Soil erosion in a Washington wheat field (left), and on a hillside, dirt road in South Carolina (right).
Areas at varying degrees of risk for desertification.
Build-up of salts in the soil as a result of over watering and drying.
PreventionCleanup Reduce irrigation Switch to salt- tolerant crops (such as barley, cotton, sugar beet) Flushing soil (expensive and wastes water) Not growing crops for 2-5 years Installing under- ground drainage systems (expensive)
Terracing of fields can help prevent soil erosion by water on hill sides.
Contour planting & strip cropping also helps prevent soil erosion from both wind and water, and increases fertility of the soil.
Windbreaks reduce wind erosion on fallow fields.
Industrialized agric. Shifting cultivation Plantation agric. Nomadic herding Intensive traditional agric. No agriculture
Figure 13-6 Page 282 First green revolution (developed countries) Second green revolution (developing countries) Major international agricultural research centers and seed banks
Crop Cross breeding Desired trait (color) ApplePear Offspring Cross breeding Best results New offspring Desired result
Phase 1 Make Modified Gene Identify and extract gene with desired trait Identify and remove portion of DNA with desired trait Remove plasmid from DNA of E. coli Insert extracted DNA (step 2) into plasmid (step3) Insert modified plasmid into E. coli Grow in tissue culture to make copies cell gene DNA Plasmid E. coli DNA Genetically modified plasmid
Phase 2 Make Transgenic Cell Transfer plasmid copies to a carrier agrobacterium Agrobacterium inserts foreign DNA into plant cell to yield transgenic cell Transfer plasmid to surface microscopic metal particle Use gene gun to inject DNA into plant cell A. tumefaciens (agrobacterium) Plant cell Nucleus Host DNA Foreign DNA
Phase 3 Grow Genetically Engineered Plant Transgenic cell from Phase 2 Cell division of transgenic cells Culture cells to form plantlets Transgenic plants with new traits
Global distribution of maize (corn) production.
Projected AdvantagesProjected Disadvantages Need less fertilizer Need less water More resistant to insects, plant disease, frost, and drought Faster growth Can grow in slightly salty soils Less spoilage Better flavor Less use of conventional pesticides Tolerate higher levels of herbicide use Irreversible and unpredictable genetic and ecological effects Harmful toxins in food from possible plant cell mutations New allergens in food Lower nutrition Increased evolution of pesticide- resistant insects and plant diseases Creation of herbicide-resistant weeds Harm beneficial insects Lower geneticdiversity
Advantages Highly efficient High yield in small volume of water Increased yields through crossbreeding and genetic engineering Can reduce overharvesting of conventional fisheries Little use of fuel Profit not tired to price of oil High profits Disadvantages Large inputs of land, feed, and water needed Produces large and concentrated outputs of waste Destroys mangrove forests Increased grain production needed to feed some species Fish can be killed by pesticide runoff from nearby cropland Dense populations vulnerable to disease Tanks too contaminated to use after about 5 years
Increase High-yield polyculture Organic fertilizers Biological pest control Integrated pest management Irrigation efficiency Perennial crops Crop rotation Use of more water-efficient crops Soil conservation Subsidies for more sustainable farming and fishing Decrease Soil erosion Soil salinization Aquifer depletion Overgrazing Overfishing Loss of biodiversity Loss of prime cropland Food waste Subsidies for unsustainable farming and fishing Population growth Poverty
Smoke from fires is a form of particulate matter pollution.
Dust plume being blown from northern Egypt and the Sinai across the Mediterranean Sea.
Counties that failed to meet ozone standards in 2002.
Solar radiation Ultraviolet radiation NO Nitric oxide Photochemical smog H 2 O Water NO 2 Nitrogen dioxide Hydrocarbons O 2 Molecular oxygen HNO 3 Nitric acid PANs Peroxyacyl nitrates Aldehydes (e.g., formaldehyde) O 3 Ozone O Atomic oxygen
PreventionCleanup Mass transit Bicycles and walking Less polluting engines Less polluting fuels Improve fuel efficiency Get older, polluting cars off the road Give buyers tax write- offs for buying low- polluting, energy- efficient vehicles Restrict driving in polluted areas Emission control devices Car exhaust Inspections twice a year Stricter emission standards
PreventionCleanup or Dilution Cover ceiling tiles and lining of AC ducts to prevent release of mineral fibers Ban smoking or limit it to well- ventilated areas Set stricter formaldehyde emissions standards for carpet, furniture, and building materials Prevent radon infiltration Use office machines in well-ventilated areas Use less polluting substitutes for harmful cleaning agents, paints, and other products Use adjustable fresh air vents for work spaces Increase intake of outside air Change air more frequently Circulate buildings air through rooftop greenhouses Use exhaust hoods for stoves and appliances burning natural gas Install efficient chimneys for wood-burning stoves
Coal strip mine runoff Pumping well Waste lagoon Accidental spills Groundwate r flow Confine d aquifer Discharge Leakage from faulty casing Hazardous waste injection well Pesticides Gasoline station Buried gasoline and solvent tank Sewer Cesspool septic tank De-icing road salt Unconfined freshwater aquifer Confined freshwater aquifer Water pumping well Landfil l
NONPOINT SOURCES Urban streets Suburban development Wastewater treatment plant Rural homes Cropland Factory Animal feedlot POINT SOURCES
Clean ZoneDecomposition Zone Septic ZoneRecovery ZoneClean Zone Normal clean water organisms (trout, perch, bass, mayfly, stonefly) Trash fish (carp, gar, leeches) Fish absent, fungi, sludge worms, bacteria (anaerobic) Trash fish (carp, gar, leeches) Normal clean water organisms (trout, perch, bass, mayfly, stonefly) 8 ppm Dissolved oxygen Biological oxygen demand Oxygen sag 2 ppm 8 ppm Concentration Types of organisms Time or distance downstream Direction of flow Point of waste or heat discharge
Discharge of untreated municipal sewage (nitrates and phosphates) Nitrogen compounds produced by cars and factories Discharge of treated municipal sewage (primary and secondary treatment: nitrates and phosphates) Discharge of detergents ( phosphates) Manure runoff from feedlots (nitrates, phosphates, ammonia) Dissolving of nitrogen oxides (from internal combustion engines and furnaces) Runoff and erosion (from cultivation, mining, construction, and poor land use) Runoff from streets, lawns, and construction lots (nitrates and phosphates) Lake ecosystem nutrient overload and breakdown of chemical cycling Natural runoff (nitrates and phosphates Natural runoff (nitrates and phosphates Inorganic fertilizer runoff (nitrates and phosphates)
Gulf Coast dead zone from phytoplankton blooms brought on by high levels of nitrogen washed down the Mississippi River.
Industry Nitrogen oxides from autos and smokestacks; toxic chemicals, and heavy metals in effluents flow into bays and estuaries. Cities Toxic metals and oil from streets and parking lots pollute waters; sewage adds nitrogen and phosphorus. Urban sprawl Bacteria and viruses from sewers and septic tanks contaminate shellfish beds and close beaches; runoff of fertilization from lawns adds nitrogen and phosphorus. Construction sites Sediments are washed into waterways, choking fish and plants, clouding waters, and blocking sunlight. Farms Run off of pesticides, manure, and fertilizers adds toxins and excess nitrogen and phosphorus. Red tides Excess nitrogen causes explosive growth of toxic microscopic algae, poisoning fish and marine mammals. Healthy zone Clear, oxygen-rich waters promote growth of plankton and sea grasses, and support fish. Oxygen-depleted zone Sedimentation and algae overgrowth reduce sunlight, kill beneficial sea grasses, use up oxygen, and degrade habitat. Toxic sediments Chemicals and toxic metals contaminate shellfish beds, kill spawning fish, and accumulate in the tissues of bottom feeders. Closed shellfish beds Closed beach Oxygen-depleted zone
Prevention Reduce input of toxic pollutants Separate sewage and storm lines Ban ocean dumping of sludge and hazardous dredged material Protect sensitive areas from development, oil drilling, and oil shipping Regulate coastal development Recycle used oil Require double hulls for oil tankers Cleanup Improve oil-spill cleanup capabilities Require at least secondary treatment of coastal sewage or use wetlands, solar-aquatic, or other sewage treatment methods Require improved air pollution cleanup to reduce input from the atmosphere
Household wastewater Perforated pipe Distribution box (optional) Septic tank Manhole (for cleanout) Drain field Vent pipe Nonperforated pipe Gravel or crushed stone
Topsoil Sand Clay Garbage Sand Synthetic liner Sand Clay Subsoil When landfill is full, layers of soil and clay seal in trash Methane storage and compressor building Electricity generator building Leachate treatment system Methane gas recovery Pipe collect explosive methane gas used as fuel to generate electricity Compacted solid waste Leachate storage tanks Leachate monitoring well Leachate monitoring well Groundwater monitoring well Groundwater monitoring well Leachate pipes Leachate pumped up to storage tanks for safe disposal Leachate pumped up to storage tanks for safe disposal Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks; pipes collect leachate from bottom of landfill
1st Priority2nd PriorityLast Priority Primary Pollution and Waste Prevention Change industrial process to eliminate use of harmful chemicals Purchase different products Use less of a harmful product Reduce packaging and materials in products Make products that last longer and are recyclable, reusable or easy to repair Secondary Pollution and Waste Prevention Reduce products Repair products Recycle Compost Buy reusable and recyclable products Waste Management Treat waste to reduce toxicity Incinerate waste Bury waste in landfill Release waste into environment for dispersal or dilution
Production of energy-efficient fuel-cell cars Forest conservation No-till cultivation Solar cell fields Communities of passive solar homes Water conservation Recycling, reuse, and composing High speed trains Bicycling Wind farms Landfill Cluster housing development Recycling plant Underground CO 2 storage using abandoned oil wells Deep sea CO 2 storage
EconomicsEnvironmentally Sustainable Economy (Eco-Economy) Resource Use and Pollution Ecology and Population Reward (subsidize) earth- sustaining behavior Penalize (tax and do not subsidize) earth- degrading behavior Tax pollution and waste instead of wages and profits Use full-cost pricing Sell more services instead of more things Do not deplete natural capital Live off income from natural capital Reduce poverty Reduce resource use and waste by refusing, reducing, reusing, and recycling Improve energy efficiency Rely more on renewable solar and geothermal energy Shift from a carbon based (fossil fuel) economy to a solar–hydrogen based economy Mimic nature Preserve biodiversity Repair ecological damage Stabilize population by reducing fertility
Sunset BusinessEco-Friendly Business Coal mining Oil production Nuclear power Energy-wasting motor vehicles Mining Throwaway products Clearcut logging Paper production Conventional pesticide production Unsustainable farming Water well drilling Conventional economics Conventional engineering, design, and architecture Business travel Solar cell production Hydrogen production Fuel-cell production Wind turbine production Wind farm construction Geothermal energy production Production of energy- efficient fuel-cell cars, trucks, and buses Conventional and electric bicycle production Light-rail construction Sustainable agriculture Integrated pest Management Agriculture Recycling, reuse, and composting Soil conservation Water conservation Pollution prevention Ecoindustrial design Biodiversity management and protection Ecological restoration Disease prevention Environmental engineering, design, and architecture Ecocity urban design Environmental science Environmental education Ecological economics Environmental accounting Teleconferencing
Planetary Management As the planets most important species, we are in charge Resources are unlimited All economic growth is good and is unlimited Our success depends on managing the worlds life-support systems for our benefit Environmental Wisdom All species are important and we are not in charge The earths resources are limited and should not be wasted Some forms of economic growth are environmentally beneficial and some are environmentally harmful Our success depends on learning how the earth sustains itself and integrating such scientific lessons from nature (environmental wisdom) into the ways we think and act
Biosphere Biodiversity (Earth's genes, species, and ecosystems) Ecosystems All species on earth All animal species All individuals of an animal species All people Nation Community and friends Family Self
Energy policy Petroleum allocation Electric power generation Air and water Pollution Noise Pesticides Solid waste Radiation Toxic substances President White House Office Endangered species Energy Minerals National parks Public lands Fish and wildlife Water development Endangered species Energy Minerals National parks Public lands Fish and wildlife Water development Soil conservation Forestry Environmental litigation Health Licensing and regulation of nuclear power International environment Oceanic and atmospheric monitoring and research Occupational health Housing Urban parks Urban planning Airplane noise Mass transit Oil pollution Roads Overall policy Agency coordination Budget Agency coordination and management Environmental policy Agency coordination Environmental impact statements Office of Management and Budget Council on Environmental Quality Department of Health and Human Services Environmental Protection Agency Department of Justice Department of the Interior Department of Agriculture Department of Defense Nuclear Regulatory Commission Department of State Department of Commerce Department of Labor Department of Housing and Urban Development Department Of Transportation Department of Energy Tennessee Valley Authority
Purchase recyclable, recycled, and environmentally safe products Recycle cans, bottles, paper, and plastic Plant a garden Individual Donate clothes and used goods to charities Use water, energy, and other resources efficiently Use mass transit, walk, ride a bike, or carpool Laws and regulations Membership support Lawyers Courts Boycotts Environmental organizations Legal action Laws and regulations Corporations and small businesses Special interest groups Lobbyists Lawmaking body Public advisory Public hearing Regulating enforcement body
How a Bill Becomes a Law (if introduced in the House) House of Representatives Introduction of Bill by Member We will assume this is an appropriations bill, so the Constitution specifies that it be introduced in the House. Referral to Standing Committee by leadership and parliamentarian Committee Action Possible referral to subcommittee Hearings on major bills common Committee decisions: Table Defeat Accept and report Amend and report Rewrite Calendar Placement Rules Committee (major bills) Hearings to decide whether bill will go to the floor earlier than calendar date. House Floor Action Reading, general debate Second reading Amendment(s) report to the House Third reading Passage or defeat Senate Referral to Standing Committee by leadership and parliamentarian Committee Action Possible referral to subcommittee Alternatives similar to those of the House Calendar placement Senate Floor Action Alternatives similar to those of the House include rejection, acceptance, or additional amendments Conference Committee If the Senate approves a bill that is not identical to the one passed in the House, a conference committee is requested. This committee consists of appointed members from both houses who compromise on a final version of the bill.This compromise version is then sent to each house for final approval. Back to the Senate Floor Bill is signed by Speaker and Vice-President. President Approve Veto Pocket veto Permit bill to become law without his or her signature Law
Nonpoint source water pollution Indoor air pollution Reuse Mining wastes Groundwater contamination Environmentally harmful subsidies Market prices do not include environmentally harmful costs Integrated environmental management Recognition Identify the problem. Global warming Urban sprawl Nuclear wastes Biodiversity protection Pollution prevention Toxic wastes Resource productivity Aquifer depletion Environmental justice Sustainable economic development Formulation Look for solutions. Acid deposition Ozone depletion Municipal solid waste Protecting endangered species Pest control Soil erosion Implementation Implement solutions. Outdoor air pollution Sewage treatment Drinking water treatment Point source water pollution Recycling Some infectious diseases Control Things are improving.