2 Science SafetyScientists follow safety procedures to protect themselves when performing observations and experimentsThey wear goggles to protect their eyesThey used the tools carefully so that they do not harm themselves or othersThey do not put any scientific materials in their mouthsSpills are cleaned up quickly using the correct procedure
3 Science JobsManager – this person will make sure that all members are on taskReporter – this person will report the results of their groups work, you may need to take notesMaterials getter – this person will get materialsMaterials collector – this person will return materials
4 Content ReviewRocks are made of different ingredients called minerals.Minerals are pure materials that can’t be separated into different kinds of ingredients.
5 Vocabulary Review weight – how heavy something is crystal – the solid form of a material that can be identified by its special shape or patternproperty – something you can observe, such as color, shape, texture, living/non-living
6 Vocabulary Reviewdissolve – to disappear in a liquid. When salt mixes with water, it goes into solution and cannot be seen until the water dries up.earth material – a substance that comes from the earthdepth – how thick an object is from top to bottomgeologist – a person who studies the earth and the materials of which it is made.
7 Vocabulary Review diameter – the distance across a round object mineral – a basic earth material; a rock ingredient that cannot be broken downevaporate – to dry uprock – an earth material composed of different ingredientscircumference – the distance around an object
8 What We Will LearnSome rocks can be identified by using a scratch test.
9 What We Will Do Identify the four minerals by name. Perform a scratch test on the four minerals we observed yesterday to determine their hardness.First we will use the tools and practice on a piece of tile.Then we will do the scratch test on the four minerals.
10 Materials Material Getters will get the trays with Their FOSS tray with their minerals4 pieces of chalk4 tiles4 tool kitsYou will record your information in your Earth Materials Booklet.Your work in your Earth Materials Booklet will be graded, so do your best work.
11 ProcedureYou will use three tools to help determine the hardness of the minerals on the tray:a paper clip (a geologist would generally use a pocketknife)a pennyyour fingernailsYou will also use hand lenses for close observation.
12 ProcedureYou will use the paper clip and some “pretend earth material” samples (chalk and tile) to learn the technique.Try to scratch a piece of chalk and the tile with the paper clip.Use your finger to rub away any dust or surface marks.Use a hand lens to check for a scratch (altered surface.)
13 Discuss Chalk and Tile Results Which is harder, chalk or tile? How do you know?The chalk is easily scratched by the paper clip, but the tile is unscratchable.The paper clip leaves a black mark (metal fragments) on the tile, but the mark rubs off, leaving no permanent mark.
14 Discuss Chalk and Tile Results Which tool is harder, the paper clip or the penny?The penny is easily scratched by the paper clip. The mark does not rub off. That is evidence that the paper clip is harder than the penny.
15 Return MaterialsReturn the chalk and the tiles to the materials center.
16 Quartz Clue Quartz is the hardest of the common minerals on Earth. Will that information help you identify the quartz sample in your set?
17 Identify the Quartz Use your paper clip to test the four minerals. Decide which mineral is the hardest.
18 ShareReporters, share your group’s conclusion about which mineral they think is quartz and why they think so.
19 Gypsum Clue Gypsum is the softest of the four minerals. Use this clue to help you identify gypsum.
20 ShareReporters, share your group’s conclusion about which mineral they think is gypsum and why they think so.
21 Earth Materials Booklet Page 9 Write the names of the minerals you have identified so far.Fill in the tool columns with a no if the tool does not scratch the mineral and yes if the tool does scratch the mineral.
22 Fluorite and Calcite Clue Fluorite is harder than calcite.Use your tools to identify these last two minerals.What do you already know about these minerals from the test you have already done?
23 Identifying Fluorite and Calcite Which scratch tool might give you the best information at this time?The penny.How could you find out which was harder if you didn’t have any scratch tools?Scratch one rock against the other and find out which one has a mark left on it; that is the softer mineral.
24 ShareReporters show us the mineral that your group has identified as calcite.What is your evidence?Show us the mineral that you group has identified as fluorite.
25 Seriate the Minerals’ Hardness Tally the tools that would scratch each mineral.Then number the minerals in order from softest to hardest.Why did you seriate them this way?
26 Return MaterialsReturn materials to the Materials Center.
27 Content/InquiryWhat do we mean when we say a mineral has a certain hardness?Hardness is a mineral property that refers to the resistance of a mineral t being scratched; minerals can be ordered by hardness.If you did have any tools, how could you learn if one mineral was harder than another?The harder one will always scratch the softer one.
28 Response Sheet – Scratch Test We will go over this sheet and then you will complete it for a grade.
29 Science StoriesRead Science Stories “Digging It Up: Mining for Minerals” and “Birthstones: A Mineral for Each Month” after completing this part.