They have a highly developed cerebellum and cerebral hemisphere to control fine motor activities; (4) Flapping uses the opposite motion from walking and grasping; (5) They occur in the earliest dinosaur- bearing strata, not the latest. hemisphere to control fine motor activities; (4) Flapping uses the opposite motion from walking and grasping; (5) They occur in the earliest dinosaur- bearing strata, not the latest. Photo by the author

37 The Pelvis: Major Diagnostic Feature of Dinosaurs All the dinosaurs that had a some- what birdlike ex- ternal appearance were very unbirdlike on the inside, with the typi- cal lizard-type pel- vis with four protru- sions characteristic of Order Saur- ischia. Model of Struthio- mimus, a typical bird-like dinosaur that was very un- birdlike on the inside. (Utah State Museum, Vernal, Utah) Order Ornithischia (the other major type of dinosaur) had a bird- type pelvis with three protru- sions. Since this order is not considered to be the ancestor of birds, evolutionists believe the bird-type pelvis had to evolve independently two separate times -- once in Saurischia, and again in true birds. There is no explanation for how either group could have walked while their pelvis was mutating. Photo by the author

38 Were Dinosaurs Ferocious Hunters? The teeth of T. rex were up to about 7 inches long. Only about half of the tooth was embedded in the jaw. If it bit a large animal, there would be a great deal of leverage pull- ing against the roots of its teeth. A T. rex fool- ish enough to bite a large dinosaur that was trying to get away would probably have lost some teeth. If T. rex ate meat at all, it was probably small or dead animals. Photo by the author

39 How Fast Could a T. rex Run? Any time you take a step, you put a certain amount of impact on your leg bones. The heavier you are and the faster you move, the more the stress due to the impact. A 1991 analysis of T. rex leg bones in Scientific American shows that based on known bone measurements, a large T. rex could not have run faster than about 15 miles per hour without breaking its legs! Photo by the author

40 WHAT KILLED OFF THE DINOSAURS? EVOLUTION: Asteroid impact, or Volcanos, or Global cooling, or Extinction of plants that served as natural laxatives (death by constipation!), or Disease? CREATION: The Flood. EVOLUTION: Asteroid impact, or Volcanos, or Global cooling, or Extinction of plants that served as natural laxatives (death by constipation!), or Disease? CREATION: The Flood.

41 Could Dinosaurs or Other Large Reptiles be Mentioned in the Bible? Could Dinosaurs or Other Large Reptiles be Mentioned in the Bible? 15 Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox. 16 Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his belly. 17 He moveth his tail like a cedar: the sinews of his stones are wrapped together. 18 His bones are as strong pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron. 19 He is the chief of the ways of God: he that made him can make his sword to approach unto him. 20 Surely the mountains bring him forth food, where all the beasts of the field play. 21 He lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed, and fens. 22 The shady trees cover him with their shadow; the willows of the brook compass him about. 23 Behold, he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not: he trusteth that he can draw up Jordan into his mouth. 24 He taketh it with his eyes: his nose pierceth through snares. Job 40:15-24 (KJV)

42 BEHEMOTH WAS NO ELEPHANT. An elephant has a tail like a rope, not a cedar tree.

43 Could Dinosaurs or Other Large Reptiles be Mentioned in the Bible? Could Dinosaurs or Other Large Reptiles be Mentioned in the Bible? 1 Canst thou draw out leviathan with an hook? or his tongue with a cord which thou lettest down? 2 Canst thou put an hook into his nose? or bore his jaw through with a thorn? 3 Will he make many supplications unto thee? will he speak soft words unto thee? 4 Will he make a covenant with thee? wilt thou take him for a servant for ever? 5 Wilt thou play with him as with a bird? or wilt thou bind him for thy maidens? 6 Shall the companions make a banquet of him? shall they part him among the merchants? 7 Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? or his head with fish spears? 8 Lay thine hand upon him, remember the battle, do no more. 9 Behold, the hope of him is in vain: shall not one be cast down even at the sight of him? 10 None is so fierce that dare stir him up: who then is able to stand before me? 15 His scales are his pride, shut up together as with a close seal. 16 One is so near to another, that no air can come between them. 17 They are joined one to another, they stick together, that they cannot be sundered. 18 By his neesings a light doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning. 19 Out of his mouth go burning lamps, and sparks of fire leap out. 20 Out of his nostrils goeth smoke, as out of a seething pot or caldron. 21 His breath kindleth coals, and a flame goeth out of his mouth. 1 Canst thou draw out leviathan with an hook? or his tongue with a cord which thou lettest down? 2 Canst thou put an hook into his nose? or bore his jaw through with a thorn? 3 Will he make many supplications unto thee? will he speak soft words unto thee? 4 Will he make a covenant with thee? wilt thou take him for a servant for ever? 5 Wilt thou play with him as with a bird? or wilt thou bind him for thy maidens? 6 Shall the companions make a banquet of him? shall they part him among the merchants? 7 Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? or his head with fish spears? 8 Lay thine hand upon him, remember the battle, do no more. 9 Behold, the hope of him is in vain: shall not one be cast down even at the sight of him? 10 None is so fierce that dare stir him up: who then is able to stand before me? 15 His scales are his pride, shut up together as with a close seal. 16 One is so near to another, that no air can come between them. 17 They are joined one to another, they stick together, that they cannot be sundered. 18 By his neesings a light doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning. 19 Out of his mouth go burning lamps, and sparks of fire leap out. 20 Out of his nostrils goeth smoke, as out of a seething pot or caldron. 21 His breath kindleth coals, and a flame goeth out of his mouth. Job 41:1-10, (KJV)

44 Could Dinosaurs or Other Large Reptiles be Mentioned in the Bible? Could Dinosaurs or Other Large Reptiles be Mentioned in the Bible? Nine times the Old Testament mentions the Unicorn (Hebrew reēm). When the Hebrew text was translated into the Greek Septuagint, the translators chose the Greek word monocera, meaning one horn. Heres a one-horned creature! Monoclonius (WIKImedia image)

45 HAVE HUMANS EVER SEEN LIVING DINOSAURS? Most probably drowned in Noahs Flood. However, there have been reports of dragons throughout recorded history. The Book of Job describes Behemoth and Leviathan; ancient Chinese, Roman, and Irish legends tell of dragons. There have also been reports of dinosaurs (Mokele Mbembe) in central Africa as recently as 2003, and flying reptiles around the world within the last 10 years! Want to see a picture of a dinosaur made by somebody that must have seen it? Want to see a picture of a dinosaur made by somebody that must have seen it?

46 Mosaic floor at Zippori in North Israel – ca. 300 A.D. – a striped, fat bodied reptile with its tail raised. Sure looks like some sort of dinosaur! Photo by the author Dinosaurs were discovered in the 1800s. We recently concluded they had stripes and fat bodies and did not drag their tails.

47 Other than the lack of a frill at the back of the skull, there is not much difference between the Zippori mosaic and ceratopsian dinosaurs such as this one. Artists conception of the two-horned dinosaur Zuniceratops by Arthur Weasley (Wikimedia Commons)

48 Same mosaic floor in Zippori. What in the world is this creature? It has a crested head, and something coming out of its mouth. Could it be fire? Photo by the author

49 HAVE HUMANS EVER BEEN WITH DINOSAURS? Paluxy River track on the Taylor Trail in Glenrose, Texas – courtesy of Don Patton. 5-toed human footprint is preserved inside a much larger 3-toed dinosaur print.

50 HAVE HUMANS EVER SEEN LIVING DINOSAURS? Pictures on left courtesy of Dr. Don Patton Desert carving in Arizona Carving at Ta Promh Temple in the jun- gle of Cambodia, dating to the late 1100s --seems to be an unknown dinosaur similar to Stegosaurus Carvings over a thousand years old in Mexico

51 Ruins of Ta Prohm Tem- ple. If they look familiar its because they were used in the movie Lara Croft: Tomb Raider. This carving (the next one down) is not a mythical creature. It looks odd until you compare it to some monkeys and baboons in the world today. Most car- vings near the dinosaur show recog- nizable crea- tures. Just above is a deer. Below is some type of upright animal that also has a row of plates on its back. A wild boar typical of the area. These are real- istic carvings. SOMEBODY MUST HAVE SEEN A DINOSAUR. These are real- istic carvings. SOMEBODY MUST HAVE SEEN A DINOSAUR.

52 Okay, People Have Seen Dinosaurs. But What Should We Learn From Them About God? 1 Then Job answered the LORD, and said, 2 I know that thou canst do every thing, and that no thought can be withholden from thee. 3 Who is he that hideth counsel without knowledge? therefore have I uttered that I understood not; things too wonderful for me, which I knew not. 4 Hear, I beseech thee, and I will speak: I will demand of thee, and declare thou unto me. 5 I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear: but now mine eye seeth thee. 6 Wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes. (Job 42:1 - 6 )

53 WHAT DO DINO- SAURS HAVE TO DO WITH THE GOSPEL? WHAT DO DINO- SAURS HAVE TO DO WITH THE GOSPEL? They were created to show the power and majesty of God, and to lead us to humbly repent before Him! Have YOU ever done that? They were created to show the power and majesty of God, and to lead us to humbly repent before Him! Have YOU ever done that?

54 For copies of all materials, go to For copies of all materials, go to


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