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Presentation on theme: "© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 1 PowerPoint Presentation Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 1 PowerPoint Presentation Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois

2 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 2 Chapter 11 Footings, Foundations, and Concrete

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 3 Chapter 11 Overview Introduction Staking Out House Location Excavation Footing Shapes and Specifications Foundation Walls Concrete and Masonry Basement Walls Beams and Girders (continued)

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 4 Chapter 11 Overview Concrete and Masonry Concrete Blocks Paving

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 5 Learning Objectives Describe the procedure for staking out a house location. List the major considerations when designing a footing for a residential foundation. Analyze a typical floor plan to determine the appropriate foundation. (continued)

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 6 Learning Objectives Discuss the design considerations for wood, concrete, and masonry foundation walls. Calculate the load to be supported by a beam. Explain the purpose of a lintel.

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 7 Introduction A good foundation is very important. It requires careful planning and design. Types of foundations: –Masonry or concrete. –All-weather wood. –Slab type. Specialized CADD programs are available to aid the process.

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 8 Types of Foundations Masonry foundation.

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 9 Types of Foundations All-weather wood foundation. (The Engineered Wood Association)

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 10 Types of Foundations Slab foundation.

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 11 Staking Out House Location The plot plan provides the necessary dimensions for staking out the house. The task requires a measuring tape, contractors level, and possibly a transit. Locate each corner of the house. Use unit method for square corners. Check for accuracy by diagonal measurement.

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 12 Batter Boards Batter boards retain location of the foundation during construction. Locate them 4' outside the footing line. Corner stakes located with a plumb bob. Batter boards are attached to the stakes. Determine a control point (corner). Finished floor should be at least 8" above the grade.

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 13 Batter Boards Squaring a corner using the unit method.

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 14 Checking Accuracy Measuring diagonals.

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 15 Batter Boards in Place

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 16 Excavation Top soil should be removed and saved. A backhoe generally used to excavate. Excavation for footings should extend at least 6" into undisturbed earth. The depth of excavation should also be at least 6" below frost penetration. No backfilling under footings. Soil tests determine soil suitability. (continued)

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 17 Excavation Excavation must be large enough to allow space to work on the foundation. Excavation wall should slope away from the bottom of the excavation. Slope angle will depend on soil type. –Sandy soil requires a gentle slope. –Wall may be nearly vertical in clay.

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 18 Frost Penetration Chart Average depth of frost penetration in inches. (US Department of Commerce Weather Bureau)

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 19 Footing Shapes Footings increase supporting capacity of the foundation wall. Most houses require footings. Soil bearing capacity and weight of house determine the size and type of footing. Footings are generally poured concrete. Footing size is typically based on the foundation wall thickness.

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 20 Footing Shapes A footing expands load bearing area.

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 21 Footing Shapes General proportions of a footing.

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 22 Footing Specifications Footing thickness generally equals the foundation wall thickness. Footing width is twice the wall thickness. Poor soil may require wider footings. Settling occurs during construction. Prevent uneven settling. Check code recommendations. Use steel reinforcing bars.

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 23 Fireplace and Chimney Footings Fireplace and chimney footings are more massive than regular house footings. –Should be reinforced with steel. –12 inches thick. –Extend 6 inches beyond the perimeter of the chimney. –Cast integrally with house footing.

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 24 Stepped Footings Stepped footings are necessary when building on hilly terrain. –Steps should be placed horizontally. –Vertical step height is no more than 3/4 of the distance between the steps. –Steps should be multiples of 8 inches in masonry construction. –Use 1/2" steel bars in footings.

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 25 Stepped Footing A stepped footing and foundation wall in masonry construction.

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 26 Foundation Walls Extend from the first floor to the footing. May also be basement walls. Variety of materials may be used: –Cast concrete, concrete block, pressure- treated wood, and stone or brick. Four basic types of foundation walls: –T-foundation, slab foundation, pier and post foundation, and wood foundation.

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 27 Foundation Walls Foundation wall materials.

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 28 Foundation Walls Foundation types.

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 29 T-Foundations The T-foundation is the most common type of residential foundation. –Name is derived from the shape. –Footing and foundation wall are usually separate parts. –Footings are usually cast in forms. –Variety of applications of T-foundation.

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 30 T-Foundation Application 8" foundation wall with insulated slab floor.

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 31 T-Foundation Application 8" basement wall and footing.

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 32 T-Foundation Application Insulated slab for perimeter heat.

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 33 T-Foundation Application 12" concrete block foundation for brick veneer on frame.

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 34 T-Foundation Application Poured concrete foundation for brick and block wall.

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 35 Footing Forms Construction boards.

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 36 Footing Forms Manufactured forms that stay in place and serve as a drain tile. (CertainTeed Corporation)

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 37 Slab Foundations A slab foundation is an extension of a slab floor. Cast when the floor is placed. Sometimes called thickened edge slab. Should extend below the frost line. Reinforcement is recommended. Advantages: Requires less time, labor, and expense to construct.

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 38 Slab Foundation Application Foundation for 10" cavity wall with slab floor.

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 39 Slab Foundation Application Foundation for 10" masonry bonded wall with slab floor.

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 40 Slab Foundation Application Thickened edge slab foundation for frame wall.

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 41 Slab Foundation Application 8" bearing wall partition on slab floor.

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 42 Pier and Column Foundations Piers and columns are similar. Pier foundations sometimes replace T-foundations under the house. Piers often used in a long crawl space. Columns are used in basements where the span is too long. The difference between piers and columns is their height. A column has a footing and post.

43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 43 Pier Foundation

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 44 Pier Variations

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 45 Post (Column) Foundation A pipe or adjustable jack post is frequently used to support a beam. This is a column or post foundation.

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 46 Post (Column) Foundation

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 47 Wood Foundations Wood foundations are a below-grade, pressure-treated, plywood-sheathed stud wall. Popular where winter weather stops construction. Accepted by HUD, FHA, and FmHA. May be used in basement or crawl space construction.

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 48 Wood Foundation Typical wood foundation with crawl space.

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 49 Wood Foundation Typical wood foundation for basement.

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 50 Placing the footing plate. (Osmose Wood Products) Wood Foundation Construction

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 51 Wood Foundation Construction Excavation should allow for 2" sand or 6" crushed stone for the footing. Sand base must be perfectly level and accurately located. Footing plates are 2" x 8", 2 x 10", or 2" x 12" pressure-treated lumber. Foundation walls are 2"x 4" or 2" x 6" stud frame.

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 52 Wood Foundation Construction Fasteners are silicon, bronze, copper, or zinc-coated steel. Sheathing is pressure treated plywood. All framing lumber is pressure treated. Backfill after basement floor has cured and first floor is installed.

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 53 Basement walls in place. (Osmose Wood Products) Wood Foundation Construction

54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 54 Concrete and Masonry Basement Walls Factors influencing strength and stability of a basement wall include: –Height and thickness. –Bond of the mortar in a masonry wall. –Vertical loading. –Support from cross walls or pilasters. –Support from first floor framing. Wall thickness depends on lateral earth pressure and vertical load.

55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 55 Minimum Thickness of Basement Walls (Portland Cement Association)

56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 56 Pilasters Pilasters may be used to strengthen basement walls. Built at the same time as the wall. Masonry wall pilasters are usually 8" x 16" in an 8" thick wall. Distance between pilasters should not exceed 15' in an 8" wall and 18' in a 10" wall. Pilasters are also used to support beams.

57 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 57 Pilasters

58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 58 Wall Stiffeners Wall stiffeners provide an alternative to pilasters. Accomplished by placing a Number 4 bar in one core of the block from footing to top plate. Another method is horizontal steel joint reinforcement at 16" intervals vertically.

59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 59 Basement Wall Construction Top of wall should be at least 8" above the grade in frame construction. Wood sills should be anchored to basement wall with anchors or clips. Provide at least 7'-5" headroom. Load bearing cross walls in basement are not masonry bonded to entire wall. –Use tie bars 1/4" by 1-1/4" by 28" long. (continued)

60 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 60 Basement Wall Construction Anchor clips. (The Panel Clip Company)

61 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 61 Basement Wall Construction A solid cap is recommended to spread the load over the wall. Dampproofing required on the outside of the basement wall: –Parge coat and sealer. Excess ground water removal system may be needed.

62 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 62 Basement Wall Section

63 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 63 Water Removal Method Drain tile placement.

64 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 64 Water Removal Method Footing forms that serve as drain tiles. (CertainTeed Corporation)

65 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 65 Beams and Girders Beams or girders support floor joists over long spans. May be wood or metal. –Wood beams may be built-up or solid. –Steel beams may be S-beams or W-beams. Size based on weight of the structure and the span.

66 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 66 Typical Steel Beams

67 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 67 Structure Loads Dead load is the weight of the structure itself: –Roofing, siding, joist, etc. Live load is the fixed or moving weights: –Furniture, appliances, occupants, snow on the roof, etc.

68 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 68 Weight Supported by Beam

69 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 69 Load Assumptions First Floor and Second Floor –Live + dead load = 50 pounds per square foot. Ceiling –Live + dead load = 30 pounds per square foot. Walls –Dead load = 10 pounds per square foot. Roof –No load on beam.

70 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 70 Weight Calculations Example Two Story Frame Structure –28' x 40'. Area of the House –1120 square feet per floor. Wall Area –320 square foot per wall. Assumes a bearing wall on each floor.

71 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 71 Weight Calculations Example Foundation of the house.

72 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 72 Weight Calculations Example Weight of first floor = 56,000 lbs. Weight of second floor = 56,000 lbs. Weight of ceiling = 33,600 lbs. Total weight = 145,600 lbs. Half bears on the beam = 72,800 lbs. First and second floor wall weight total = 6,400 lbs. Weight bearing on the beam = 79,200 lbs.

73 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 73 Weight Calculations Example W-beam span and load table. (American Institute of Steel Construction)

74 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 74 Weight Calculations Example Length of beam = 40 feet. Three columns reduce span to 10'-0" and 19.8 kips(1 kip = 1000 pounds). An 8" x 6 1/2" WF beam will support 23 kips.

75 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 75 Weight Calculations Example Three supporting posts are added.

76 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 76 Weight Calculations Example Post Selection –Size is determined by weight to be supported and length of post. –Post must support 26 kips. –Post length is 8 feet. –Chart (Figure in text) shows that a 3" post will support 34 kips.

77 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 77 Weight Calculations Example Weight supported by each post.

78 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 78 Weight Calculations Example Steep pipe columns load table. (American Institute of Steel Construction)

79 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 79 Lintels A lintel is a horizontal structural member that supports the load over an opening. Materials –Precast concrete, cast-in-place concrete, lintel blocks, steel angle. Bearing surface of steel angle lintel extends into the masonry at least 4".

80 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 80 Types of Lintels

81 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 81 Precast Lintel In a masonry wall.

82 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 82 Steel Angle Lintel In a brick wall.

83 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 83 Concrete Concrete is ordered by the cubic yard. –One cubic yard is 27 cubic feet. A six-bag mix recommended. Concrete is composed of cement, sand, large aggregate, and water. It requires 28 days to fully cure at 70°F.

84 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 84 Concrete Finishing A screed used to smooth the surface. A float used to embed large aggregate, remove imperfections, and consolidate mortar. A trowel used to develop a hard, smooth surface.

85 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 85 Contraction Joints Contraction joints are used to minimize and control cracking. Place in line with interior columns. Place at changes in width of slab. Maximum spacing of joints is 20 feet.

86 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 86 Floor Slabs A concrete floor slab should be placed on 4" to 6" of compacted sand. Slab thickness is 4" minimum. Slabs should not be bonded to footings or columns. A 1" thick sand cushion may be used to separate the slab from the footing.

87 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 87 Floor Slab Section

88 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 88 Concrete Blocks Used to form exterior and interior walls. Variety of sizes and shapes available. Hollow concrete masonry units. –Basic size is 8" x 8" x 16". –Actual size is 7-5/8" x 7-5/8" x 15-5/8". –Designed for a 3/8" mortar joint. –Decorative blocks are available.

89 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 89 Common Concrete Blocks

90 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 90 Decorative Concrete Blocks

91 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 91 Paving A rigid paving system is installed on a concrete base. –Use Type M mortar for rigid paving. A flexible paving system is installed on compacted sand and crushed stone. –Prevent creep with rigid edge restraint Paving units should conform to ASTM C902. Use 2-1/4" pavers for driveways.

92 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 92 Brick Paving

93 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 93 Flexible Paving System Spreading the crushed stone base.

94 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 94 Flexible Paving System Leveling the setting sand bed.

95 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 95 Flexible Paving System Rigid edge restraint prevents creep.

96 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 96 Flexible Paving System The pavers for this driveway turnaround are 2-1/4" pavers.

97 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 97 Glossary Batter Boards. Used to retain the location of the foundation during excavation and construction. Bearing Wall. Designed to support part of the load of the structure. Cement. Composed of a mixture of lime, silica, alumina, iron components, and gypsum. Concrete. The result of combining cement, sand, aggregate (usually stone or gravel), and water.

98 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 98 Glossary Contraction Joints. Grooves cut into concrete to minimize or control cracking due to temperature changes. Creep. Horizontal movement of a permanent object, such as pavers, or concrete slabs. Dead Loads. Static or fixed weights of the structure itself; examples of dead loads are the weights of roofing, foundation walls, siding, joists, etc.

99 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 99 Glossary Flexible Paving System. Consists of a well-compacted subgrade beneath a layer of crushed stone, a sand setting bed, and fine sand between the pavers. Float. A short board, about a foot long, with a handle attached to one of the flat sides and used to embed the large aggregate just beneath the surface; remove any slight imperfections, lumps, and voids to produce a flat surface; and consolidate mortar at the surface in preparation for final steel-troweling.

100 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 100 Glossary Footings. Increase the supporting capacity of the foundation wall by spreading the load over a larger area. Kip. A unit of weight measurement; one kip is one thousand pounds. Lintel. A horizontal structural member that supports the load over an opening such as a door or window.

101 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 101 Glossary Live Loads. Fixed or moving weights that are not a structural part of the house; examples include furniture, occupants, snow on the roof, wind, etc. Parge Coat. A thin coat of plaster over the foundation wall. Pier Foundation. Consists of piers and footings. Post Foundation. Consists of columns (posts) and footings. Columns are taller than piers.

102 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 102 Glossary Pilaster. A rectangular column that projects from a wall; also used for additional girder or beam support Rigid Paving System. Consists of a well-compacted subgrade, a properly prepared base, a reinforced concrete slab, a mortar setting bed, and brick paving with mortar joints between the pavers. Screed. A long straightedge, usually a board, that is worked back and forth across the surface to bring excess water to the surface and settle the aggregate.

103 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 103 Glossary Slab Foundation. An extension of a slab floor; it is placed at the same time the floor is cast and is not a separate unit. Stepped Footings. Frequently necessary when building on hilly terrain. T-Foundation. The most common type of foundation; the name is derived from the shape of the foundation and footing, which look like an inverted T.

104 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 104 Glossary Trowel. A rectangular tool used in a circular motion to further harden the surface of concrete and develop a very smooth finish. Wood Foundations. A below grade, plywood-sheathed, pressure-treated stud wall; known by several names: permanent wood foundation (PWF), all-weather wood foundation (AWWF), and treated wood foundation.

105 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only 105 Glossary Unit Method. These proportions define a right triangle and establish a 90 degree angle corner. Measure 9 units along one leg of the corner and 12 units along the other leg. The distance between these two endpoints should be 15 units. Adjust the legs of the angle until the distance is exactly 15 units.


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