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# Associate Professor Joanne Mulligan Faculty of Human Sciences

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Developing Rich Tasks in Pattern and Structure in the Early Years: Workshop
Associate Professor Joanne Mulligan Faculty of Human Sciences Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia Mathematical Association of Tasmania Conference Expanding Your Horizons May Penguin High School 1

Overview Promoting a pattern and structure approach: PASMAP
Pattern-eliciting tasks Pattern and Structure Assessment (PASA) Interview Analysing structural development

What is a Rich Task? Address a range of learning outcomes, skills, strategies Encourage deep thinking, reflecting and creativity Allow for demonstration of a range of concepts, skills and strategies Allow students to show connections between concepts Allow for differentiation; all students can engage with the task Need assessment strategies (rubric)

The Pattern and Structure Mathematics Awareness Program Approach
Highlight and model pattern and structure Draw attention to mathematical features – “sameness” and “difference” Explicit focus on one aspect of structure at a time Make connections between components of pattern and structure Visual memory activities Measurement and spatial structuring as a basis for number concepts Explain and justify thinking Translate and generalise pattern and structure Tasks gradually become more complex and link to other concepts 4

Border Patterns Provide 6 x 6 template (or other sizes) and two/three different sets of coloured multilink cubes. Predict how many cubes you will need of each colour to complete a pattern. How many pattern “chunks” can you make? If the borders have a different number of squares can you always complete a pattern? Why? Why not? Extend the border task to include other units of repeat and different sizes and shapes

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Using gift bags to investigate pattern and structure
Collect a range of small gift bags with attached identical small gift tags Examine the gift bag and the identical smaller card attached What is the same? What is different? What patterns do you see How many cards fit into the large picture/pattern on the gift bag? What do you think we could do to make the small card by shrinking the large picture on the bag? How much smaller is the small picture than the large picture? How do you know?

Staircase Patterns Staircase pattern produced by the sum of the first two consecutive odd numbers e.g 1 + 3 = 4 = 9 = 16 Is there anything special about these numbers? What shape/s can you make to show this pattern? How is the pattern of L shapes related to the structure of squared numbers?

Re-arrange pattern as L shape of odd numbers
Make a pattern of L shapes 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 then rearrange as an array. What is the pattern for the sum of consecutive odd numbers ? Can the student see the relationship between the number pattern and building the array?

Make a square photo frame with a border of small square tiles
Make a Photo Frame Make a square photo frame with a border of small square tiles Each small square of the border measures 2cm in length. The length of one side of the inside frame (where the photo fits) is 8cm. Use the large cardboard square and small squares (as tiles). (Rulers are not available for this task). How many tiles do you think you will need? How did you work this out?

Children’s Responses How many tiles do you need? Students’ Strategies:
S1: Four corners and four tiles on each side (4 + 4 x 4= 20) S2: Six on one side so its 4x6=24 (incorrect use of multiplication) S3: You don’t count the corners twice so its =20 S4: You go 4 sides x 6 take away the corners.” It doesn’t matter how big the frame is you always take away 4 from the number of tiles when you multiply side x side (emergent generalising) S5: (side x 4sides take away 4 corners) s x 4–4 or 4(s–1)

Key Questions What are the key concepts and processes that you are assessing? How do children use pattern and structure? How could you extend the task? “If you made the the square tiles larger how many different sized frames could you design?” “If you only knew the area of the frame how could you work out the number of tiles that you would need for the border?”

PASA Interview Assessment Items
17 items (6 verbal, 6 modeled and 5 drawn responses): 10. Quotition / division 11. Analogical reasoning 12. Transformation 13. Visual memory: dot pattern 14. Functional thinking 15. Time: clockface 16. Area: unitising 17. Volume: unit comparison 1, 2. Patterning: simple & complex repetitions 3. Subitising 4. Counting by twos and threes 5. Recognising ten as a unit 6. Fractions: halves and thirds 7. Visual memory: 3x4 grid 8. Volume: units / spatial 9. Combinatorial: multiplication

PASA Extension items 7 items (2 verbal, 3 modeled and 2 drawn responses):
Composite unit Tens frames Hundreds charts Pattern of squares Commutativity Equivalence Measurement

What comes next in the pattern so the pattern gets bigger?
Pattern of Squares What comes next in the pattern so the pattern gets bigger?

Volume: Units/ visualisation 2D-3D
Show one cube and the net of an open box. Look how this cube fits into this shape. Place one cube in one of the central four squares. Imagine this shape folded up to make a box. How many cubes like this one (point to single cube) would you need to fill the box to the top? 17

Levels of structural responses
Pre-structural No response / Guess. Emergent Attempts to count all the squares in the net. Partial-structural Unsuccessful attempt to visualise the folding. Structural Four squares in the middle, with no explanation. Advanced Explanation of the four central squares creating the base of the box.

Stages of Structural Development
Prestructural: representations lack evidence of relevant numerical or spatial structure Emergent: representations show some relevant elements, but their numerical or spatial structure is not represented Partial structural: representations show most relevant aspects but representation is incomplete Structural: representations correctly integrate numerical and spatial structural features Advanced: children show they recognise the generality of the underlying structure

Categorising Responses for Stages of Structural Development
What are the structural features of the mathematical concept e.g. equal grouping? What are the structural features of the mathematical representation e.g. number line? What are the spatial structural features e.g. square or cube; array or grid? Are there any patterns e.g. repetition, growing pattern, functional relationship; numerical or spatial? Is there a relationship between the structural features and the pattern? What evidence is there that the child has integrated or connected pattern and structure?

Length: Halves and thirds
Show the student a strip of paper tape approximately 30cm long. I want to cut this tape into 2 pieces exactly the same size. Can you show me where to cut it? Suppose I want to cut it into 3 pieces the same size. Where should I cut it now?

Levels of structural responses (halving)
Pre-structural No response or two or more cuts. Emergent Points to one place near end of the strip. Partial-structural Points to one place towards the middle but a poor estimate. No effort is made to consider equal sections. Structural Points to a place near the middle of the strip. Makes two approximately equal sections. Advanced Folds the strip in order to locate the middle.

Visual Memory: Triangular Dot Pattern
I’m going to show you a pattern of dots but only for a short time. The I want you to draw it. Are you ready? Uncover the dot pattern for 2 seconds, then cover it again. Now draw exactly what you saw. Allow second attempt.

Levels of structural responses
Emergent Partial Structural Advanced

Functional thinking Look at these dogs.
Cover the picture with the sheet of card, but leave the first dog uncovered. How many ears are there altogether on: 1 dog? After the child has answered, uncover the second dog. 2 dogs? After the child has answered, uncover the third dog. 3 dogs? Do not uncover the fourth dog. 4 dogs? Repeat for legs up to 3 dogs.

Levels of structural responses
Pre-structural Makes errors on both the number of ears on 4 dogs and the number of legs on 3 dogs. Emergent Correctly predicts number of ears on 4 dogs, but not the number of legs on 3 dogs. Partial-structural Completes both parts correctly, using addition for either part. Structural Completes both parts correctly by counting in 2’s and 4’s. Advanced Completes both parts correctly using a multiplication fact in either part.

Structural Functional Thinking
“1 dog – 4 legs 2 dogs – 8 legs 3 dogs – 12 legs … You put 4 with each dog … it’s four for every dog you have no matter how many”

Area: Unitising Provide diagram on sheet, pencil, eraser.
Someone has started to draw some squares to cover this shape. Finish drawing the squares here. Point to the space.

Levels of structural responses
Pre-structural Emergent Partial structural Advanced 29

Ext PASA Q7. Measurement Provide a piece of paper with the outline of a ruler. Imagine this is a ruler to measure with. Draw things on the ruler so you can measure with it. Ask. Explain what you’ve drawn on the ruler. Show me how you would measure your pencil with your ruler.

Ext PASA Q7. Levels of structural responses
Pre-structural Emergent Partial Structural Advanced

References Bobis, J., Mulligan, J. T., Lowrie, T. (2013). Mathematics for Children: Challenging Children to Think Mathematically (4e). Sydney: Pearson Education Australia. Mulligan, J.T., & Mitchelmore, M.C. (in press). The Pattern and Structure Assessment-Early Mathematics (PASA-P;PASA-1,PASA1-X; PASA-2); Teacher guide. ACER: Camberwell, Victoria. Mulligan J. T., Mitchelmore, M. C., Kemp, C., Marston, J. & Highfield, K. (2008). Encouraging mathematical thinking through ‘Pattern and Structure’: An intervention in the first year of schooling. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 13 (3), National Council of Teachers of Mathematics: Prekindergarten – Grade 2; Grades 3 -5, Principles and Standards for School Mathematics Navigations Series. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NSW Department of Education & Training (2005). Talking about patterns and algebra. Ryde: NSW DET Curriculum Directorate Papic, M. (2005). Turn and learn pattern activities. Knowledge Builder. 32

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