The provisions of Chapter 3 shall apply where required by Chapter 2 or where referenced by a requirement in this document (301.1).
Defined as: Elements or components contributing to a plan or system. 308 Reach Ranges 309 Operable Parts 304 Turning Space 305 Clear Floor or Ground Space 306 Knee and Toe Clearance 307 Protruding Objects 302 Floor or Ground Surfaces 303 Changes in Level The components of Chapter 3 create the basic system for building accessible rooms, elements, and spaces.
Floor or ground surfaces shall be stable, firm, and slip resistant and shall comply with 302. The following excerpts from Advisory 302.1 address the minimum requirements for stable, firm, and slip resistant surfaces.
One that remains unchanged by contaminants or applied force, so that when the contaminant or force is removed, the surface returns to its original condition. Grass and sod surfaces are not prohibited, however, they typically will not meet this criteria. What is a stable surface?
One that resists deformation by either indentations or particles moving on its surface. Soft or loose materials such as sand, gravel, bark, mulch, or wood chips surfaces do not meet this criteria. What is a firm surface?
One that provides sufficient frictional counterforce to the forces exerted in walking to permit safe ambulation. Slip resistance is the most controversial and difficult to measure since there are many types of surfaces and testing methods and compliance is applicable when wet or dry. In 2009, the National Floor Safety Institute issued the ANSI/NFSI B101.1 which is a new national safety standard for testing dry, hard surfaces. What is slip resistance?
It was recommended to DOJ that they apply an American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM) standard (with modifications) to the 2010 SAD to assess whether or not a floor surface is "slip resistant… DOJ declined the recommendation since there is no generally accepted test method for the slip-resistance of all walking surfaces under all conditions.
However, DOJ did include ASTM standards in the 2010 SAD applicable to safe surfaces under and around playground equipment. ASTM standards are referenced in: 105.2.3 (Referenced Standards) 1008.2.6 (Play Areas: Ground Surfaces)
ADA-Certified TAS-Compliant ADA-Approved None…neither DOJ nor TDLR endorses or approves any products or manufacturers. Compliance is typically dependent on the installation and maintenance. What surfaces have the ADA /TAS – Seal of Approval?
(Concrete with small pebbles) Some factors that affect compliance with 302: Size of aggregate Tamping and leveling of the aggregate
Within animal containment areas, floor and ground surfaces shall not be required to be stable, firm, or slip resistant. Not applicable to public circulation routes where animals may travel, such as in petting zoos (Advisory 203.12).
Areas of sport activity shall not be required to comply with 302. Area of Sport Activity. That portion of a room or space where the play or practice of a sport occurs (106.5.9).
Carpet or carpet tile shall: be securely attached have a firm cushion, pad or backing or no cushion or pad.
Pile height shall be exceed ½ maximum. Pad Carpet or carpet tile shall have a level loop, textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut pile texture. Level Cut Pile Thickness is measured to the backing, cushion, or pad (302.2 Advisory).
Exposed edges of carpet shall be fastened to floor surfaces and shall have trim on the entire length of the exposed edge. Carpet trim shall comply with 303.
Carpets and permanently affixed mats can significantly increase the amount of force (roll resistance) needed to propel a wheelchair over a surface (Advisory 302.2). The firmer the carpeting and backing, the lower the roll resistance (Advisory 302.2).
Openings in floor or ground surfaces shall not allow passage of a sphere more than ½ diameter except as allowed. Elongated openings shall be placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular to the dominant direction of travel. No longer called gratings
Floor and ground surfaces of a turning space shall comply with 302. Changes in level are not permitted.
Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.
Circular Space (304.3.1) T-Shaped Space (304.3.2) Turning space shall comply with 304.3.1 and 304.3.2.
The turning space shall be a space 60 inches diameter minimum. The space shall be permitted to include knee and toe clearance complying with 306.
The turning space shall be a T-shaped space within a 60 inch square minimum with arms and a base 36 inches wide minimum. Arm Arms – shall be clear of obstructions 12 minimum in each direction. Base – shall be clear of obstructions 24 minimum. Base
EXAMPLE: Knee and toe clearance at base of T 60 front of T shall always be unobstructed. Arm Base The space shall be permitted to include knee and toe clearance complying with 306 only at the end of either the base or one arm. (See Advisory 809.2.2)
Doors shall be permitted to swing into turning spaces.
Floor or ground surfaces of a clear floor or ground space shall comply with 302. Changes in level are not permitted.
Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.
The clear floor or ground space shall be 30 inches minimum by 48 inches minimum.
Unless Otherwise Specified… …clear floor or ground space shall be permitted to i nclude knee and toe clearance.
…clear floor or ground space shall be positioned for either a forward or parallel approach to an element. Unless Otherwise Specified…
One full unobstructed side of the clear floor or ground space shall adjoin an accessible route or adjoin another clear floor or ground space.
Where a clear floor or ground space is located in an alcove or otherwise confined on all or part of three sides, additional maneuvering clearance shall be provided in accordance with 305.7.1 and 305.7.2.
Alcoves shall be 36 inches wide minimum where the depth exceeds 24 inches. The depth shall exceed 24 inches on both sides of the alcove depth.
Alcoves shall be 60 inches wide minimum where the depth exceeds 15 inches. The depth shall exceed 15 inches on both sides of the alcove depth.
Drinking Fountains Lavatories and Sinks Dining and Work Surfaces Counters (forward approach) Knee & Toe Clearance Excerpt from
Where space beneath an element is included as part of clear floor or ground space or turning space, the space shall comply with 306. Additional space shall not be prohibited beneath an element but shall not be considered part of the clear floor or ground space or turning space.
Maximum depth for knee and toe clearance is 25 inches. If the depth of the floor space is 36 inches; the additional 11 inches cannot be part of the 60 inch turning space. 36 Clearances are measured in relation to the usable clear floor space and the space should be clear of obstructions (306.1 Advisory).
9 Finish Floor or Ground Space under an element between the finish floor or ground and 9 inches above the finish floor or ground shall be considered toe clearance. Excerpt from
Toe clearance shall extend 25 maximum under an element. Where toe clearance is required at an element as part of a clear floor space, the toe clearance shall extend 17 minimum under the element. 17 min; 25 max 9
Space extending more than 6 inches beyond the available knee clearance at 9 inches above the finish floor or ground shall not be considered toe clearance.
If available knee clearance is 10 inches at 9 inches; any space extending more than 6 inches beyond 11 inches (10 + 6 = 16) would not be considered toe clearance. 9 *17 minimum required by 306.2.3. 11 6 Clearance past 16 is not toe clearance.*
Toe clearance shall be 30 inches wide minimum.* 30 min. *Also applicable to the width of the knee clearance based on 306.3.5.
Protruding objects on circulation paths shall comply with 307. These requirements address barriers to persons that are blind or visually impaired or even persons that are temporarily distracted.
Circulation paths can be identified by wearing a blindfold like many people do on White Cane Day, a national observance in the United States celebrated on October 15 of each year since 1964. Circulation Path. An exterior or interior way of passage provided for pedestrian travel, including but not limited to, walks, hallways, courtyards, elevators, platform lifts, ramps, stairways, and landings (106.5.19).
Within areas of sport activity, protruding objects on circulation paths shall not be required to comply with 309.
Within play areas, protruding objects on circulation paths are not required to comply with 307 provided that ground level accessible routes provide vertical clearance in compliance with 1008.2.
Hand dryers and towel dispensers Shelves Diaper changing tables* *Applicable in open and closed position.
This section addresses two different types of post-mounted objects: Signs or other obstructions mounted between posts or pylons. Free-standing object mounted on posts or pylons.
Free-standing objects mounted on posts or pylons shall overhang circulation paths: 80 27 12 max. 12 inches maximum when located between 27 inches minimum and 80 inches maximum.
Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons is greater than 12 inches: The lowest edge of such sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches maximum or 80 inches minimum.
The sloping portions of handrails serving stairs and ramps are not required to comply with 307.3. This does not apply to the handrail extensions which shall be horizontal (505.10.1 and 505.10.2). Sloped portion 34 – 38 allowed for the sloped portion of handrails in lieu of 27 maximum required by 307.3.
Shall be 80 inches high minimum. Guardrails or other barriers shall be provided where the vertical clearance is less than 80 inches high. The leading edge of such guardrail or barrier shall be located 27 inches maximum.
48 maximum high and 15 inches minimum low is required for both unobstructed side and forward reach ranges (308.2 & 308.3). 54 inches no longer allowed for high side reach. 9 inches no longer allowed for low side reach.
Reach ranges shall comply with 308. Permitted: Childrens Reach Ranges Required: Adult Reach Ranges If the option for childrens reach ranges is not used; adult reach ranges is required.
The following table provides guidance on reach ranges for children according to age where building elements such as coat hooks, lockers, or operable parts are designed for use primarily by children. These dimensions apply to either forward or side reaches.
Advisory 308.1 General Children's Reach Ranges Forward or Side Reach Ages 3 and 4Ages 5 through 8 Ages 9 through 12 High (max) 36 in (915 mm) 40 in (1015 mm) 44 in (1120 mm) Low (min) 20 in (510 mm) 18 in (455 mm) 16 in (405 mm) Childrens reach ranges are advisory since the reach ranges shown in this table are also allowed for adults.
308.2.1 Unobstructed Forward Reach. 48 inches maximum and 15 inches minimum. A reach of 44 maximum and 16 minimum (as recommended for children) is not a violation of 308.2.1.
Accessible elements and operable parts designed for adult use or children over age 12 can be located outside these ranges but shall be within the adult reach ranges.
Where a forward reach is unobstructed, the following is required: High Forward Reach: 48 inches maximum. Low Forward Reach: 15 inches minimum.
Where a high forward reach is over an obstruction, the clear floor space shall extend beneath the element for a distance not less than the required reach depth over the obstruction. Example: If the obstruction is 18 deep; the clear floor space must extend at least 18 beneath the element. 18 clear floor space 18 obstruction
Where the reach depth is 20 inches maximum: High Forward Reach: 48 inches maximum.
Where the reach depth exceeds 20 inches: High Forward Reach: 44 inches maximum. Maximum Reach Depth: 25 inches.
High Side Reach: 48 inches maximum. Low Side Reach: 15 inches minimum. Where a clear floor or ground space allows a parallel approach to an element and the side reach is unobstructed:
An obstruction shall be permitted between the clear floor or ground space and the element where the depth of the obstruction is 10 inches maximum. Unacceptable Examples
Operable parts of fuel dispensers shall be permitted to be 54 inches maximum from the surface of the vehicular way where fuel dispensers are installed on existing curbs.
Where a clear floor or ground space allows a parallel approach to an element and the high side reach is over an obstruction: Height of Obstruction: 34 inches maximum. Depth of Obstruction: 24 inches maximum.
The top of washing machines and clothes dryers shall be permitted to be 36 inches high maximum above the finish floor.
Operable parts of fuel dispensers are permitted to be 54 inches maximum from the surface of the vehicular way if installed on existing curbs.
Where the reach depth is 10 inches maximum: High Side Reach: 48 inches maximum. Reach Depth: 10 inches maximum.
Where the reach depth exceeds 10 inches: High Side Reach: 46 inches maximum. Reach Depth: 24 inches maximum.
Operable parts on accessible elements, accessible routes, and in accessible rooms and spaces shall comply with 309. Operable Part: A component of an element used to insert or withdraw objects, or to activate, deactivate, or adjust the element (106.5.40).
Controls subject to compliance with 309 include, but are not limited to: light switches circuit breakers duplexes and other convenience receptacles environmental and appliance controls plumbing fixture controls security and intercom systems Examples of environmental controls: Ceiling FanThermostat Skylight
Operable parts that are intended for use only by service or maintenance personnel are not required to comply with 309. Machinery spaces frequented only by service personnel are also exempted by 203.5.
Electrical or communication receptacles serving a dedicated use shall not be required to comply with 309. Dedicated use receptacles are typically set up with its own circuit breaker or line and intended for a single use such as a stove or closed-circuit telephone or security camera.
Where two or more outlets are provided in a kitchen above a length of counter top that is uninterrupted by a sink or appliance, one outlet is not be required to comply with 309. Example: 1 of these 3 outlets is not required to comply. Electrical outlet
Floor electrical outlets shall not be required to comply with 309.
HVAC diffusers shall not be required to comply with 309. HVAC diffusers are exempt environmental controls.
Except for light switches, where redundant controls are provided for a single element, one control in each space shall not be required to comply with 309. Examples of accessible light switches:
Cleats and other boat securement devices shall not be required to comply with 309.3 (height). This exception does not apply to any other requirements of 309.
Exercise machines and exercise equipment shall not be required to comply with 309.
A clear floor or ground space complying with 305 shall be provided.
Operable parts shall be placed within one or more of the reach ranges specified in 308. Clear Floor Space Electrical outlet Ceiling fan and light controls
Operable parts shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate operable parts shall be 5 pounds maximum.
Gas pump nozzles shall not be required to provide operable parts that have an activating force of 5 pounds maximum. This exception does not apply to any other requirements of 309.
If a faucet or other operable part can be operated with a closed fist and it takes less than 5 pounds force to operate, then it would be considered an accessible operable part. Examples of accessible faucets:
Where provided, at least one of each type of depository, vending machine, change machine, and fuel dispenser shall comply with 309.
Drive-up only depositories shall not be required to comply with 309 (operable parts). Depositories include, but are not limited to, night receptacles in banks, post offices, video stores, and libraries (228.1 Advisory).
Where mail boxes are provided in an interior location, at least 5%, but no fewer than one, of each type shall comply with 309.
In residential facilities, where mail boxes are provided for each residential dwelling unit, mail boxes complying with 309 shall be provided for each residential dwelling unit required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4.
When glazed openings are provided in accessible rooms or spaces for operation by occupants, at least one opening shall comply 309. Each glazed opening required by an administrative authority to operable shall comply with 309.
Glazed openings in residential dwelling units required to comply with 809 shall not be required to comply with 229.
Glazed openings in guest rooms required to provide communication features and in guest rooms required to comply with 206.5.3 (accessible doors only) shall not be required to comply with 229.
Operable elements shall also comply with requirements for protruding objects (307.2, Advisory). Example: Casement windows, when open, cannot encroach more than 4 inches into circulation paths (307.2 Advisory). Applicable when open and when closed.
Where shooting facilities with firing positions are designed and constructed at a site, at least 5%, but no fewer than one, of each type of firing position shall comply with 1010 (243.1). A circular turning space 60 diameter minimum with slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be provided at shooting facilities with firing positions (1010.1).
Website developed through a contract with DBTAC* and the U.S. Access Board * Disability and Business Technical Assistance Center www.accessibilityonline.org/
Guidance on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design Title II – Revised* Title III – Revised* Primer for Small Businesses *Appendix A to each regulation includes a section-by- section analysis of the rule and responses to public comments on the proposed rule. *Appendix B to the title III regulation discusses major changes in the 2010 ADA and responds to public comments received on the proposed rules. www.ada.gov/2010ADAstandards_index.htm
U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) www.huduser.org/portal/publications/ destech/fairhousing.html