Presentation on theme: "AREA OF STUDY ONE KIEREN PROWSE ST COLUMBAS COLLEGE ESSENDON."— Presentation transcript:
AREA OF STUDY ONE KIEREN PROWSE ST COLUMBAS COLLEGE ESSENDON
To gain an understanding of: What is French Revolution Area of Study One How can I best prepare myself to succeed What I need to know to succeed 5 top tips for success
Dates: 1781 Jacque Neckers Compte Rendu 4th August 1789 – Night of Patriotic Delirium Phrygian Bonnet
http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/vce/studies/history/history-sd.pdf Begin page 130 Area of Study One – French Revolution An understanding of the Revolutionary Ideas, Movements, Leaders and Events. Key knowledge: - Chronology of events (timeline) - Causes of tensions and conflict (why did the people want change) - Revolutionary ideas (ideas that suggested change from current system) - Key Leaders (how did individuals develop ideas for change) - Movements (where did the energy for change come from)
Key skills: Recall key dates with accuracy. Have full awareness of the causes of tensions and conflicts of the Ancien Regime. Ability to analyse and interpret images/documents/text. Synthesize evidence to develop a coherent argument (Understand how one event/idea/leader/movement influence another and be able to link them together. Have knowledge of and be able to use a variety of Historians opinions to support your response to a question.
Depends on your definition of success? Understanding number 1: You do not have to know everything about everything. 3 or 4 things about everything. Document your reading and knowledge. Summary Book and Quote Book. Question everything you read. Ask yourself why? Have the right resources. 2 print resources for France. Ask questions, search for answers, understand different interpretations of events.
King Louis XIV King Louis XV King Louis XVI Divine right monarchy Versailles Taxation system The Three Estates (Church, Nobles, the rest) Marie Antoinette The enlightenment and the Philosophes Montesquieu Voltaire Rousseau Diderot Physiocrats American War of Independence La Fayette Compte Rendu Jacques Necker Charles – Alexander de Calonne Archbishop Brienne Aristocratic Revolt/Assembly of Notables Parlements Royal Session (Seance Royale) 19 November 1787 Day of Tiles Pamphlet war Abbe Sieyes Cahiers de Doleances Society of Thirty Estates-General (great detail needed here) Formation of National Assembly Tennis Court Oath Royal session 23 June 1789 Fall of the Bastille Municipal revolt Great Fear 4th August 1789 – Night of Patriotic Delirium Marxist Historians views Revisionist Historians views Liberal Historians views
France in 1781 France in August 1789 Louis XVI power and control = high People power = low Restlessness for change = Moderate Louis power = decreased People power = increased Restlessness for change = significantly increased
Divine Right Absolute Monarchy King Louis XVI 3 Estates Large rural peasantry France involved in numerous wars prior to 1780s Royal court moved to Versailles (20km from centre of Paris) Louis finances were in disarray. To secure more funding Financial controller Jacques Necker was forced to publish the Compte Rendu et Roi. The king of France needed no coronation. He reigned by the grace of God from the moment his predecessor breathed his last, and a coronation was purely customarý.Doyle, P.1
28 Million people in 1780. First Estate : Clergy. 0.6% population. 170,000 people approx. Privileged taxation status. 10%land ownership France, 25% property ownership in Paris. Second Estate: Nobility. 0.4% of population. 125,000 people approx. Privileged taxation status. 33% land ownership France. Third Estate:Everybody else: Peasants, urban factory workers, artisans, bourgeoisie, merchants. 99% of population. No taxation privileges. Tax burden met nearly entirely by the third estate Those least able to afford taxes expected to pay the most. The poverty of many and the grievances of nearly all French peasants were much aggravated by their liability for taxes from which noble landowners might well be immune…Hibbert, P.30
Absolute Monarchy gone. Louis has made some concessions. Feudal privileges gone (almost) Louis military control significantly weakened Popular power breeding and strengthening Far less secure place for a Monarch to be. Les Invalides
Ideas of the Age of Enlightenment. Voltaire Critical of Catholic Churchs power. Rousseau Noble Savage….The General Will….Social Contract…… Montesqieu Separation of powers between Monarch and state Diderot Encyclopedie – direct public opinion on matters of importance in society. Economics, religion, agriculture. Ideas of Liberty, Equality and democracy emanating from the French involvement in the American Revolutionary War. LaFayette RousseauVoltaire
King had 6 ministers in his cabinet. Generally courteous and obliging to the Louis. Venal offices Absolute monarchy Political corruption (positions granted by birth not merit).
39 differing Generalities or provinces for taxation. 13 unequal legal zones 18 different legal zones Adcock P. 9 Louis had no way of knowing how much tax he was meant to be collecting!
War of Polish Succession (1733-1738) War of Polish Succession (1740-1748) Seven Years War (1756-1763) American War of Independence (1775- 1783) Significant damage to the royal treasury LaFayette
Massive gulf between rich and poor Small number of wealthy who owned a lot Large number of poor who owned little or nothing.
Necker Swiss, Protestant, not from Noble origin. Compte Rendu au Roi Account of the Kings finances Hot topic of public debate Misleading: France was in surplus not deficit. Necker
Calonne continued to spend. Belief that lavish living of the royals promotes confidence in order to gain further loans. People now saw this as the main source of financial strain. By 1786 France was spending 112 Million Livres more than it was earning. 38% of Frances income was being spent purely on repaying interest from loans.
Urgent reform of French Taxation system needed. Simplify confusing taxation system with the removal of many taxes and removal fiscal privilege. Ask wealthier estates to contribute to tax burden. Single land tax on all land holders with no exemptions It certainly took Louis XVI several months to understand it (tax changes) and authorize its implementation.Doyle P.68-69. The system of privilege alone infects everything, harms everything and prevents any improvements Such a state is inevitably an imperfect kingdom agriculture is crushed by overwhelming burdens and the states finances impoverished Calonne, cited in Fenwick and Anderson P.31
Kings laws needed to be passed by the Parlement This unusual new land tax law could be unpopular with many Seek support through rarely used Assembly of Notables
22 February 1787 144 deputies mostly aristocratic Notables feeling pressure from growing bourgeosie Calonne unpopular Calonnes motives appeared suspicious Necker producing 10m surplus in 1781, Calonne 115m deficit by 1786??? He (Calonne) totally miscalculated the forces he had let loose, and how to handle them.Doyle P.70
Huge recent spending on public works and royal residences to reassure creditors??? Calonne argued well Most changes were accepted in principal Stumbling block: Removal of fiscal privilege. Resolution: No changes without public scrutiny of Royal financial accounts Calls in the provinces grew louder for the Estates General to be convened as the only body Lack of consensus meant Louis dismissed Calonne and appointed Brienne. Assembly dissolved May 1787. Estates General: Meeting of the nation, where all estates (groups) in society would be represented in order to decide on an issue on National importance. Last convened in 1614.
July 1787, Brienne modifies Calonnes tax plan but maintains direct land tax on all. Bypasses Assembly of Notables and lodges them with the Parlement of Paris 2 July 1787. Parlements full of Nobles and increasingly demonstrative in recent years Parlement rejects plans and declares that Estates General is only body capable of passing such laws. 6 August 1787 Louis attempts to impose Royal Power through a lit de justice. Louis orders exile of Parlement to Troyes. Huge rise in popluar agitation towards the monarchy. Increase in governmental and popular protests, dempnstrations and pamphlets. Compromise by September: Parlement recalled if Brienne modifies tax plan. Without the consent of the people, the Parlement would not consent to registration of the edicts. Fenwick and Anderson P.38
19 November 1787 Brienne hopes the Kings prescence will be enough for the Parlement to approve changes to laws. King snaps and orders the edicts be registered. Stalemate until 3 May 1788 when Parlement issues Fundamental laws of the realm declaring that the Estates General were the only body capable of issuing new tax laws among other things. Louis responded with the near botched arrest of the Magistrates and imposed his absolute rule. Provincial Parlements refused to yield. Grenoble 10 June 1788, people tore off roof tiles and pelted soldiers who were arriving to arrest the Magistrates of the Parlement. Massive protests insued, anti monarchy and government pamphlets were produced in their hundreds. The price of bread had risen and crops were looking poor. Brienne was close to victory, when the King, misunderstanding the situation, ordered the Parlement to register the laws. The Parlement, stunned, registered the laws, but after the Kings departure, they cancelled them all. Adcock P.51 The Kings words turned what seemed to be a government triumph into a disaster. Doyle cited in Fenwick and Anderson P.39 Within a week, the country was in uproar. Fenwick and Anderson P. 40 http://coloriages.dessins.free.fr/wordpress/?p=11756 Date accessed: 01/08/2012
Louis was running out of solutions to the protesting and rioting. Louis had enough money for the government to function for one afternoon (Schama cited in Fenwick and Anderson, P. 41.) Massive Hailstorm on July 13 1789 destroyed much of the grain harvest in the Parisian basin. Widespread discontent and no money resulted in Louis relenting and officially calling for the Estates General for 1 May 1789. Brienne resigns 24 August and is replaced by the recalled and popular Necker. Brienne describes Necker as the only man I know who can restore the confidence of the people. Fenwick and Anderson P.41.
1614 Each estate has equal deputies (300) Each issue for discussion is discussed in separate room by order. Voting is by order: Result will be determined by 3 votes. 25 September 1788 Parlement declare 1614 regulations will be enforced for 1789 meeting. Overnight Parlement loses popularity and public opinion becomes outraged. Public demand is for doubling of the deputies for the third estate, meeting in common rooms and voting by head, not by order. Issues to be resolved by 1200 votes.
5 December 1788: King announces his decision: Doubling of the third estate deputies but did not declare on the issue of voting. Elections for deputies begun and drawing up of Cahiers (grievences) got under way. Thousands of political pamphlets were produced up to April 1789. Abbe Sieyes What is the Third Estate?. Usefulness in society had been misunderstood. Third estate seen as nothing, but they should be seen as everything. What is the Third Estate? Everything What had it been before in the political order? Nothing What does it demand? To become something therein. Sieyes cited in Fenwick and Anderson P. 44 A law not made by the people is no law at all. Sieyes cited in Fenwick and Anderson P.45.
2 May 1789 Deputies received by Louis 4 May 1789 Procession to and celebration of Mass at church of St. Louis in Versailles. Strict social distinctions were observed. Order and entrance of reception for Louis. Clothing Procession to church The more brilliantly the first two orders swaggered, the more they alienated the Third Estate and provoked it into exploding the institution all together. Schama cited in Fenwick and Anderson P. 73 The Queen received not a single acclamation. Hibbert, cited in Fenwick and Anderson P.73
13 June 1789: 3 members of the clergy join the Third Estate in their meeting room. More clergy cross over to Third on 14 June 1789. 17 June 1789 Third Estate declare themselves the National Assembly. Louis had not intervened in discussion for the previous weeks as he was in mourning for the death of his 7 year old son, Louis Joseph, who died on June 4. The Dauphins funeral was said to have cost 600k livres. Fenwick and Anderson P.77
19 June, Clergy vote to officially join the National Assembly. 20 June: Meeting hall locked: Move to next nearest large enough venue, Royal Tennis Court. There the deputies of the new National Assembly swore an oath to never disband until France had a constitution
23 June 1789 – Séance Royale King orders National Assembly to disband but gives some concessions then orders deputies to retire and reform the following day. 24 June 1789: Troops loyal to Louis join the Assembly 25 June 1789: 47 liberal nobles, including Duc dÓrleans (Kings cousin) join the assembly 27 June 1789: Louis orders voting by head and deliberations in common after he is warned of massive protest from Paris. Go and tell those who have sent you that we are here by the will of the Nation, and we will only go if we are driven out by Bayonettes!Mirabeau cited in Fenwick and Anderson P. 79 They mean to stay!....Well, then, damn it! Let them stay!Louis XVI cited in Fenwick and Anderson P.79
26 June and 1 July 1789: Troops loyal to Louis enter Paris, a violent suppression seems likely. 10 July: Louis refuses to remove troops from Paris 11 July: Necker is dismissed Sunday 12 July: Paris erupts. Desmoulins call to arms at the Palais Royal incites looting, protesting, confrontations with army 13 July: Parisian officials form Paris Commune in order to attempt to quell rioting
Desmoulins To arms, to arms and let us take the green cockade, the colour of hope…. Yes it is I who call my brothers to freedom; I would rather die than submit to servitude. Desmoulins cited in Schama, Citizens P.382 During that single night of largely unobstructed riot and demolition, Paris was lost to the Monarchy. Schama, Citizens P. 387 http://francofilesfunfacts.blogspot.com.au/2009/07/camille-desmoulins-incites.html Accessed on 01/08/12
Palais Royal (front view) Palais Royal (Garden out back) Palais Royal (rear garden)
Built on Eastern side of Paris to defend it from the English in the 14 th century. Later years turned into a prison for wealthier prisoners. Conditions were very good for a prison of that time, but developed a reputation for torture and despotism due to the literary works being produced inside its walls by prisoners
Morning of 14 July; protestors attack les invalides to retreive weapons. Gun powder is believed to be at the Bastille. Protestors arrived mid morning and were denied entry by Governer de Launay. Protestors were received by de Launay but no compromised was reached. Protestors breached walls and firefight ensued. Up to 100 protestors killed. Accounts vary. de Launay captured and summarily executed by the mob after a confrontation with a butcher named Desnot, his head was severed from his body and placed on a pike and paraded around the city.
Rien.Louis XVI diary entry on July 14 1789. http://www.last.fm/group/'pataphysics/fo rum/106396/_/480734/2 http://www.last.fm/group/'pataphysics/fo rum/106396/_/480734/2 Date accessed: 31/7/12 http://forum.alexanderpalace.org/index.php?topic=6320.45 Date accessed: 01/08/12
15 July: Louis attends National Assembly with only his two brothers for support. Confirms withdrawal of troops from Paris. Conservative Nobility begin emigration to other nations fostering privileges societies. Become known as the emigres. Comte dÁrtois leaves July 16. National Guard formed to protect the property of wealthy citizens led by Marquis de Lafayette July 17: Louis is escorted to Hotel de Ville to reaffirm his promises of 15 July. He receives and wears the Revolutionary cockade and is acclaimed by the crowd! Hotel de Ville – Town Hall
News of the fall of the Bastille was greeted with joy around France. Other urban centres attacked grain stores and tax offices. Beginning with the drafting of the Cahiers, many peasants had simply stopped paying their feudal dues. Fear and speculation spread throughout country side….Would Louis retaliate? Brigands, foreign armies, Kings militia, were roaming the rural areas of France for retribution. Peasants struck first. Attacking the chateau and manor houses, removing and destroying evidence linking them to their dues. Fires in villages sparked fear that retaliation was on its way. http://www.dipity.com/amaraxmarie/French_Revolution/ Date accessed: 01/08/12
News of disturbances delayed in reaching the Assembly. Progressive members suggested forfeiting their feudal dues to quell uprisings. Became an bidding war Venal offices removed, equal taxation accepted, privileges were no more. All privileges not removed fully until 1792. a moment of patriotic drunkenness.Schama cited in Fenwick and Anderson P.88 http://www.unet.univie.ac.at/~a0100238/warum.htm Accessed on 01/08/12
Texts: Adcock, Michael; Analysing the French Revolution, 2 nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne, 2009. Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. 2 nd Edition. Oxford University Press, New York, 2002. Fenwick, Jill and Anderson, Judy; Liberating France. HTAV, Melbourne, 2010. Hibbert, Christopher. The French Revolution. Penguin Books, London, 1980. McPhee, Peter. The French Revolution; 1789-1799. Oxford University Press, New York, 2002. Schama, Simon. Citizens; A Chronicle of the French Revolution. Penguin Books, London, 2004. Images: Photos are authors own. Images have been sourced from Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ Main_Page All other images have been referenced in the presentation. These materials are to be used for the purpose of individual study only. Some materials may be subject to copyright under the Copyright Act 1968. All reasonable attempts have been made to trace copyright holders for permission to use materials but the presenter invites anyone who believes they have copyright over items to contact him if they have any concerns.
1. Read numerous sources of information 2. Hand write your notes as you go along (summary book). 3. Question what you read and your teacher. 4. Collect quotes on topics 5. Practice responses before SACs or exams.