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6 Review of Test Data Indicates Conservatism for Tile Penetration
The existing SOFI on tile test data used to create Crater was reviewed along with STS-87 Southwest Research data Crater overpredicted penetration of tile coating significantly Initial penetration to described by normal velocity Varies with volume/mass of projectile (e.g., 200ft/sec for cu. In) Significant energy is required for the softer SOFI particle to penetrate the relatively hard tile coating Test results do show that it is possible at sufficient mass and velocity Conversely, once tile is penetrated SOFI can cause significant damage Minor variations in total energy (above penetration level) can cause significant tile damage Flight Condition is significantly outside of test database Volume of ramp is 1920cu in vs 3 cu in for test

7 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
The Crater software can not predict damage to Columbia because the foam piece that hit the ship was big and was travelling very quickly. Even tiny foam particles can penetrate the tiles when they strike with sufficient velocity. Once tiles are penetrated, significant damage to the spacecraft is possible. The foam piece that hit Columbia was 600 times bigger than the foam used to calibrate Crater. 1920 in3 vs. 3 in3 for test. Therefore, as a predictor, Crater is useless in this case. Unfortunately, the Crater computer model is unable to predict damage to the space shuttle Columbia. Crater was designed to estimate the effects of very small pieces of foam hitting the space shuttle. The foam piece that hit Columbia is much larger than any previous strike. In fact it is at least 600 times larger than any previously recorded hit. We should caution, however, that even tiny foam hits can penetrate the protective heat tiles on the space shuttle. Once a tile is penetrated, the heat on reentry can melt the aluminum skin of the shuttle and cause significant damage. One can imagine that a larger foam strike could cause even more damage though we have no data to substantiate this. The most prudent course of action would be to visually assess the damage to the spacecraft while in orbit.

8 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
The Crater software can not predict damage to Columbia because the foam piece that hit the ship was big and was travelling very quickly. Even tiny foam particles can penetrate the tiles when they strike with sufficient velocity. Once tiles are penetrated, significant damage to the spacecraft is possible. The foam piece that hit Columbia was 600 times bigger than the foam used to calibrate Crater. 1920 in3 vs. 3 in3 for test. Therefore, as a predictor, Crater is useless in this case. Unfortunately, the Crater computer model is unable to predict damage to the space shuttle Columbia. Crater was designed to estimate the effects of very small pieces of foam hitting the space shuttle. The foam piece that hit Columbia is much larger than any previous strike. In fact it is at least 600 times larger than any previously recorded hit. We should caution, however, that even tiny foam hits can penetrate the protective heat tiles on the space shuttle. Once a tile is penetrated, the heat on reentry can melt the aluminum skin of the shuttle and cause significant damage. One can imagine that a larger foam strike could cause even more damage though we have no data to substantiate this. The most prudent course of action would be to visually assess the damage to the spacecraft while in orbit.

9 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
The Crater software can not predict damage to Columbia because the foam piece that hit the ship was big and was travelling very quickly. Even tiny foam particles can penetrate the tiles when they strike with sufficient velocity. Once tiles are penetrated, significant damage to the spacecraft is possible. The foam piece that hit Columbia was 600 times bigger than the foam used to calibrate Crater. 1920 in3 vs. 3 in3 for test. Therefore, as a predictor, Crater is useless in this case. Unfortunately, the Crater computer model is unable to predict damage to the space shuttle Columbia. Crater was designed to estimate the effects of very small pieces of foam hitting the space shuttle. The foam piece that hit Columbia is much larger than any previous strike. In fact it is at least 600 times larger than any previously recorded hit. We should caution, however, that even tiny foam hits can penetrate the protective heat tiles on the space shuttle. Once a tile is penetrated, the heat on reentry can melt the aluminum skin of the shuttle and cause significant damage. One can imagine that a larger foam strike could cause even more damage though we have no data to substantiate this. The most prudent course of action would be to visually assess the damage to the spacecraft while in orbit.

10 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
The Crater software can not predict damage to Columbia because the foam piece that hit the ship was big and was travelling very quickly. Even tiny foam particles can penetrate the tiles when they strike with sufficient velocity. Once tiles are penetrated, significant damage to the spacecraft is possible. The foam piece that hit Columbia was 600 times bigger than the foam used to calibrate Crater. 1920 in3 vs. 3 in3 for test. Therefore, as a predictor, Crater is useless in this case. Unfortunately, the Crater computer model is unable to predict damage to the space shuttle Columbia. Crater was designed to estimate the effects of very small pieces of foam hitting the space shuttle. The foam piece that hit Columbia is much larger than any previous strike. In fact it is at least 600 times larger than any previously recorded hit. We should caution, however, that even tiny foam hits can penetrate the protective heat tiles on the space shuttle. Once a tile is penetrated, the heat on reentry can melt the aluminum skin of the shuttle and cause significant damage. One can imagine that a larger foam strike could cause even more damage though we have no data to substantiate this. The most prudent course of action would be to visually assess the damage to the spacecraft while in orbit.

11 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
The Crater software can not predict damage to Columbia because the foam piece that hit the ship was big and was travelling very quickly. Even tiny foam particles can penetrate the tiles when they strike with sufficient velocity. Once tiles are penetrated, significant damage to the spacecraft is possible. The foam piece that hit Columbia was 600 times bigger than the foam used to calibrate Crater. 1920 in3 vs. 3 in3 for test. Therefore, as a predictor, Crater is useless in this case. Unfortunately, the Crater computer model is unable to predict damage to the space shuttle Columbia. Crater was designed to estimate the effects of very small pieces of foam hitting the space shuttle. The foam piece that hit Columbia is much larger than any previous strike. In fact it is at least 600 times larger than any previously recorded hit. We should caution, however, that even tiny foam hits can penetrate the protective heat tiles on the space shuttle. Once a tile is penetrated, the heat on reentry can melt the aluminum skin of the shuttle and cause significant damage. One can imagine that a larger foam strike could cause even more damage though we have no data to substantiate this. The most prudent course of action would be to visually assess the damage to the spacecraft while in orbit.

12 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
The Crater software can not predict damage to Columbia because the foam piece that hit the ship was big and was travelling very quickly. Even tiny foam particles can penetrate the tiles when they strike with sufficient velocity. Once tiles are penetrated, significant damage to the spacecraft is possible. The foam piece that hit Columbia was 600 times bigger than the foam used to calibrate Crater. 1920 in3 vs. 3 in3 for test. Therefore, as a predictor, Crater is useless in this case. Unfortunately, the Crater computer model is unable to predict damage to the space shuttle Columbia. Crater was designed to estimate the effects of very small pieces of foam hitting the space shuttle. The foam piece that hit Columbia is much larger than any previous strike. In fact it is at least 600 times larger than any previously recorded hit. We should caution, however, that even tiny foam hits can penetrate the protective heat tiles on the space shuttle. Once a tile is penetrated, the heat on reentry can melt the aluminum skin of the shuttle and cause significant damage. One can imagine that a larger foam strike could cause even more damage though we have no data to substantiate this. The most prudent course of action would be to visually assess the damage to the spacecraft while in orbit.

13 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
The Crater software can not predict damage to Columbia because the foam piece that hit the ship was big and was travelling very quickly. Even tiny foam particles can penetrate the tiles when they strike with sufficient velocity. Once tiles are penetrated, significant damage to the spacecraft is possible. The foam piece that hit Columbia was 600 times bigger than the foam used to calibrate Crater. 1920 in3 vs. 3 in3 for test. Therefore, as a predictor, Crater is useless in this case. Unfortunately, the Crater computer model is unable to predict damage to the space shuttle Columbia. Crater was designed to estimate the effects of very small pieces of foam hitting the space shuttle. The foam piece that hit Columbia is much larger than any previous strike. In fact it is at least 600 times larger than any previously recorded hit. We should caution, however, that even tiny foam hits can penetrate the protective heat tiles on the space shuttle. Once a tile is penetrated, the heat on reentry can melt the aluminum skin of the shuttle and cause significant damage. One can imagine that a larger foam strike could cause even more damage though we have no data to substantiate this. The most prudent course of action would be to visually assess the damage to the spacecraft while in orbit.

14 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
The Crater software can not predict damage to Columbia because the foam piece that hit the ship was big and was travelling very quickly. Even tiny foam particles can penetrate the tiles when they strike with sufficient velocity. Once tiles are penetrated, significant damage to the spacecraft is possible. The foam piece that hit Columbia was 600 times bigger than the foam used to calibrate Crater. 1920 in3 vs. 3 in3 for test. Therefore, as a predictor, Crater is useless in this case. Unfortunately, the Crater computer model is unable to predict damage to the space shuttle Columbia. Crater was designed to estimate the effects of very small pieces of foam hitting the space shuttle. The foam piece that hit Columbia is much larger than any previous strike. In fact it is at least 600 times larger than any previously recorded hit. We should caution, however, that even tiny foam hits can penetrate the protective heat tiles on the space shuttle. Once a tile is penetrated, the heat on reentry can melt the aluminum skin of the shuttle and cause significant damage. One can imagine that a larger foam strike could cause even more damage though we have no data to substantiate this. The most prudent course of action would be to visually assess the damage to the spacecraft while in orbit.

15 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
The Crater software can not predict damage to Columbia because the foam piece that hit the ship was big and was travelling very quickly. Even tiny foam particles can penetrate the tiles when they strike with sufficient velocity. Once tiles are penetrated, significant damage to the spacecraft is possible. The foam piece that hit Columbia was 600 times bigger than the foam used to calibrate Crater. 1920 in3 vs. 3 in3 for test. Therefore, as a predictor, Crater is useless in this case. Unfortunately, the Crater computer model is unable to predict damage to the space shuttle Columbia. Crater was designed to estimate the effects of very small pieces of foam hitting the space shuttle. The foam piece that hit Columbia is much larger than any previous strike. In fact it is at least 600 times larger than any previously recorded hit. We should caution, however, that even tiny foam hits can penetrate the protective heat tiles on the space shuttle. Once a tile is penetrated, the heat on reentry can melt the aluminum skin of the shuttle and cause significant damage. One can imagine that a larger foam strike could cause even more damage though we have no data to substantiate this. The most prudent course of action would be to visually assess the damage to the spacecraft while in orbit.

16 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
Sample damage from a very small foam hit Size of foam that hit Columbia is 600 times bigger

17 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
Sample damage from a very small foam hit Size of foam that hit Columbia is 600 times bigger

18 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
Sample damage from a very small “dime size” foam hit Size of foam that hit Columbia is 600 times bigger

19 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
1.67” 0” 1.67” Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia Sample damage from a very small “dime size” foam hit 1.25” 0” 1.25” Size of foam that hit Columbia is 600 times bigger

20 1.67” 0” 1.67” 1.25” 0” 1.25”

21 Recommend Immediate Visual Inspection of Columbia
Sample damage from a very small “dime size” foam hit Size of foam that hit Columbia is 600 times bigger

22 Need to Inspect Columbia!
The Crater software can not predict damage to Columbia The foam piece that hit Columbia was 600 times bigger than the foam hits used to calibrate Crater. Unfortunately, the Crater computer model is unable to predict damage to the space shuttle Columbia. Crater was designed to estimate the effects of very small pieces of foam hitting the space shuttle. The foam piece that hit Columbia is much larger than any previous strike. In fact it is at least 600 times larger than any previously recorded hit. We should caution, however, that even tiny foam hits can penetrate the protective heat tiles on the space shuttle. Once a tile is penetrated, the heat on reentry can melt the aluminum skin of the shuttle and cause significant damage. One can imagine that a larger foam strike could cause even more damage though we have no data to substantiate this. The most prudent course of action would be to visually assess the damage to the spacecraft while in orbit.

23 Need to Inspect Columbia!
1.67” 0” 1.67” Need to Inspect Columbia! The Crater software can not predict damage to Columbia 1.25” 0” 1.25” The foam piece that hit Columbia was 600 times bigger than the foam hits used to calibrate Crater. Unfortunately, the Crater computer model is unable to predict damage to the space shuttle Columbia. Crater was designed to estimate the effects of very small pieces of foam hitting the space shuttle. The foam piece that hit Columbia is much larger than any previous strike. In fact it is at least 600 times larger than any previously recorded hit. We should caution, however, that even tiny foam hits can penetrate the protective heat tiles on the space shuttle. Once a tile is penetrated, the heat on reentry can melt the aluminum skin of the shuttle and cause significant damage. One can imagine that a larger foam strike could cause even more damage though we have no data to substantiate this. The most prudent course of action would be to visually assess the damage to the spacecraft while in orbit.

24 Sample of a screen on a background


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