Presentation on theme: "“Lively Somerville” Promoting Green Building and Renovation"— Presentation transcript:
1 “Lively Somerville” Promoting Green Building and Renovation Green Building elements and Somerville’s focus on toxic materials.What is toxics use reduction?Why are the hazardous substances in building materials a concern?What are the alternatives?What can you do?
2 Building Materials with Hazardous Components Wood ProductsPressure Treated WoodComposite Wood ProductsFlooringInsulationConcretePaints and FinishesCaulk and AdhesivesPictures - clipart
3 Product impacts through lifecycle Storage and transportUseUseExtraction and ProductionDisposal
4 Building ImpactsUSGBC estimates U.S. commercial and residential building create or consume:65.2% of total energy consumption30% of total greenhouse gas emissions136 million tons of construction and demolition waste (approx, 2.8 lbs/person/day)12% of potable water40% (3 billion tons annually) of raw materials us globally
5 When are the hazardous building materials a human health concern? ProductionUseInstallationOccupant UseMaintenanceDisposalWorkers ExposureOccupant ExposureHealthy By Design: Building and Remodeling Solutions for Creating Healthy Homes by David Rousseau and James WasleyWorkers and Occupant Exposure
6 Why Are Building Materials a Concern for the Builder? Some very common building products are known to cause:reproductive disorderscancernervous system disordersasthma and allergiesBuilders receive both short-term and long-term exposures to these chemical hazards:Off-gassing VOCs - solvent based products and cleanersParticulates - saw-dust and dusts from construction materials.
7 Why Are Hazardous Building Materials a Concern for the Homeowner? Outdoors 10%Indoors 90%The average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors.Air in new homes can be 10 times more polluted than outdoor air. (EPA)References:John Bower
8 Why Are Hazardous Building Materials a Concern for the Homeowner? Over 500 pollutants have been identified in building materials.Focus on tighter house construction for energy efficiency, means less ventilation of harmful vapors.Exposure to chemicals in the indoor environment can cause short and long term health problems:Short term - Lung irritationLong-term – Asthma and allergies.References:John Bower
9 Why are children more affected by hazardous products than adults? Children breathe more air in proportion to their body weight than do adults. Thus, they breathe in more of the chemicals.Children’s immune systems are not fully developed. They can not detoxify the hazardous materials as well as adults.Photo – Microsoft ClipartIllustration - Dr Alan Cann, The Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of LeicesterYou have my permission to use this image for this purpose. Please link to the original webpage at: -- Dr Alan J. Cann, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Leicester, P.O. Box 138, Medical Sciences Building, University Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK.Pound for pound, children take in more air, food, and water than adultsSkin is more permeableHigher metabolic ratesImmature detoxification pathwaysMore vulnerable tissues, organs, systems during developmentChildren also play close to the ground and have more hand-to mouth activity.
10 Toxics in Building Products Formaldehydeprobable human carcinogen when inhaled or ingestedVolatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)Petroleum –base solvents*Report – Poison Underfoot – Hazardous Chemicals in Carpets, Greenpeace Research Laboratories, University of Exeter, Technical Note 1/2001Some people’s tolerance to formaldehyde is reduced following their initial exposure to the gas. In these instances, subsequent exposures to even small amounts of formaldehyde will cause reactions.*EPA – IAQ Web Site -EPA – IAQ web page -
11 It is a strong-smelling, colorless gas that is chemically unstable. What is Formaldehyde?It is a major ingredient used in industrial products as an adhesive, antiseptic*, germicide*, fungicide* and preservative.It is a strong-smelling, colorless gas that is chemically unstable.It will off-gas for a long time.*Report – Poison Underfoot – Hazardous Chemicals in Carpets, Greenpeace Research Laboratories, University of Exeter, Technical Note 1/2001EPA – IAQ web page -
12 What is off-gasing?When solid materials evaporate at room temperature.Chemically unstable materials slowly release contaminants, including some additives such as dyes, solvents, and softeners.Time – some emissions decrease slowly over a long-period, while others cure immediately.Humidity can slow down the curing process and increase length of time material off-gases.VOCs are absorbed by some materials and re-released into the air. Materials that absorb VOCs include; plaster, rugs, and fabric.*Report – Poison Underfoot – Hazardous Chemicals in Carpets, Greenpeace Research Laboratories, University of Exeter, Technical Note 1/2001EPA – IAQ web page -
13 Formaldehyde: Off-Gassing Formaldehyde is combined in the factory with other chemicals (urea or phenol) to form resins.When formaldehyde products are exposed to increased temperature and humidity, they start a chemical reaction which breaks apart the resin, and releases the formaldehyde.Urea formaldehyde is more reactive to moisture and off-gasses more than phenol formaldehyde.EPA – IAQ Web Site -
15 Formaldehyde: Off-Gassing Does the Formaldehyde ever go away?The off-gassing process can continue as long as the material is exposed to sufficient moisture levels.Gradually, the "off-gassing" declines, but never goes to zero.It always returns when it is exposed to elevated temperature and humidity.EPA – IAQ Web Site -
16 Urea Formaldehyde: Health Hazards Symptoms:Eye, skin, & respiratory irritationWheezing & coughingFatigueSkin rashHealth Effects:SensitizationAllergiesCancerAsthma - high levels may trigger an attackAllergy reference by Doug Schoon, M.S. Director of R&D at Creative Nail Design in his article: Formaldehyde or DMA? What is the Difference?EPA – IAQ Web Site -
17 Formaldehyde: Exposure Rates Indoor air commonly measures PPM (higher rates exist where off-gassing occurs)Most people will first react to formaldehyde when the levels are in the range of 0.1 to 1.1 parts per million.A HOME BUYER'S GUIDE TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDsBy The Alexander Law Firm and Alexander, Hawes & Audet, LLPPicture - clipart
18 Formaldehyde: Health Affects Exposure Levels No effects PPMOdor threshold PPMNeurophysiological effects PPMEye irritation PPMUpper respiratory irritation PPMLower airway and pulmonary effects PPMPulmonary edema, pneumonia PPMDeath PPM*
19 Formaldehyde: Product Emission Rates Formaldehyde Emissions (µg/m²/hr)Fiber Glass Insulation (R-19)32Permanent press shirt (unwashed)107Permanent press shirts (washed once)45Permanent press draperies215½” Hardwood plywood103¾” Industrial Particleboard170¼” Prefinished plywood wall paneling18120 mil Cabinet decorative laminate51Floor finish (base coat, after 22 hours)10,800Chart information from California Environmental Protection Agency
20 Off-Gassing: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Definition of VOCsOrganic solvents that form vapors at room temperatures and easily evaporate into the air.VOCs can be toxic, harmful to the environment, flammable.Sources of VOCsOil Based PaintsPlasticsAdhesives and GluesSolventsCarpet backingAsphalt compoundsPlastic foamsVinyl flooringReferences - Healthy By Design: Building and Remodeling Solutions for Creating Healthy Homes by David Rousseau and James WasleyPictures from clipart and the web.
21 Health Impacts of Solvents Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity InfertilityEarly miscarriageSperm toxicityDevelopmental: Toluene - “Fetal Solvent Syndrome”Birth defectsGrowth and developmental delays, IQ deficits, hyperactivity, attention deficitsInformation from Ted Schetler, Physicians for Social ResponsibilityNeed to determine which solvents in what quantity******
22 Health Impacts of Solvents Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System (arms, legs)Motor: weakness, uncoordinated, fatigue, tremorSensory: numbness, tingling, visual or hearing problemsCentral Nervous System (brain)Thought Processes: memory loss, confusionEmotional State: nervousness, irritableness, depression, apathy, mood swingsInformation from Ted Schetler, Physicians for Social Responsibility
23 Overview: Green Building Goals PeopleMinimize exposure to workersCreate healthy spaces for occupantsUse low maintenance, durable materialsEnvironmentUse resources, water and energy efficientlyAvoid limited, nonrenewable resourcesMinimize environmental impactsPicture – clipart
24 Design and Construction Opportunities to Create Healthy Homes Building materials are only one aspect of healthy buildingLandscapingFoundationRadon controlBuilding envelopeAir tight constructionVentilation and filtrationHeating and air conditioningMoisture controlPicture – modified from
25 What is Toxics Use Reduction (TUR)? TUR examines the use of chemicals in a system, process or product, and asks:Why is this chemical being used?Is there another method or product that does not require the use of a hazardous chemical?If the activity truly requires chemical use, is there a safer chemical alternative?If no alternatives exist, is the chemical being used safely and efficiently?
26 Hazardous Building Materials and Alternative Products Picture -
27 Building Materials with Hazardous Components Wood ProductsComposite Wood ProductsPressure Treated WoodFlooringInsulationConcretePaints and FinishesCaulk and AdhesivesPictures - clipart
28 Composite Wood Products: Plywood Conventional plywood is made of thin veneers of wood, bonded together with formaldehyde resins.Hardwood Plywood – interior gradeIs used indoors for cabinetry and panelingUses urea-formaldehyde (UF) glue as an adhesive to bind a core layer to a facing of higher quality woods.Softwood Plywood - exterior gradeIs used for exterior and interior structural applications - walls, roofs, subfloors (resilient, wood and laminate flooring and ceramic tile)Uses phenol formaldehyde resin as an adhesive, which is a water-resistant glue. It off-gasses at a slower rate than urea formaldehyde glues.Information - Children’s Health Environmental Coalition -
29 Composite Wood Products: Particleboard Is used for substrates in counter tops, shelving, stair treads, cabinets, door cores and manufactured home decking.It is used for subflooring under carpet, and laminate and resilient flooring.It is not as structurally sound as plywood and is vulnerable to moisture. Particleboard is smooth, knot-free, and hard. It has great impact resistance.Is made from wood chips bonded with urea formaldehyde resins under heat and pressure.Pictures and references to product uses: Composite Panel Association andReferences - Children’s Health Environmental Coalition -
30 Composite Wood Products: Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) Is used indoors for underlayment of countertops, cabinet walls and shelves, millwork, molding, door parts, paneling, and laminate flooring.It is often painted, laminated or sealed.Is made from wood chips and sawdust bonded with urea formaldehyde resins under heat and pressure.EPA notes that Medium density fiberboard contains a higher resin-to-wood ratio than any other UF pressed wood product and is generally recognized as being the highest formaldehyde-emitting pressed wood product.EPA – IAQ Website -
31 Composite Wood Products: Oriented Strand Board (OSB) Is used for sheathing.Is made from wood chips bonded with phenol formaldehyde resins.OSB was introduced as an attempt to compete with plywood as a structural material while using a low quality resource.*OSB is three times as strong as particle boards of the same density and resin content.*Illston 1994Picture - This document is a student production providing detailed information on OSB for the Forest Products unit, Department of Forestry, Australian National University. By Glenn Bailey
32 Alternatives to Formaldehyde Wood Composite: Bio-Based Wood Composites for Sub-Flooring Bio-based building materials are produced from plant fibers including: agricultural and forestry by-products such as soy, wheat, corn, kenaf, jute, sunflower seeds, hemp, bamboo, wood and paper waste.They can be used for for interior walls, ceilings, flooring, movable partitions, cabinets, furniture, shelving, etc.
33 Alternatives to Formaldehyde Wood Composite: Bio-Based Wood Composites for Sub-Flooring They are ground up or heat/moisture treated, mixed with PMDI – a non-formaldehyde binder, and molded into building products.Although they are comparable in price to plywood, they are not available locally and transportation costs are not economical.They PMDI is made from benzene and contains diisocyanate which is a known occupational asthmagen. We have not found any studies that data confirming that confirm that MDI does not off-gas after it has cured. Green industry people feel that it is less hazardous than formaldehyde.
34 Hierarchy of Alternatives: Nontoxic Subflooring Formaldehyde Free Plywood or Particleboard with PMDI binderIt is not cost effective when shipping is included for affordable housing.Fiber/CementboardThis is a thin, high-density underlayment used in situations where floor height and moisture is a concern.It can be used with carpeting, laminate flooring, resilient flooring and ceramic tile.CementboardCementboard is used with ceramic tile installations.It is completely stable, even when wet, as it has a concrete core and is faced with fiberglass.Cementboard is more expensive than a plywood installation.
35 http://www.greenguide.com Formaldehyde- free laminated sheathing formaldehyde free particleboard made from recycled moneyformaldehyde-freesustainable yield veneer panels
36 Has a water-resistant glue Air well Hierarchy of Alternatives: Less Toxic Subflooring Exterior Grade Plywood with Phenol FormaldehydeHas a water-resistant glueAir wellOff-gasses at a slower rate than urea formaldehydeSeal with sealer productPicture -
37 Cabinets and Countertops: Problems Uses Urea Formaldehyde wood products:Interior grade plywood with FormicaMelamine or Formica with particleboard coreExtent of ExposureOn average, 15 sheets of wood products are used to build cabinets.*Gases can build-up in cabinet and be released when opened.Reference: Healthy By Design: Building and Remodeling Solutions for Creating Healthy Homes by David Rousseau and James WasleyReference: Prescriptions for a Healthy House, A Practical Guide for Architects, Builders and Homeowners – Baker Laporte, Elliot, and Banta, New Society Publishers, 2001*http://www.raintree-kitchens.com/environ2.html
38 Cabinets: Hierarchy of Alternatives Alternative Cabinets in order of preference -Solid Wood, Metal, or GlassVeneers with plywood or MDF substrates with phenol formaldehyde or PMDI (both hard to find)Alternative Cabinet MaterialsFactory applied finishesWater-based gluesSeals – Healthy By Design: Building and Remodeling Solutions for Creating Healthy Homes by David Rousseau and James WasleyPicture – non-formaldehyde cabinets -
39 Cabinets: Hierarchy of Alternatives Sealed Masonite has fewer volatile organic chemicals than particle boardLook for low-emission plywood and particleboard products with the following seals;European E1 (higher standard than U.S. HUD)U.S. HUD LabelHUD Information -There is no HUD label for MDF board.
40 Pressure Treated Woods: Issues Hazardous TypesCCA – Chromated Copper ArsenateACA – Ammoniacal Copper ArsenateHazards - contain heavy metals including arsenic salts and chromium compounds which can leach out of wood on-site:Toxic to humans and can affect target organs (liver, kidneys, etc.).Toxic to the environment and can build up in the soil.By Jan. 2004, EPA will not allow CCA products for any of these residential uses:Play-structures, decks, picnic tables, etc.Landscaping timbers, residential fencing, patios and walkways/boardwalks.EPA reference: EPA PR - TUESDAY, FEB. 12, WHITMAN ANNOUNCES TRANSITION FROM CONSUMER USE OF TREATED WOOD CONTAINING ARSENIC
41 Pressure Treated Woods: Alternatives Recycled plastic or plastic composite lumber (structural issues)**100% recycled plasticWood fiber and recycled HDPE plasticFiberglass reinforced HDPE plasticFSC-Certified untreated, naturally rot-resistant, heartwood – caution, these can be naturally toxic (check local codes)**Cypress, Elm, Western Cedar, IPE and Black LocustRedwood and teak are mentioned but have other environmental issuesWhere sill plate is 18” above grade, a metal termite shield can be used instead of a treated sill plate, (check local codes).** Prescriptions for a Healthy House** Green Spec Directory,by Environmental Building NewsPicture from webThey are physical barriers to termites which prevent them from building invisible tunnels.They are used in conjunction with concrete or solid masonry walls, and are fabricated of sheet metal which is unrolled and attached over the foundation walls. The edges are then bent at a 45 degree angle.They must be very tightly constructed, and all joints must be completely sealed by soldering, or with a tar-like bituminous compound.They help prevent dampness from wicking to adjoining wood members which can result in rot, thus making the material more attractive to termites and other pests.Metal flashing and metal plates can also be used as a barrier between piers and beams of structures such as decks, which are particularly vulnerable to termite attack.Reference: Sustainable Building Sourcebook, Non Toxic Termite Control, City of Austin, Texas
43 Pressure Treated Woods: Alternatives Boron based woods – limited to aboveground, covered useAny wood - engineered, sheathing, dimensional - can be treated by this method. Eliminates need for termite treatments and maintenance calls. Penetrates heartwood (CCA does not).Non-toxic for handling, cutting, and disposal.Does not need to be site-treated on cut ends (CCA does).Borate pressure-treated material adds about $2,500 to the costs of an average sized frame house.Metal – steel coated with baked enamelReferencesGreen Spec Directory, by Environmental Building NewsSustainable Building Sourcebook
44 Cement: Additives & Alternatives These products are mostly an issue for people who have chemical sensitivitiesHazardous MaterialsAlternativesDiesel or motor oil form releaseVegetable oilMineral oilBio-FormSolvent based sealersWater based acrylicSodium SilicateReference: Prescriptions for a Healthy House, A Practical Guide for Architects, Builders and Homeowners – Baker Laporte, Elliot, and Banta, New Society Publishers, 2001
45 Cement: Additives & Alternatives Hazardous MaterialsAlternativesAdmixtures: super plasticizer, water reducing agents, accelerants, retardants, etc.Work in warm weather to obtain strengths and finishes without additives.Aniline Coloring AgentsMineral pigments such as Chromix Admixture, Lithochrome Color Hardener, or Davis Colors.Verify that the product is free of chromium and other heavy metals.Reference: Prescriptions for a Healthy House, A Practical Guide for Architects, Builders and Homeowners – Baker Laporte, Elliot, and Banta, New Society Publishers, 2001Super plasicizers may contain sulfonated melamine, formaldehyde condensates, sulfonated naphthalene.
46 Siding Alternative: Fiber Cement Siding Fiber-cement composites offer an extremely durable, attractive and fire-proof alternative to wood.Can be textured to exhibit a wood-grain appearance or smooth in a stucco-type finish.Is available in panel, plank and shake styles.Some fiber-cement siding requires painting before use and some comes primed.Cutting the siding produces a great deal of dust. Shears, rather than saws, are best used to cut the material.Center for Resourceful Building Technology
47 Materials Selection: Setting Priorities Short and long term exposures for workers and homeowners.Quantity – how much of the material will be exposed in the house?Carpet and floor tile large areasLocation – how close is a the material to the occupant or air handling systems?Duct materials are in contact with the ventilation systemVinyl tile maybe out in the unventilated mudroomMaintenance Requirements – what products are necessary to maintain a material?Insecticides to prevent insect infestations in wool rugsBiocides to stop mold in carpetsSolvent based finishes on vinyl tile floorsHealthy By Design: Building and Remodeling Solutions for Creating Healthy Homes by David Rousseau and James Wasley
48 Materials Selection: Setting Priorities Emissions and Durability – what gases and particulates will be emitted during installation and use?Fiberglass particulates are released during installation and use if not properly encapsulated.Soft plastics, carpets, and formaldehyde in products will break down.Plastics and solvent based-finishes emit VOCs.Metals, glass, ceramics and some woods do not off-gas and break-down over time.Duration of off-gassing – how long will the material off-gas?Paint finishes cure in a short time under the proper conditions.Formaldehyde products and plastics off-gas for long periods of time.Healthy By Design: Building and Remodeling Solutions for Creating Healthy Homes by David Rousseau and James Wasley
49 Summary of Alternative Products Minimize use of formaldehyde based wood composite products. Use phenol formaldehyde or PMDI instead of urea formaldehyde as the binder.Avoid products with Polyvinyl chloride (PVC).Use water-based finishes and adhesives.Eliminate wall to wall carpet, or use low or non-emission carpet and carpet components.
50 Off-Gassing - Sealing in the Gasses What is a sealer?It is a type of coating that is typically used to coat a porous surface to prevent stains and water damage.How can a sealer affect the formaldehyde?Sealers and finishes trap the formaldehyde gasses, slowing or preventing the product off-gassing.Healthy By Design: Building and Remodeling Solutions for Creating Healthy Homes by David Rousseau and James Wasley
51 Off-Gassing - Sealing in the Gasses What products can be used to seal a product?Finishes - water resistant finishes such as oil paints, vapor resistant varnishes, polyurethane, oil-based alkyd resin paint, and thick vinyl film. Remember these oil-based products contain solvents, and need to be cured as completely as possible, outside or in a well ventilated area.Veneers - non-permeable veneers such as metal and plastic.
52 Off-Gassing - Sealing in the Gasses How do I seal a product?Off-gas a material as long as possible before applying.Apply multiple or thick layers, covering all surfaces and edges of the product, and it should remain intact.Apply in a well-ventilated area.Air out the freshly-painted item for several weeks.
53 Finishes – Problem Types Solvents and Solvent-Based Paints, Stains, Varnish Polyurethane and LacquerPaints – enamel, marineStain and wood sealersPolyurethane and Lacquer - Melamines, epoxies, and acrylic lacquersStain and wood sealers used prior to stainingSolventsPicture from web
54 Finishes: Problems with Paints, Stains, Varnishes Formaldehydea preservativeHeavy MetalsColor tinted with pigments of lead, cadmium, chromium VI and their oxidesWaterproofing using mercury or mercury compoundsPesticides (biocides, mildewcides, fungicides)extend shelf lifeprevent mold growthSustainable Building Source Book, City of Austin Green Building ProgramPicture - clipart
55 Sensitive people can be effected up to a year after. Finishes – ProblemsMost finishes off-gas.They can cure in six weeks, depending on temperature and humidity, unless improperly applied.Sensitive people can be effected up to a year after.Picture modified from clipart
56 Alternative Finishes: Water-Based Polyurethane, Paints, Varnishes, & Stains Low VOC - not to exceed 380 g/lNo FormaldehydeNo Heavy MetalsNo Aromatic Hydrocarbons in excess of 10% by weightNo Halogenated solventsReference – modified from the Sustainable Building Source Book, City of Austin Green Building Program
57 Alternative Finishes: Water-Based Low Biocide Eliminate biocide (pesticide) where possible.Where necessary, pesticides and preservatives added to water based paints should be in very low levels.Levels as low as 0.01 to 0.025% can be effective in preventing spoilage and less likely be adverse to health.Low biocide paints can spoil if not used quickly, and can be a medium for mold growth on a finished surface. May not be appropriate for applications in wet areas.Reference – modified from the Sustainable Building Source Book, City of Austin Green Building Program
58 Carpeting Carpet can trap pollutants Sources of Pollutants:Vapors and particulates in air, e.g, VOCs.Anything carried onto a carpet on shoes or wheels, e.g., pesticides.All components of carpet can be hazardous:Carpet FiberCarpet BackingCarpet PaddingCarpet AdhesivesSeam SealantsCarpet TreatmentsCarpet AdhesivesCarpet is installed with a secondary backing material, using either:A single glue down, orA double glue down where the cushion is glued down first and then the carpet. (there is 1 ½ times more emissions than single glue down)Hazardous Ingredients - SBR LatexIs in most carpet adhesivesIs the largest source of short-term VOC carpet emissionsSome pollutants such as pesticides that can be somewhat broken down by ultraviolet light and the outdoor elements,persist inside.The higher a carpet's pile, the more difficult it is to vacumm dirt out.
59 Carpet Components: Hazardous Materials Carpet FiberAll Types:Trap dust, moisture, and pollutants to varying degrees depending on the depth of the pile, the carpet density, and the type of carpetHarbor dust mitesMay be treatedWool – although it is considered the least toxic fiber, it:May have a greater capacity than synthetics for trapping VOCs, especially formaldehyde and nitrogen oxides.Can be dyed with a toxic or a non toxic dye.Can get infested by moths.SyntheticFibers are traditionally made from petroleum.Fibers can off-gas.Carpeting, Indoor Air Quality, and the EnvironmentFrom EBN Volume 3, No November/December 1994
60 Carpet Components: Hazardous Materials Seam SealantsHigh initial emissionsHazardous IngredientsToluene, or1,1,1-trichlororoethane, orOther solventsCarpet PaddingVolatile Organic CompoundsBHT (butylated hydroxytoluene)Formaldehyde4-PC (4-phenylcyclohexene)Environmental Resource Guide 1997, Carpets, Cushions, and AdhesivesGraphic - clipartCarpet BackingCan make up to 60% of the carpet in weightThe primary backing material for walk to wall carpet can be:polypropylene (also be the secondary backing)juteBacking materials for carpet tiles can be nonwoven syntheticBinders used to attach the backing to the rug include:Synthetic rubber (SBR Latex) – off-gasses VOCsPolyvinyl chloride (PVC) – contains lead and phthalatesEthylene vinyl acetate (EVA)Polyurethane
62 Carpet Components: Off-Gassing Off-gassing will decrease with time,John Bower – The Floor Plan for Health, East West Magazine, 1989, p. 55I have read a number of different estimates so I put in a range.Picture – Microsoft clipartAfter 72 hours to 4 or 5 weeks (estimates vary),Some pollutant levels will be reduced.
64 Hierarchy of Carpet Alternatives Natural fiber wall-to-wall rug:Acrylic wall-to-wall rug:Both should have:a natural backingnon-toxic pad, and no treatments.Can use:peel and stick carpet tiles, orcarpet that can be fastened down with either:double sided tape,a hook and loop fastener, ortacks.Picture – ClipartReplace adhesive product - use non-adhesive fastening systemsE.g., Tac-Fast ™, a hook-and-loop ("Velcro") carpet fastening technologyProducts that can be installed by double-stick tapePeel and stick carpet tilesUse less toxic adhesive productLow VOCSolvent freeReduce the total VOC emissions from all rug components and eliminate where possible:FiberCushionsAdhesivesSeam SealantsBackingReduce or eliminate carpet treatments:Pesticides – Biocide, Insecticide, MildewcideStain ResistanceAntistaticFlame Retardant
65 Carpet: Carpet and Rug Institute Testing and Seal Program - Carpet CRI tests each carpet line four times a year for four categories of emissions. Criteria based on a maximum emission factor measured in mg/m² ∙hr as follows:Total VOC4-Phenylcyclohexene)0.05 Styrene 0.4Formaldehyde (to prove that none is used)Criteria for the adhesive testing program are based on a maximum emission factor as follows:Total VOCsFormaldehydeEthyl-1-HexanolCarpeting, Indoor Air Quality, and the EnvironmentFrom EBN Volume 3, No November/December 1994Cushion products are characterized as:prime polyurethane, bonded polyurethanemechanically frothed polyurethanerubber – hair, rubber – jutesynthetic fiber resinated or coated synthetic fiberrubber and rubberized polyurethaneCriteria are a maximum emission factor:Total Volatile Organic Compounds mg/m² ∙ hrBHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) mg/m² ∙ hrFormaldehyde mg/m² ∙ hr4-PC (4-phenylcyclohexene) mg/m² ∙ hr
67 Flooring and Flooring Components: Types of Hazardous Materials Flooring MaterialsVinyl and Vinyl Composition Tile (VCT)Wood Laminates – adhesives which off-gasFlooring ComponentsFlooring AdhesivesFinishes
68 Greener Backing System 100% PVC-free recyclable backing system with recycled content, made from thermoplastic polyolefin compound with a fiberglass reinforcing layerwhere:High performance environments requiring modular flooring why:• thermoplastic alternative to PVC • Dimensional stability of PVC with 50% less weight • Superior de lamination and edge ravel strength to PVC • Lower BOC's and smoke density test results than PVC • 100% recyclable with recycled content and lower embodied energy than PVChow:• Full spread Shaw Sureset N5000 releasable adhesive • Ecoworx ES, Shaw's environmental self-adhesive system
69 Flooring: Vinyl Tiles Health Effects Organotins which can cause*:ImmunotoxicityReproductive and developmental damage in animalsNervous and respiratory problems in humans.Report – Poison Underfoot (Hazardous Chemicals in PVC Flooring) by Greenpeace for the Healthy Flooring Network, Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note, N: 14/00, 11/29/00, University of ExeterVOCs result from both installation and use of tiles:the petroleum base of the tiles, dyes, and contaminates.the adhesives to install tiles. Less emissions from adhesive backed tiles.
70 Flooring: Vinyl Tiles Health Effects Plasticizers - several types of phthalates are used in PVC tiles:Since the plasticizers do not bind to the PVC chemically, they evaporate into the air, attach to dust, and leach into wash water.Although it is not currently possible to test the amount of placticizer emissions into the air, they are suspected to contribute to sensitization in asthma, are known to affect the reproductive system, and are a possible carcinogen. *They are being removed from baby products.Report – Poison Underfoot (Hazardous Chemicals in PVC Flooring) by Greenpeace for the Healthy Flooring Network, Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note, N: 14/00, 11/29/00, University of ExeterChlorinated paraffinsPossibly lead or tin compounds as stabilizersAlso, Chlorinated paraffins and possibly lead or tin compounds as stabilizers
71 Flooring: Vinyl Tiles Pollutants When there is a fire,the smoke could kill youbefore the fire doesHealthy Flooring Network and GreenpeacePossibly lead or tin compounds as stabilizersGraphics - clipart
72 Flooring: Vinyl Tiles Maintenance Vinyl is porous and requires a floor finish to fill pores.Can be coated with; melamine, water based acrylic or polyurethane as a finish to create a “no wax” finish.Otherwise, maintenance is high, and maintenance products made of petroleum based finish and solvent based stripper products are hazardous.
74 Flooring Alternatives: Linoleum Versus Vinyl Features and DurabilityMore durable than vinyl, not as brittle as vinyl. As it continues to oxidize and form new chemical links, it becomes more durable.Higher compressive strength, 750 PSI versus Vinyl 75 PSI.Less maintenance, does not need waxing.The oxidation process makes the material inhospitable to mold.Pricing$4 - $6 per sq ft versus Vinyl at $1.75 sq ftLower lifecycle cost, lasts 40 – 50 yearsGraphic – Eco Friendly FlooringInformation – Eco Friendly Flooring and web sitePlease feel free to use our information on the Toxicity Reduction Institute web site. Lisa DiMartino, VP Marketing & Web Development, Environmental Home Center, Building Materials for Life
75 Flooring Alternatives: Tile MaterialsTileAdhesiveGroutGrout SealerFeatures and DurabilityPricePricing starts at $2 -$10 sq. ftIncreased costs for substructure to support tileConcernsAdditives in grout
76 Flooring: Cost Comparison Chart Material Cost Per Square Foot – UninstalledShould also consider lifecycle cost!Vinyl$ – 4.50Linoleum$ 4.00 – 6.00Ceramic Tile$ 2.00 – 8.00Pre-finished & Unfinished Solid Wood$ 2.50 – 6.00Pre-finished Engineered Wood$ 3.00 – 8.50Laminate Flooring$ 2.00 – 5.00Cork$ 6.80 – 9.75Bamboo$ 3.00 – 7.00Carpet$ – 5.00The World! From FloorsFacts.comI added the information on the linoleum.
77 Solvent Based Adhesives: Issues and Alternatives Hazardous ConditionsExposure during applicationExposure in the home, when adhesives that fail to cure (due to moisture) continue to off-gasAlternative ProductsLow VOCsWater-basedNo formaldehyde
78 Adhesives: Product Alternatives Epoxy adhesives are relatively nontoxic when fully cured.White glue (polyvinyl acetate) is safe when dry.Yellow carpenter’s glue (yellow aphilatic resin) is safe when dry.Cement mortar for tiles.Water-based contact cement.100% Pure Silicone Caulk – aquarium grade without additives for subfloorsLR - Check this Reference: Prescriptions for a Healthy House, A Practical Guide for Architects, Builders and Homeowners – Baker Laporte, Elliot, and Banta, New Society Publishers, 2001
79 Caulk Problems* Alternative products Aromatic and Halogenated solvents Fibrous talc and asbestosFormaldehydeHeavy metals – lead, mercury, cadmium, bariumVOCs from petroleum baseAlternative productsLess than 5% VOC by weight*Reduce or eliminate ingredients listed above.Problems references: Canada Environmental Choice Program, Environment Canada, from EPA Specifications Website**Healthy By Design - Tile - Silicone siliconized acrylic**Specs-
80 Purchasing Issues: Discussion Product AvailabilityWho carries it – stock item???Special order issues – distribution timeCostShippingMinimum ordersDurabilityLiabilityWarranty
81 Cost Issues Related to Building Materials Size of Initial InvestmentAdditional structural workDesign costsMaterial costsShipping costsAdditional Labor CostsTrainingInstallation timePossible specialized installerSpecial equipmentLength of PaybackLess of an issue for developer who is not also ownerIssue for homeownerDurability & Replacement CycleHow long lastingHow often replacedMaintenanceScheduleLabor involvedCosts and hazards of products
82 Product Suppliers: Discussion Specifying Products in Bid SpecsLocal – standard productsWater-based finishes and adhesivesCopper plumbingLinoleumHardwood flooringPhenol formaldehyde plywood and OSBWool and some natural fiber carpetingSpecial orderBio-based or PMDI wood composite products for subfloors, cabinets, shelving, etc.Natural material flooring – sisal, jute, etc.
83 Some Resources Toxics Use Reduction Institute Asthma Regional Council EPA’s IAQ WebsiteHabitat for Humanity Green Building InitiativeGreen Built StandardsForest Stewardship CouncilHealthy Building NetworkEnvironmental Building NewsSustainable Building SourcebookBEESLEEDSINFORMEnvironmental Preferable Products ListservCarpet and Rug Institute Certification Program