# Mathematics Selected Response, Constructed Response, and Technology-Enhanced Items Welcome to the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium’s Mathematics.

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Mathematics Selected Response, Constructed Response, and Technology-Enhanced Items
Welcome to the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium’s Mathematics Selected Response, Constructed Response, and Technology-Enhanced Item Design Training Module. The Smarter Balanced assessment system will use a variety of items and tasks, ranging from brief selected response items that target particular concepts or skills to more elaborate constructed response items and performance tasks that require the application of mathematical concepts to complex real-world scenarios. This module provides an overview of selected response, constructed response, technology-enhanced items, the formats for each item type, and the best practices for item writing.

Learning Outcomes Understand the purpose of selected response, constructed response, and technology-enhanced items Describe the components of selected response, constructed response, and technology-enhanced items Understand the essential requirements of quality items Apply general guidelines for writing selected response, constructed response, and technology-enhanced items Identify exemplary and flawed items This module explores commonly accepted best practices for writing selected response, constructed response, and technology-enhanced items. {+} The module will help participants deepen their understanding of the purpose of selected response, constructed response, and technology-enhanced items describe the components of selected response, constructed response, and technology-enhanced items, understand the essential requirements of quality items, apply general guidelines for writing selected response, constructed response, and technology-enhanced items, and identify exemplary and flawed items.

Benefits and Limitations of Selected Response Items
Answered quickly Assess a broad range of content in one test Inexpensive and objectively scored Results collected quickly Limitations Limited ability to reveal a student’s reasoning process Difficult to assess higher- order thinking skills Selected response items have many benefits. {+} Selected response items are designed to be answered within 1 or 2 minutes and allow the opportunity to assess a broad range of content in one test. Selected response items are inexpensive to score, are scored objectively, and student results are collected quickly. Despite these benefits, there are two limitations. With selected responses, it is difficult to understand a student’s reasoning process and to assess higher-order thinking skills.

Formats and Components of Selected Response Items
Traditional Selected Response Item Key and Distractor Analysis Which number is both a factor of 100 and a multiple of 5? A. 4 B. 40 C. 50 D. 500 Did not consider criteria of “multiple of 5” Did not consider criteria of “factor of 100” Correct Multiplied 100 and 5 Which number is both a factor of 100 and a multiple of 5? STEM Statement of the question RATIONALE A. 4 B. 40 C. 50 D. 500 OPTIONS: Possible answers the students must select from DISTRACTOR KEY The Smarter Balanced Assessment will be using both traditional and non-traditional selected response items. First let’s take a look at the format and components of a traditional selected response item. {+} This item is a traditional multiple-choice item with a stem and four options. {+} The stem is the statement of the question to which the student responds. The options are possible answers from which students must select. Options should be arranged according to a logical order such as numerically or alphabetically. There are four different ways to respond to this item and only one correct answer. Distractors are the incorrect options. A key and distractor analysis accompanies each selected response item. The key identifies the correct response. In addition, a rationale for each incorrect response is provided. Incorrect responses should be based on the likely errors students will make and common misunderstandings. For example in the case of a two-step problem, a student may solve only the first step, making the solution to the first step an excellent distractor. The distractor analysis explains the rationale a student might use to select each option. It is important the distractors and the key are balanced. No one option should be obviously different from the others.

STIMULUS 17 × 12 A multiplication problem is shown below. 17 × 12 Which model(s) below could represent the solution to this problem? Select all that apply. Which model(s) below could represent the solution to this problem? Select all that apply. STEM A. B. C. (1×1)+(1×7)+(1×2)+(2×7) This is a more complex selected-response item. This item has a stem, stimulus, and six options. {+} Like the previous item, the stem is the statement of the question to which the student responds and the options are possible answers the students must select from. The stimulus is the text, source, and/or graphic about which the item is written. The stimulus provides the context of the item or task to which the student must respond. Here the student is provided with options in which more than one option is correct. Unlike the prior item that had only one correct response, this item contains more than one option that is correct. D. E. F. (17×2)+(17×1)

Key and Distractor Analysis: Does not understand how to model multiplication of two two-digit numbers using area models. Correct Did not account for the values of the digits in the tens places. Did not understand that the 1 represents 10 in the multiplication problem Showed multiplication of 17 and (1 + 2) instead of 17 and 12 Responses to this item will receive 0–2 points, based on the following: 2 points: B, D 1 point: Either B or D 0 points: Any other combination of selections. The scoring rubric describes how points are awarded for an item or task. The number of points a student can earn on a selected response item will vary. {+} This item is worth two points. The student earns two points for selecting options B and D, 1 point for selecting only option B or only option D, and no points for any other combination of selections.

For numbers 1a – 1d, state whether or not each figure has ⅖ of its whole shaded. STEM MULTIPLE PARTS OPTIONS 1a. 1b. Let’s take a look at another way to format a non-traditional selected response item. This item has a stem, multiple parts and two options for each part. {+} The stem directs students to decide whether or not the model in each part answers the question. There are 16 different ways to respond to this item making guessing the correct answer much less likely than for a traditional selected-response item. 1c. 1d.

Scoring Rubric: Responses to this item will receive 0–2 points, based upon the following: 2 points: YNYN The student has a solid understanding of ⅖ as well as the equivalent form of ⅖. 1 point: YNNN, YYNN, YYYN The student has only a basic understanding of ⅖. Either the student doesn‘t recognize an equivalent fraction for ⅖ or doesn‘t understand that all 5 parts must be equal-sized in figure 1b. 0 points: YYYY, YNNY, NNNN, NNYY, NYYN, NYNN, NYYY, NYNN, NNNN, NYNY, NNYN, NNNY. The student demonstrates inconsistent understanding of ⅖ or answers “Y” to figure 1d, clearly showing a misunderstanding of what ⅖ means. Figure 1d is considered a “disqualifier “and an answer of “Y” to this part of the item would cancel out any other correct responses as “guesses” on the part of the student. The scoring rubric for this item indicates it is worth two points and points will be awarded based on the level of understanding a student demonstrates. The scoring rubric describes how points are awarded for an item or task.

Match each shape below to its name. Scoring Rule: Students who properly match the four shapes to their name will receive two points. Students who make two or three correct matches will receive partial credit of one point All other connections will receive a score of 0. Another format for a non-traditional selected response item is to require students to match descriptions of a term or activity to a corresponding option. This is a technology-enhanced item and has a scoring rule instead of a scoring rubric. {+} The scoring rule determines how points are awarded. This item is worth two points and points will be awarded based on the level of understanding a student demonstrates. The scoring rule describes how points are awarded for an item or task.

An item writer should consider creating these alternate selected response items when, by doing so, the items provide more information about a student’s knowledge, skills, and abilities than can be gained through a traditional selected response item.

Purpose of Constructed Response Items
Address assessment targets and claims that are of greater complexity Require more analytical thinking and reasoning Constructed response items are brief open-response items that focus on a particular skill or concept. Constructed response items address assessment targets and claims that are of greater complexity, requiring more analytical thinking and reasoning than a selected response can elicit.

Administered during the computer-adaptive component Scored using artificial intelligence Most constructed response items take between 1 and 5 minutes to complete Some more complex items may take up to 10 minutes to complete Unlike Performance Tasks and Extended Response items, which are the topic of another module, {+} constructed response items are designed to be administered during the computer-adaptive component of the assessment. {+} In order to score constructed response items quickly, automated scoring using artificial intelligence will be employed. {+} Most constructed-response items should take between 1 and 5 minutes to complete. {+} Some more complex items may take up to 10 minutes to complete.

Components of a Constructed Response Item
A teacher asked her students to use estimation to decide if the sum of the problem below is closer to 4,000 or 5,000. , , = One student replied that she thinks the sum is closer to 4,000. She used the estimation shown below to support her reasoning. Is the student’s reasoning correct? In the space below, use numbers and words to explain why or why not. If the student’s reasoning is not correct, explain how she should have estimated. STEM STIMULI All constructed response items are worth from 2 to 4 points. {+} Let’s take a look at an example of a 2 point constructed response item. Like selected response items, constructed response items have a stem and stimulus.

Components of a Constructed Response Item
Sample Top-Score Response: The student’s reasoning is incorrect. She was rounding to the thousands place. She had 2 numbers that were less than 500, and she decided to round these numbers to 0. This is like saying these numbers were not in the problem at all. She needs to account for these two numbers. Together, they have a sum that is very close to 1,000. I think adding 1, , ,000 is a better strategy. This means the sum is closer to 5,000 than to 4,000. TOP-SCORE Scoring Rubric: Responses to this item will receive 0–2 points, based on the following: 2 points: Student has thorough understanding of how to estimate and how improper estimation can lead to flawed reasoning. Student states that the student in the scenario used reasoning that is incorrect and provides reasoning that shows a better estimation strategy. 1 point: Student has partial understanding of how to estimate and how improper estimation can lead to flawed reasoning. Student states that the student in the scenario used reasoning that is incorrect, but alternate estimation strategy is also flawed. 0 points: Student has little or no understanding of how to estimate and how improper estimation can lead to flawed reasoning. Student states that the student in the scenario used reasoning that is correct. All constructed response items also include a scoring rubric and a sample top score. {+} The scoring rubric for each task should reflect the values set out for the claim being assessed, giving substantial weight to the choice of appropriate methods for solving the problem presented by the task, to reliable application of skills to develop a solution, and to explanations of what has been found. {+} The sample top score is an example of a complete and thorough top-score response. The language should model what is expected from a student at the grade level being assessed. SCORING RUBRIC

Qualities of a Rubric Focus on the essence of the primary claim and sometimes secondary claim Address the requirements of the specific assessment targets Distinguish between different levels of understanding and/or performance Contain relevant information, details, and numbers that support different levels of competency related to the item or task The language in the rubric should: {+} Focus on the essence of the primary claim and sometimes secondary claim. {+} Address the requirements of the specific assessment targets. {+} Distinguish between different levels of understanding and/or performance. {+} Contain relevant information, details, and numbers that support different levels of competency related to the item or task.

Essential Requirements of Selected Response and Constructed Response Items
Aligned to claims and assessment targets Mathematical accuracy Clarity, readability, and accessibility Free from bias issues More complex constructed response items may include scaffolding Selected response items must have appropriate distractors Essential requirements for all items and tasks include {+} strong alignment to claims and assessment targets, {+} mathematical accuracy {+} and proper presentation. {+} Items should also be free of bias issues in regards to age, gender, race, ethnicity, language, religion, socioeconomic status, disability or geographic region. {+} More complex constructed response items may include scaffolding supports to facilitate student entry to the problem. {+} And selected response items must have appropriate distractors.

Each item should be written to assess a primary claim
General Guidelines for Developing Selected Response and Constructed Response Items Each item should be written to assess a primary claim Secondary content claims are also possible Each item should be written to: {+} assess a primary claim from the Smarter Balanced Mathematics Content Specifications. Claim 1 items should be written to assess a given content domain or conceptual category. Claim 2, 3, and 4 items should be written to a primary claim and in some cases, a secondary claim. Secondary claims should be listed in order of prominence when completing the item template. There are no selected response items for Claim 4.

General Guidelines for Developing Selected Response and Constructed Response Items

Examples of Poorly Written Items
The table below shows the weights of three vehicles. Which list shows the vehicles in order from lightest to heaviest? ☐ car, motorcycle, truck ☐ motorcycle, car, truck ☐ truck, car, motorcycle ☐ truck, motorcycle, car The table below shows the number of apples three students picked. Which list shows the number of apples picked in order from greatest to the least? ☐ 95, 107, 121 ☐ 95, 121, 107 ☐ , 107, 95 ☐ , 95, 107 Vehicle Weight (in pounds) Car 4,050 Motorcycle 497 Truck 12,159 Student Number of Apples Bobby 107 Carlos 95 Jenna 121 We have already looked as some exemplar items. Now let’s review some items that fall short of Smarter Balanced item development standards. {+} Let’s pause for thirty seconds so that you can look at this item and think about its flaws. [pause for 30 seconds] OK. Let’s examine some flaws in this item. First, the context of this item can affect the student’s performance. Many students could use prior knowledge unrelated to the concept or skill being measured to answer this item. The item is also problematic because it asks the students to order the vehicles and not the numbers that represent the weight of the vehicles. Also, the key is the only option that begins with the lightest vehicle. Many students will not need to order any number to determine the correct answer. A similar question could be asked using the weight of three different elephants or the length of three different rivers. Let’s look at a similar item that measures the same content. This item measures the same content, but students cannot draw upon prior knowledge to help them answer the question. Students also need to order the numbers and consider the options more closely.

Examples of Poorly Written Items
Mercedes received 32 pieces of candy on Halloween. She ate ¼ of the candy. How many pieces of candy did Mercedes have left? Show or explain how you found your answer. This item also has a few problems. Let’s pause for fifteen seconds so you can think about the flaws in this item. {+} [15 second pause] First let’s look at the name used. Mercedes is a female name, but it is also a luxury car manufacturer. This may create bias issues and confusion for students. Next, the context is centered on a holiday. This again creates bias issues. Avoid writing about any holidays.

Examples of Poorly Written Items
Look at the rectangle below. What is the area, in square feet, of the rectangle? ☐ 3 ☐ 15 ☐ 18 ☐ 63 3 feet 6 feet This is another example of an item that has some flaws. Let’s pause for fifteen seconds so that you can look at this item and think about its flaws. {+} [15 second pause] This item asks students to find the area of the rectangle, which is 18 square feet. The perimeter of this rectangle is 18 feet. Many elementary students confuse area and perimeter. Many students would select the correct answer for the wrong reason. In addition to this shortcoming, the distractors in this item are also unbalanced. Three is the only single digit option and 63 is much greater than the other options. This item would be strengthened by changing the dimensions so that the area and perimeter are not the same number and if the distractors were more similar to each other, ideally with one representing the perimeter, another representing an anticipated arithmetic error, and the third a number that is in close proximity to the other options.

Selected Response and Constructed Response Item Module
Essential Elements Benefits and Limitations Flawed and Exemplary Items Continue with this module to learn about technology-enhanced items. Thus far, this module has explored several issues specific to selected response and constructed response items. {+} Specifically, this module examined the essential elements of each item type, including the concept of a stem, stimuli, options, and scoring information. This module also explored the benefits and limitations of each item type. Finally, the module explored several characteristics of flawed items and described elements of exemplary items. The information presented in this module should be used to guide the development of selected response and constructed response items that are specified by the task models for each assessment target measured by the Smarter Balanced Assessment System. For those participants who will be writing technology-enhanced items, please continue with this module. For those participants who will not be writing technology-enhanced items, you may end the module now.

Capitalize on Technology
Technology-Enabled items Technology-Enhanced items In addition to developing traditional selected and constructed response items, Smarter Balanced aims to capitalize on technology to improve the measure of student learning. To this end, the Consortium aims to develop two types of items that capitalize on technology. {+} These items are known as Technology Enabled and Technology Enhanced.

Technology-Enabled Items
Digital Media Video Animation Sound Interactive tools Response Types Selected Constructed Technology-enabled items {+} use media, such as video, animations, sound, or interactive tools to stimulate an assessment target. {+} Despite the use of these media types, a technology enabled item requires a student to provide either a selected response or a constructed response that consists of text and/or numbers.

Example of Technology-Enabled Item
Gregory is installing tile on a rectangular floor. • He is using congruent square tiles that each have a side length of ½ foot • The area of the floor is 22 square feet. • The width of the floor is 4 feet. Use the grid and the tile below to model the floor. What is the length, in feet, of the floor? As an example, this item allows students to explore an interactive tool that enables students to manipulate tiles before entering an answer to the question.

Technology-Enhanced Items
Specialized interaction May have digital media for stimulus Same requirements as selected and constructed response items Students manipulate information Defined responses Technology-enhanced items are computer delivered items that require {+} specialized interactions students must perform to produce a response. Responses produced by a technology-enhanced item require students to do something other than write text or numbers, or select from among a set of options. These items may also include digital media as the stimulus. Technology-enhanced items should conform to the same essential requirements that we already discussed for writing quality selected response and constructed response items. The only difference is that they allow students to manipulate information in ways that are not possible with traditional selected response and constructed response items. Like selected response items, technology-enhanced items have defined responses that can be scored in an automated manner.

Technology-Enhanced Items
Draw a line of symmetry through the figure below. The graph on the right shows a triangle. Draw the triangle after it is reflected over the y-axis. Classify each shape below based whether it contains at least one pair of parallel sides. Reorder the fractions below so that they are ordered from smallest to largest. 3/5 3/4 2/6 1/2 2/3 As a few examples, a technology enhanced item may require the student to {+} produce a line or a set of lines, {+} to draw a shape like an isosceles triangle or a rectangle with a specific area or perimeter, {+} to rearrange the order of numbers or expressions, {+} or to categorize geometric shapes, numbers, or expressions by dragging and dropping them.

Key Components of a Technology-Enhanced Item
Classify each shape below based on whether it contains at least one pair of parallel sides. Draw a line of symmetry through the figure below. INTERACTION SPACE There are several terms that are important to understand when developing technology enhanced items. The first term is Interaction Space. The interaction space is the area in which students interact with an item to produce a response. {+} This is the interaction space for an item that requires the student to draw a line, in this case to produce a line of symmetry. The interaction space is the area in which the student produces a line. This is a different item that requires the student to drag and drop objects, in this case to classify shapes. The interaction space is the area in which students are able to select an object, drag that object, and then place the object in a new location.

Key Components of a Technology-Enhanced Item
Draw a line of symmetry through the figure below. When developing a technology enhanced item, the task model will indicate which type of interaction space you should use to allow students to produce a response. {+} As an example, the task model for this item specifies the use of the “single line” interaction space.

Key Components of a Technology-Enhanced Item
Parameter: A variable provides input to a computer program Draw a line of symmetry through the figure below. Interaction Space Parameters Default Coordinates: False Coordinates for corners: (1,1), (13,13) Grid Visible: True Labels: False Snap: True Object Displayed: True Object Coordinates: (4,10), (7,11), (10,10), (9,8), (10,4), (6,5), (4,4), (3,7), (4,10) Points Connected: True Interaction Space Parameters Default Coordinates: False Coordinates for corners: (1,1), (13,13) Grid Visible: False Labels: False Snap: True Object Displayed: True Object Coordinates: (4,10), (10,10), (4,20), (10,20) Points Connected: True Draw a line of symmetry through the figure below. A parameter is a variable that allows a user to provide input to a computer program. As an example, when printing a document, the user is asked how many copies to print. The number entered into this parameter is used to tell the computer how many times to repeat the print function or routine for the document. Many interaction spaces contain parameters that allow an item writer to specify additional information like the number of responses the student can create or specific characteristics of the response. {+} As an example, the draw line interaction space contain several parameters that can be set by an item writer. {+} One parameter, called Object Coordinates, allows an item writer to define the coordinate values for the bottom right corner and the top left corner of the coordinate grid. A separate parameter, called Grid Visible, can be used to indicate whether the grid lines should be displayed. {+} By adjusting the values for each interaction space parameter, you can use a single technology enhanced item type to create a wide variety of items. As an example, for this second item the Grid is set to not visible and the object coordinates have been changed to form a rectangle.

Scoring Rule: Logic used to score student response
Which number is both a factor of 100 and a multiple of 5? A. 4 B. 40 C. 50 D. 500 Scoring Rule: If student response = C, then correct Otherwise, incorrect Scoring Rule: If object 1 = B, 2 = A, 3 = B, 4 = A, 5 = A, then correct Otherwise, incorrect Classify each shape below based on whether it contains at least one pair of parallel sides. All technology enhanced items have a scoring rule associated with them. {+} The scoring rule provides directions to the computer about the logic to be followed to score a response. In some cases, an item will have only one correct response. In other cases, there may be many possible correct responses. In reality, all items have a scoring rule. {+} The scoring rule for a selected response item simply states that if the student’s response is identical to the correct response, then the student receives one point, otherwise the student receives zero points. {+} Similarly, for a drag and drop item, the scoring rule compares the location of each object with its correct location. The student is then awarded one or more points based on the number of correct categorizations made.

Scoring Rule Scoring Rule: Start Point: Do not consider
Draw a line of symmetry through the figure below. Scoring Rule: Start Point: Do not consider End Point: Do not consider x-Intercept: Consider, 0, .5 y-Intercept: Consider, 0, .5 Slope: Consider, -1, .25 Alternate Scoring Rule: Start Point: Do not consider End Point: Do not consider x-Intercept: Consider, 0, 0 y-Intercept: Consider, 0, 0 Slope: Consider, -1, 0 Like an interaction space, the scoring rule for many technology enhanced items allows you to adjust the values for a variety of variables. As an example, the draw line item seen earlier allows writers to indicate which information about the line is to be considered and how much tolerance or error is acceptable for the intercepts and slope. {+} Changing the tolerance values to zero may affect whether some responses are correct or incorrect. There will be more about these variables and how to set values for them in the training that focuses on using the item writing system.

Boolean: A variable that has a value of True or False
Boolean Variables Boolean: A variable that has a value of True or False Draw a line of symmetry through the figure below. Interaction Space Parameters Default Coordinates: False Coordinates for corners: (1,1), (13,13) Grid Visible: True Labels: False Snap: True Object Displayed: True Object Coordinates: (4,10), (7,11), (10,10), (9,8), (10,4), (6,5), (4,4), (3,7), (4,10) Points Connected: True Interaction Space Parameters Default Coordinates: False Coordinates for corners: (1,1), (13,13) Grid Visible: FALSE Labels: False Snap: True Object Displayed: True Object Coordinates: (4,10), (7,11), (10,10), (9,8), (10,4), (6,5), (4,4), (3,7), (4,10) Points Connected: True Draw a line of symmetry through the figure below. Many technology enhanced items require an item writer to set a value for a special type of variable called a Boolean. {+} A Boolean is a variable that has one of two possible values, True or False. Many technology-enhanced items use a Boolean to indicate whether or not a specific feature should be turned on or off. {+} As an example, the draw a line item type includes a Boolean variable that indicates whether or not to display the grid lines. By setting the Boolean variable to True, the grid lines are displayed. {+} In most cases, Boolean variables are used to turn a feature on or off and allow you to produce a wider variety of items from a given technology enhanced item type.

Comparing Technology-Enabled and Technology-Enhanced Items
Gregory is installing tile on a rectangular floor. • He is using congruent square tiles that each have a side length of ½ foot. • The area of the floor is 22 square feet. • The width of the floor is 4 feet. Use the grid and the tile below to model the floor. What is the length, in feet, of the floor? Draw a line of symmetry through the figure below. Technology enabled- and technology-enhanced items may both contain media elements that cannot be included with a paper-based test. {+} As an example, the technology-enabled item seen earlier asks students to use an interactive tool to explore a concept and to then select a response. It is technology-enabled because it uses an interactive tool as part of its stimulus, but it requires the student to produce a traditional response type. {+} This technology-enhanced item also asks the student to use an interactive tool. However, this item also asks students to use the tool to produce their response, namely a line. Both items capitalize on technology by using an interactive tool. {+} The technology-enabled items require students to produce a traditional text-based response. {+} In contrast, the technology-enhanced item requires students to create a line. The scoring rule that accompanies the item then compares the line created by the student with the correct response. While the difference between the two item types may seem small, the new response type that distinguishes a technology-enhanced item has important implications for item writing. 5.5 feet

Technology-Enhanced Item Template
Select Type of Interaction Draw a line of symmetry through the figure below. Enter Content for Item Define Parameter Values Interaction Space Parameters Default Coordinates: False Coordinates for corners: (1,1), (13,13) Grid Visible: True Labels: False Snap: True Object Displayed: True Object Coordinates: (4,10), (7,11), (10,10), (9,8), (10,4), (6,5), (4,4), (3,7), (4,10) Points Connected: True To guide the development of technology enhanced items, a template has been created for each type of technology-enhanced item. The template for each item type is divided into four steps. {+} The first step in creating an item is to select the type of interaction the student must make to produce a response. The type of interaction selected will determine the template that is used to produce an item. {+} As an example, to create this item the item writer selected the Single Line interaction type. {+} Once a template has been selected, the content that forms the prompt and other directions for the item is entered in the content section of the template. {+} As an example, for this item, the item writer entered “Draw a line of symmetry through the figure below” as the prompt for the item. {+} The third step focuses on setting values for the variables associated with the interaction type selected. {+} As seen earlier, for this item the grid was made visible, but labels were not shown. Also, the item writer defined points for an object that is displayed on the grid and indicated that the points for the object were to be connected. {+} The final component allows an item writer to provide information about how to score a student’s response. This information may include the number of points awarded for the item, and the responses for each point value. {+} As an example, for this earlier item, the item writer specified the values for the intercepts and the slope that represent the correct line and also indicated the amount of tolerance that was acceptable. A later module will introduce the item writing system that will be used to create and record information for each of these four components of a technology enhanced item template. Specify Scoring Information Scoring Rule: Start Point: Do not consider End Point: Do not consider x-Intercept: Consider, 0, .5 y-Intercept: Consider, 0, .5 Slope: Consider, -1, .25

Technology-Enhanced Items
Essential Elements Steps required to write an item Type of item templates This portion of the module has explored several issues specific to technology-enhanced items. {+} Specifically, this portion of the module examined the essential elements of technology-enhanced items, including the concept of an interaction space, parameter values, and scoring rules. This module also explored the steps required to write a technology-enhanced item. Finally, the module described the types of technology-enhanced items that are currently available for development. To learn more about technology-enhanced items, please see the Technology-Enhanced Item Specifications developed by the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium.

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