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Factoring Trinomials

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**Multiplying Binomials (FOIL)**

Multiply (x+3)(x+2) F O I L Distribute. = x x x = x x + 6

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**Multiplying Binomials (Tiles)**

Multiply (x+3)(x+2) Using Algebra Tiles, we have: x x2 x x x x + 2 = x2 + 5x + 6 x 1 1 1 x 1 1 1

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**Factoring Trinomials (Tiles)**

How can we factor trinomials such as x2 + 7x + 12 back into binomials? One method is to again use algebra tiles: 1) Start with x2. x2 x x x x x 2) Add seven “x” tiles (vertical or horizontal, at least one of each) and twelve “1” tiles. x 1 1 1 1 1 x 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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**Factoring Trinomials (Tiles)**

How can we factor trinomials such as x2 + 7x + 12 back into binomials? One method is to again use algebra tiles: 1) Start with x2. x2 x x x x x 2) Add seven “x” tiles (vertical or horizontal, at least one of each) and twelve “1” tiles. x 1 1 1 1 1 x 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3) Rearrange the tiles until they form a rectangle! We need to change the “x” tiles so the “1” tiles will fill in a rectangle.

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**Factoring Trinomials (Tiles)**

How can we factor trinomials such as x2 + 7x + 12 back into binomials? One method is to again use algebra tiles: 1) Start with x2. x2 x x x x x x 2) Add seven “x” tiles (vertical or horizontal, at least one of each) and twelve “1” tiles. x 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3) Rearrange the tiles until they form a rectangle! Still not a rectangle.

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**Factoring Trinomials (Tiles)**

How can we factor trinomials such as x2 + 7x + 12 back into binomials? One method is to again use algebra tiles: 1) Start with x2. x2 x x x x 2) Add seven “x” tiles (vertical or horizontal, at least one of each) and twelve “1” tiles. x 1 1 1 1 x 1 1 1 1 x 1 1 1 1 3) Rearrange the tiles until they form a rectangle! A rectangle!!!

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**Factoring Trinomials (Tiles)**

How can we factor trinomials such as x2 + 7x + 12 back into binomials? One method is to again use algebra tiles: x + 4 4) Top factor: The # of x2 tiles = x’s The # of “x” and “1” columns = constant. x2 x x x x x + 3 x 1 1 1 1 x 1 1 1 1 5) Side factor: The # of x2 tiles = x’s The # of “x” and “1” rows = constant. x 1 1 1 1 x2 + 7x + 12 = ( x + 4)( x + 3)

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**Factoring Trinomials (Method 2)**

Again, we will factor trinomials such as x2 + 7x + 12 back into binomials. This method does not use tiles, instead we look for the pattern of products and sums! If the x2 term has no coefficient (other than 1)... x2 + 7x + 12 Step 1: List all pairs of numbers that multiply to equal the constant, 12. 12 = 1 • 12 = 2 • 6 = 3 • 4

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**Factoring Trinomials (Method 2)**

x2 + 7x + 12 Step 2: Choose the pair that adds up to the middle coefficient. 12 = 1 • 12 = 2 • 6 = 3 • 4 Step 3: Fill those numbers into the blanks in the binomials: ( x )( x ) 3 4 x2 + 7x + 12 = ( x + 3)( x + 4)

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**Factoring Trinomials (Method 2)**

Factor. x2 + 2x - 24 This time, the constant is negative! Step 1: List all pairs of numbers that multiply to equal the constant, (To get -24, one number must be positive and one negative.) -24 = 1 • -24, -1 • 24 = 2 • -12, -2 • 12 = 3 • -8, -3 • 8 = 4 • -6, • 6 Step 2: Which pair adds up to 2? Step 3: Write the binomial factors. x2 + 2x - 24 = ( x - 4)( x + 6)

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**Factoring Trinomials (Method 3*)**

Factor. 3x2 + 14x + 8 This time, the x2 term DOES have a coefficient (other than 1)! a) Factor by Decomposition 24 = 1 • 24 = 2 • 12 = 3 • 8 = 4 • 6 Step 1: Multiply 3 • 8 = 24 (the leading coefficient & constant). Step 2: List all pairs of numbers that multiply to equal that product, 24. Step 3: Which pair adds up to 14? Step 4: Rewrite the x term as two terms Step 5: Divide the new polynomial into two pairs and factor out the common factor from each pair.

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**Factoring Trinomials (Method 2*)**

Factor. 2x2 - 7x -15 This time, the x2 term DOES have a coefficient (other than 1)! a) Factor by Decomposition Step 1: Multiply (the leading coefficient & constant). Step 2: List all pairs of numbers that multiply to equal that product, Step 3: Which pair adds up to ? Step 4: Rewrite the x term as two terms Step 5: Divide the new polynomial into two pairs and factor out the common factor from each pair.

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**Factoring Trinomials (Method 2*)**

Factor. 3x2 + 14x + 8 This time, the x2 term DOES have a coefficient (other than 1)! b) Factor by Temporary Factors Step 1: Multiply 3 • 8 = 24 (the leading coefficient & constant). 24 = 1 • 24 = 2 • 12 = 3 • 8 = 4 • 6 Step 2: List all pairs of numbers that multiply to equal that product, 24. Step 3: Which pair adds up to 14?

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**Factoring Trinomials (Method 2*)**

Factor. 3x2 + 14x + 8 Step 4: Write temporary factors with the two numbers. ( x )( x ) 2 12 3 3 Step 5: Put the original leading coefficient (3) under both numbers. 4 2 ( x )( x ) 12 3 Step 6: Reduce the fractions, if possible. 2 ( x )( x ) 4 3 ( 3x + 2 )( x + 4 ) Step 7: Move denominators in front of x.

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**Factoring Trinomials (Method 2*)**

Factor. 3x2 + 14x + 8 You should always check the factors by distributing, especially since this process has more than a couple of steps. ( 3x + 2 )( x + 4 ) = 3x • x + 3x • • x + 2 • 4 = 3x x + 8 √ 3x2 + 14x + 8 = (3x + 2)(x + 4)

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**Factoring Trinomials (Method 2*)**

Factor 3x2 + 11x + 4 This time, the x2 term DOES have a coefficient (other than 1)! Step 1: Multiply 3 • 4 = 12 (the leading coefficient & constant). 12 = 1 • 12 = 2 • 6 = 3 • 4 Step 2: List all pairs of numbers that multiply to equal that product, 12. Step 3: Which pair adds up to 11? None of the pairs add up to 11, this trinomial can’t be factored; it is PRIME.

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**Factoring A Difference of Squares (Method 3)**

Factor 4x2 -16 This time, the Quadratic Equation is a Binomial with a Subtraction Sign! Step 1: Check to see that both terms are perfect squares. Step 2: List two brackets, one with an addition sign, one with a subtraction sign. Step 3: Place the square roots in each bracket. 2x 4 2x 4 Check your answer by expanding!

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**Factor These Trinomials!**

Factor each trinomial, if possible. The first four do NOT have leading coefficients, the last two DO have leading coefficients. Watch out for signs!! 1) x2 – 4x– 21 2) x2 + 12x + 32 3) x2 –10x + 24 4) x2 + 3x – 18 5) 2x2 + x – 21 6) 3x2 + 11x + 10

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**Solution #1: x2 – 4x – 21 x2 – 4x – 21 = (x + 3)(x - 7)**

1) Factors of -21: 1 • -21, -1 • 21 3 • -7, -3 • 7 2) Which pair adds to (- 4)? 3) Write the factors. x2 – 4x – 21 = (x + 3)(x - 7)

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**Solution #2: x2 + 12x + 32 x2 + 12x + 32 = (x + 4)(x + 8)**

1) Factors of 32: 1 • 32 2 • 16 4 • 8 2) Which pair adds to 12 ? 3) Write the factors. x2 + 12x + 32 = (x + 4)(x + 8)

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**Solution #3: x2 - 10x + 24 x2 - 10x + 24 = (x - 4)(x - 6)**

1) Factors of 24: 1 • 24 2 • 12 3 • 8 4 • 6 -1 • -24 -2 • -12 -3 • -8 -4 • -6 2) Which pair adds to -10 ? None of them adds to (-10). For the numbers to multiply to +24 and add to -10, they must both be negative! 3) Write the factors. x2 - 10x + 24 = (x - 4)(x - 6)

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**Solution #4: x2 + 3x - 18 x2 + 3x - 18 = (x - 3)(x + 18)**

1) Factors of -18: 1 • -18, -1 • 18 2 • -9, -2 • 9 3 • -6, -3 • 6 2) Which pair adds to 3 ? 3) Write the factors. x2 + 3x - 18 = (x - 3)(x + 18)

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**Solution #5: 2x2 + x - 21 2x2 + x - 21 = (x - 3)(2x + 7)**

1) Multiply 2 • (-21) = - 42; list factors of - 42. 1 • -42, -1 • 42 2 • -21, -2 • 21 3 • -14, -3 • 14 6 • -7, -6 • 7 2) Which pair adds to 1 ? 3) Write the temporary factors. ( x - 6)( x + 7) 2 2 4) Put “2” underneath. 3 ( x - 6)( x + 7) 2 5) Reduce (if possible). 6) Move denominator(s)in front of “x”. ( x - 3)( 2x + 7) 2x2 + x - 21 = (x - 3)(2x + 7)

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**Solution #6: 3x2 + 11x + 10 3x2 + 11x + 10 = (3x + 5)(x + 2)**

1) Multiply 3 • 10 = 30; list factors of 30. 1 • 30 2 • 15 3 • 10 5 • 6 2) Which pair adds to 11 ? 3) Write the temporary factors. ( x + 5)( x + 6) 3 3 4) Put “3” underneath. 2 ( x + 5)( x + 6) 3 5) Reduce (if possible). 6) Move denominator(s)in front of “x”. ( 3x + 5)( x + 2) 3x2 + 11x + 10 = (3x + 5)(x + 2)

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Multiplying Conjugates The following pairs of binomials are called conjugates. Notice that they all have the same terms, only the sign between them is.

Multiplying Conjugates The following pairs of binomials are called conjugates. Notice that they all have the same terms, only the sign between them is.

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