Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

BUILDING TECHNOLOGY I 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "BUILDING TECHNOLOGY I 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile."— Presentation transcript:

1 BUILDING TECHNOLOGY I 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects

2 1.CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES Stucco is a mortar consisting of cement, sand and water. Hydrated lime is often added to make the mortar easier to work. It is applied in three coats: - scratch and brown coats are mixed in the proportion of 1 part Portland cement to 3 parts of sand, with about 10lbs. of hydrated lime. - The finish coat is usually richer in the proportion of 1 part of Portland cement to 2 parts of sand. - Coarse sand is used for the base coats and fine sand for the finish coat. Before applying for the stucco or cement plaster, the concrete (or masonry) surface should be roughened to ensure good bonding. Old concrete surfaces are roughened with a bush hammer or small pick, and then washed thoroughly with acid and water to remove all dirt and loose particles. New concrete can be roughened with a heavy wire brush or a special scoring tool. 1.01STUCCO OR CEMENT PLASTER FINISH 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects

3 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 3.03 Asphalt Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 1.CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES The scratch coat is then trowelled onto the wall surface. Just as soon as the first coat is but not hard, it is scratched with a small rake to form a key for the second coat. Average thickness of the scratch coat is 3/8. The brown coat is applied a few days after the first coat has set firm and hard, also to a thickness of 3/8. It is applied with a wood float and leveled to a flat, even and relatively smooth surface. The finish coat is applied over the brown coat after all work is free from waves and cracks, and set and dry. Thickness of the finish coat is 1/8 minimum and rarely exceeds ¼ except for finishes requiring rough texture. The finish coat should be kept damp but not wet for a few days, to prevent hairline cracks. 1.01STUCCO OR CEMENT PLASTER FINISH

4 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 3.03 Asphalt Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 1.CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES This consist of grinding down the surface of the concrete a day or two after it is poured, using a brick of carborundum, emery or soft natural stone. With the rubbing, which is done with a circular motion, a thin grout of cement and sand is applied to the surface and well rubbed in to fill surface imperfections, and the work afterward washed down with clean water. If fine sand is used instead of a grout, the method is called a sand-float finish. 1.02RUBBED FINISH

5 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 3.03 Asphalt Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 1.CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES This type of finished is obtained by scrubbing or brushing the concrete surface with fiber or wire brushes and water to remove the surface film or mortar, leaving the coarse aggregate exposed. This should be done while the concrete surface is still green and just as soon as it is possible to do so without removing particles of the aggregate. The appearance of a brushed finish can be improved by washing with a diluted solution of acid applied with a brush. The acid thoroughly cleans the surface of the aggregate, thereby intensifying the color and texture of the same. The surface should be thoroughly washed after the acid treatment as otherwise it will have a mottled, streaky appearance. 1.03BRUSHED FINISH

6 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 3.03 Asphalt Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 1.CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES Concrete surfaces may be finished by tooling by any of the methods employed for dressing or finishing natural stone. Bush hammering, either by hand or by pneumatic tool, is the most popular method used in tooling concrete surfaces. The best results are obtained on surfaces which are thoroughly hard. The concrete should preferably be about 2 months old. Only small-sized aggregate should be used in the facing material, as it is hard to dress and obtain uniform results where large angular stones are encountered. Tooling cannot ordinarily be performed satisfactorily on gravel concrete, as the pebbles will be dislodged before being chipped. 1.04TOOLED FINISH

7 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 3.03 Asphalt Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 1.CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES A sand-blast finish is very much the same in appearance as that obtained by brushing the concrete while it is still green. Sand blasting produces a granulated finish somewhat similar to sandstone but not so uniform, because the aggregates are likely to be brought out irregularly. The concrete should be thoroughly hardened before sand-blasting. A clean, sharp, thoroughly dried silica sand or crushed quartz is most effective for sand-blasting. A 3/8noxxle may be used, but under ordinary conditions ¼ or even 1/8 have found to give good results. The best results are obtained on a thoroughly hardened concrete surface at least a month old, and for such work a nozzle pressure of from 50 to 80 lbs. will be required. 1.05SAND-BLAST FINISH

8 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 3.03 Asphalt Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 1.CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES The color is obtained from exposed aggregate and not by adding coloring material to the mixture. Facing mortar of I part Portland cement, 1-1/2 parts sand, and 3 parts of special screenings or pebbles of the desired color shall be placed against the forms to a thickness of about 1 inch sufficiently in advance of the body concrete to prevent the latter from coming into contact with the forms. 1.06EXPOSED AGGREGATE FINISH Such colored or other special aggregate used for finish shall be exposed by scrubbing as in 1.03.

9 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 3.03 Asphalt Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 1.CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES After the concrete aggregate is forced below the surface, the surface is leveled with a straight wood screed, and given a wood float finish. Before the concrete finally sets, the entire surface is steel-trowelled 1.08STEEL TROWELLED FINISH When the concrete is still green but surface water is gone, the surface is leveled with a straight wood screed. Then a finish coat of 1:3 mortar is applied. This finish coat is leveled with a wood screed, given a wood float finish and then steel-trowelled 1.09INTEGRAL COLORED-CEMENT FINISH

10 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 3.03 Asphalt Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 2.GRANOLITHIC and TERRAZO FLOOR FINISHES This consists of a topping with a mixture of 1 part cement, 1 part sand and 1 part finely crushed stone. It is called granolithic because fine aggregate chips were originally used in the aggregate. Finely ground corundum may also be a part of the aggregate to produce an enduring and non-slip surface. 2.01GRANOLITHIC FINISH Terrazzo is a mixture of cement, marble chip aggregates and water laid as a topping or as a wall finish, and ground to a fine, smooth surface. It is used for floor and bases where durability, resistance to wear, and minimal maintenance are necessary. It is available either in precast form e.g. tile, or cast-in-place form, with either a smoothly polished or non-slip surface. For non-slip surfaces, abrasive granules are added to the mixture. 2.02TERRAZO FINISH

11 2.GRANOLITHIC and TERRAZO FLOOR FINISHES The terrazzo topping shall consist of 200 lbs. of marble chip aggregate to 1 bag (94 lb.) of cement. The matrix may either be white or gray Portland cement as desired. For non-slip heavy duty floors the mixture shall consist of 150 lbs. of marble chip aggregate and 50 lbs. of abrasive granules to one bag of cement. 2.02TERRAZO FINISH 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 3.03 Asphalt Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Common specifications require that 70% of the marble aggregate for terrazzo topping must show; - for heavy-duty non-slip topping a proportion of three marble granules to one abrasive must show ; and - for light-duty non-slip topping, where the abrasive is sprinkled on the finish, a proportion of four marble to one abrasive granule must show. Minimum thickness of terrazzo topping is 5/8.

12 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 3.TILE FINISHES Cement tile is manufactured by pressing in moulds a plastic mixture of cement and sand. Surface color of the tile is achieved by the addition of mineral oxide colors. Thickness of cement tile is 25mm (1). Common sizes are squares 200mm x 200mm (8x8), 300mm x 300mm (12x12), and 400mm x 400mm (16x16). When installing cement tile, the top of the base slab shall be left 50mm (2) below the finish floor. The tiles shall be thoroughly soaked in water before laying on a setting bed of cement mortar (1 part of Portland cement to three parts of sand). 3.01CEMENT TILE FINISH

13 3.TILE FINISHES Ceramic tile are small surfacing units made from clay or mixture of clay with other ceramic materials and fired according various processes. Tiles differ principally in: (1) composition of the body (2) surface finish, that is, glazed or unglazed (3) process of manufacture; and (4) the degree of vitrification or fusion of the tile body after firing, as indicated by the extent to which it absorbs moisture 3.02CERAMIC TILE FINISH 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects

14 3.TILE FINISHES Composition: Tiles are made of compounded and of natural clay bodies. Those made of compound bodies contain three principal constituents: - the plastic, usually clays having high bonding power and some fluxing ability - the filler which reduces shrinkage in drying and firing and imparts to the body a certain rigidity which prevents deformation under heat, e.g. flint or finely pulverized silica, kaolin, tale; and - the flux or solvent which melts under intense heat and fuses the heat resisting elements into a solid mass. The most widely used flux in floor and wall tiles is the minimal feldspar. 3.02CERAMIC TILE FINISH 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects

15 3.TILE FINISHES Finish: Unglazed tiles are composed of the same ingredients throughout and derive their color and texture from the materials of which the body is made. Glazed tiles have a glassy surface of ceramic materials fused upon their face to give them a decorative appearance and to make the surface impervious to moisture. 3.02CERAMIC TILE FINISH 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects

16 3.TILE FINISHES Glazes are produced in a large variety of colors, ranging from pure white to jet black. Glaze finishes are of two general classes in their light reflecting qualities: 1) bright glazes, which have a highly polished surface and reflect an image clearly; and 2) matte glazes, or those which do not clearly reflect an image or are entirely without sheen. All degrees of semilustrous or satinlike finish may be produced between the two extremes of reflection and nonreflection. In addition, glazes may have: - Plain - textured - polychrome - mottled - stippled or - rippled surface 3.02CERAMIC TILE FINISH 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects

17 3.TILE FINISHES Manufacture: (a)Dust-press Process. Dust-pressed tiles are shaped in steel dies by applying heavy pressure to the damp ceramic mix while it is in finely pulverized form. The dust-press method of production gives greater mechanical precision and a more regular appearance to the tiles than other methods. (b)Plastic Process. Plastic-made tiles are shaped from clay rendered plastic by mixing with sufficient water. They are made either by hand molding or by extrusion from an auger-machine. When shaped by machine, the extruded ribbon of clay is cut into the desired sizes as it emerges from the die. Most types of tile made by the plastic method vary slightly from the true geometric forms and therefore have a more hand- made appearance than to dust-presseded tiles. 3.02CERAMIC TILE FINISH 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects

18 3.TILE FINISHES Vitrification: Vitrification is a measure of the tiles density and relative absorption which depends partly on the tiles composition and partly on the degree of burning. There are four degrees of vitrification: - Nonvitreous tiles have a degree of density that permits moisture absorption of more than 7% of the weight of the tile but does not prevent the tile from having a high degree of strength. - Semivitreous tiles have a degree of density that limits moisture absorption to from 3 to 7% of the weight of the tile. - Vitreous tiles have a moisture absorption of less than 3% and a body density which prevents any penetration of dirt that cannot be easily removed. - Impervious tiles are the hardest. Their moisture absorption is negligible and they are readily cleansed of stains and dirt. 3.02CERAMIC TILE FINISH 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects

19 3.TILE FINISHES Types of Ceramic Tiles: a.Glazed interior tiles are non-vitreous product made by the dust- press-process. 3.02CERAMIC TILE FINISH 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects

20 3.TILE FINISHES 3.02CERAMIC TILE FINISH 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects b.Ceramic Mosaic Tiles are tiles less than 6 sq. in. in facial area, preponderantly unglazed, and having fully vitrified or fairly dense bodies. To facilitate installation, ceramic mosaic tiles are usually mounted at the factory on sheets of paper about 2 sq. ft. in area, individual tile units being spaced so as to allow for the insertion of cement between them when the paper is removed and the face of the tiles is exposed.

21 3.TILE FINISHES c.Quarry tiles are unglazed floor tiles made from natural clays or shales by the plastic method. They are a very durable flooring material, being impervious to moisture, stains and dirt, and are resistant to abrasion. d.Pavers are standard size unglazed tiles resembling ceramic mosaic tiles in composition and physical characteristics but usually having facial area of 6 sq. in. or more. Because of their greater size, which usually ranges from 3x3 to 6x6, these tiles are generally not pasted onto paper but are laid out individually. When by the plastic method, it is either vitreous and semivitreous; dust-pressed pavers are either impervious or vitreous. All pavers are weatherproof and are especially suitable for heavy floor service. 3.02CERAMIC TILE FINISH 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects

22 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 4.RESILIENT FLOOR FINISHES Resilient flooring is manufactured as tile or sheet including: - Asphalt - vinyl - rubber - linoleum, and - cork. Vinyl, linoleum and rubber flooring are available also in sheet form. 4.01ASPHALT TILE & SHEET FINISH

23 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 4.RESILIENT FLOOR FINISHES 4.01ASPHALT TILE & SHEET FINISH This consists of thoroughly bonded composition of thermoplastic binder (asphaltic type for standard asphalt tile and resinous for greaseproof asphalt tile), asbestos and other fibers, inert filler materials (various stone dust, diatomite, mica, etc.) and inert color pigments, formed under pressure while hot and cut to size. Asphalt tile is usually made in 9 squares and less commonly in 12 squares. Rectangular borders18x24 are made in a limited variety of colors and patterns. Usual thickness are 1/8 and 3/16.

24 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 4.RESILIENT FLOOR FINISHES 4.01ASPHALT TILE & SHEET FINISH Asphalt tile may be installed on any smooth concrete subfloor above or below grade and on any wood subfloor with sufficient strength so that no deflection can occur. In either case there should be no dampness: - It should not be used out-of-doors or for interiors subject to strong direct sunlight; - on concrete floors where dampness or hydrostatic pressure exists; - on any under floor that is not smooth, even and clean (as the flooring will reveal exactly the contours of the under flooring surface); - in many areas where water may be constantly splashed on the floor, e.g. shower rooms and toilet rooms; and - in areas where grease can accumulate unless greaseproof asphalt tile is used.

25 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 4.RESILIENT FLOOR FINISHES 4.02VINYL TILE & SHEET FINISH Vinyl resilient flooring materials are divided into three major types: a. solid vinyl b. vinyl and asbestos combined c. a thin vinyl layer applied to other types of resilient flooring materials. Tiles: Vinyl tiles (all vinyl) are made into the ff thicknesses: - 1.5mm - 2.0mm - 2.5mm and - 3mm in squares 300mm x 300mm Sheet: in rolls 2.0mm and 2.5mm thick x 1.80m (6) wide and in 50m lengths. The thicker sheet is used in areas where heavy traffic will be encountered.

26 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 5.05 Linoleum Sheet 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 4.RESILIENT FLOOR FINISHES 4.02VINYL TILE & SHEET FINISH Vinyl flooring is recommended where a colorful, textured, tough, durable, easily maintained, grease- resistant type of finish flooring is required for areas of both light and heavy human traffic. It may be used for above-grade, on-grade and below- grade floors. Vinyl flooring should not be used: - for exterior floor surfaces - in areas where specific chemicals that attack vinyl are used

27 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 5.05 Linoleum Sheet 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 4.RESILIENT FLOOR FINISHES 4.03RUBBER TILE & SHEET FINISH Tiles: Rubber floor tiles are as a rule made of neutral rubber for greatest resilience. Sizes, thicknesses, as well as methods of application and precautions to follow in installation, are much the same as for vinyl floor tiles Sheet: Rubber sheet flooring is manufactured in rolls 3 wide, in thicknesses of 3/32, 1/8 and 3/16, with 3/32 most commonly used in home installations. Rubber sheet flooring is applied according to the general rules given for linoleum.

28 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 5.05 Linoleum Sheet 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 4.RESILIENT FLOOR FINISHES 4.03RUBBER TILE & SHEET FINISH Advantages of rubber flooring are: - It is the quietest floor possible with the exception of thick cork tile; - its color are more brilliant than those of other types. Rubber flooring, however, is not as resistant to soap, oil and many household solvents, as vinyl and linoleum

29 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 5.05 Linoleum Sheet 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 4.RESILIENT FLOOR FINISHES 4.04LINOLEUM TILE & SHEET FINISH Linoleum is resilient, waterproof floor covering that consists of a backing covered with a relatively thick layer of wearing surface. This wearing surface is a mixture that contains oxidized linseed oil processed in a special way, combined with wood or cork flour, various fillers, stone dust, whiting, diatomite), resins binders, driers and inert color pigments.

30 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 5.05 Linoleum Sheet 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 4.RESILIENT FLOOR FINISHES 4.04LINOLEUM TILE & SHEET FINISH Linoleum can be divided into five classifications: - plain - marbled - spatter - straight-line inlaid, & - molded inlaid. It is available in three gauges: - service (1/16) - standard (3/32), and - heavy (1/8). It comes in rolls 2 and 6 wide and up to 30 ft. in length, and in 9x9 tiles for plain and marbled

31 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.04 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.05 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 5.05 Linoleum Sheet 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 4.RESILIENT FLOOR FINISHES 4.04LINOLEUM TILE & SHEET FINISH Linoleum is recommended in areas: - where a resilient, durable, colorful, greaseproof, waterproof type of flooring is needed; - where there is spillage of water such as baths and toilet rooms; - where there is spillage of grease, fruit juices, etc. such as kitchens, cafeterias; for countertops and desk tops where heavy wear, grease and cooking spillage occur. It should not be used: - on concrete slabs below grade and subflooring where dampness can penetrate from below; - for exteriors; - where any strong alkalis and acids may be present. When specifying linoleum, the latest colors, patterns, and textures should always be checked because many of these are quickly discontinued

32 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 5.05 Linoleum Sheet 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 5.WOOD FLOOR FINISHES 5.01STRIP FLOORING This type of flooring consists of tongue-and-grooved (T&G) boards 6 or less in width. Nominal sizes of strips are - 1 x 3, 1 x 4 and 1 x 6; - net (face) widths are 2-1/4, 3-1/4, and 5-1/4 respectively. - Net thickness is 7/8. In laying strip flooring, the strips are started square the room against either side wall. The first strip is placed with the grooved edge towards the wall and shall be face-nailed as close to the wall as possible so that the baseboard will conceal the nailing. All succeeding strips are blind-nailed. The strips should be laid in such a manner that joints in successive courses do not come together.

33 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 5.05 Linoleum Sheet 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 5.WOOD FLOOR FINISHES 5.01STRIP FLOORING Strip flooring is often laid over a concrete slab subfloor, nailed to 2x3 or 2x4 sleepers or screeds embedded or anchored to the concrete floor. The sleepers should be treated with a suitable wood preservative. The space between the finish floor and the top of the concrete slab is filled with cinder concrete or other damp-proof composition fill In laying strip flooring, the strips are started square with the room against a wall. The first strip is placed with the grooved edge towards the wall and shall be face- nailed as close to the wall as possible so that the baseboard will conceal the nailing. All succeeding strips are blind-nailed. The strips should be laid in such a manner that joints in successive courses do not come together.

34 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 5.05 Linoleum Sheet 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 5.WOOD FLOOR FINISHES 5.02PLANK FLOORING This type of flooring consists of square-edged boards 8 or more in width as are commonly found in old Spanish- period houses. Plank flooring is usually faced-nailed.

35 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 5.05 Linoleum Sheet 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 5.WOOD FLOOR FINISHES 5.03PARQUET TILE FLOORING Also called block flooring, consists of square pieces or blocks which have been built up in several layers like plywood and having a veneered surface, or consists of several parquet strips assembled at the factory to form a tile. This type of flooring may also be nailed to a wood subfloor or set in mastic to a concrete subfloor.

36 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 5.05 Linoleum Sheet 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 5.WOOD FLOOR FINISHES 5.03PARQUET TILE FLOORING Tiles are 3/8 or 5/15 in thickness, in squares of 9-5/8 x 9-5/8, 14-1/2 x 14-1/2, 19-1/4 x 19-1/4 and 24 x 24. For wooden subfloors, lumber must be properly kiln- dried (or use 12mm or 19mm plywood). An 11mm depression below the finish floor level is necessary for 10mm thick parquet tile flooring.

37 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects 5.WOOD FLOOR FINISHES 5.03PARQUET TILE FLOORING Concrete subfloors must be level and flat. Freshly poured concrete should be allowed to cure for at least two weeks before laying parquet. Slab construction must be such that it will stay dry. For concrete subfloors directly over fill, the base of the surrounding slab should be above ground level and/or finish grade. It is desirable that the slab be constructed with a vapor-moisture barrier (see PLASTICS). Asphalt-type underlayment, felt paper, should not be used.

38 6.CEILING FINISHES 6.01CEILING BOARD These are shiplapped boards with a bead running along the center of the board and along the joint, hence it is often referred as beaded ceiling board (B.C.B.) Thickness are 3/8 and ½ in. Widths of boards are 4 and 6 in. 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects

39 6.CEILING FINISHES 6.02ACOUSTIC TILE Acoustic tile is used for ceiling and wall finishes in rooms where it is required to control sound by absorption. 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects

40 6.CEILING FINISHES 6.02ACOUSTIC TILE There are several types of acoustic tile: a.Cellulose fiber tile. These are made from compressed sugar cane or wood fibers with perforations on the surface of the tile. b.Mineral wool tile. Felted rock wool with a fissured surface. Mineral wool tile has limited acoustic values, is flame retardant but will not withstand rough usage and cannot be painted. It is available in ½, 5/8, 2/4, 7/8 and 1 in. thickness. Sizes are 12x12, 12x24 and 24x24. c.Glass fiber tile. These are made of glass fibers held together by binder. Thickness is 1-1/4. Sizes are 23-3/4 x 23- 3/4 or 47-3/4. 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects

41 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.01TRANSPARENT FINISHES a.Wood Stains 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Oil Wood Stains Pigments are derived from various earth clays. After they are dissolved in linseed oil, the coloring particles remain suspended between the oil molecules. For spreading the color particles over large surfaces, the ground oil color is thinned with turpentine. Water Stains These are made from anilyne dyes and mineral extracts which have been dissolved in hot water. Spirit or Alcohol Stain These are mixed with alcohol- solution anilyne powders and warmed alcohol.

42 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.01TRANSPARENT FINISHES a.Wood Stains 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects The method of applying wood stains: 1. Clean wood surface by planing, scraping and sanding. 2. If water stain is to be used, sponge wood with damp rag and allow to dry. 3. Resand with finer grit paper. 4. Fill holes, dents, cracks, etc. with crack filler colored to match stains. When dry, sand smooth. 5. Dust and clean with benzene rags. 6. Apply stain, using brush or sponge with grain. 7. Apply shellac wash coat – 6 parts alcohol to 1 part shellac. 8. Scuff surfaces lightly with fine sandpaper by hand. 9. Apply paste filler and wash off in 10 minutes. 10. Sand, dust and clean. 11. Apply shellac wash coat. 12. Sand, dust and clean. 13. Select any of the ff. finishes: a.) shellac and wax, b) varnish, c.) lacquer

43 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.01TRANSPARENT FINISHES b.Wood Fillers 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Paste Fillers. Composed of silex (stone dust), japan-drier, linseed oil, turpentine, and sometimes colors ground in oil Filler is applied with the grain and allowed to dry flat for about 10 minutes. It is then wiped off across the grain with burlap or some other coarse material. Paste fillers requires about 24 hours for drying before it can be sanded. Crack Fillers. Plastic wood putty, stick shellac, etc. They are used for filling nails holes, cracks and dents.

44 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.01TRANSPARENT FINISHES b.Shellac 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Shellac is made by refining seed lac and its natural color is orange; white shellac is obtained by bleaching. Lac is a resin exuded by certain insects in India in the twigs of trees. These twigs with the resin attached are called sticklac and are crushed and washed to produce seed lac. Shellac is an under or a preparatory coat for varnish and wax finishes, but is not satisfactory as an indepen- dent finish because it is not durable and turns white from contact with water. It is also used to cover wood knots before a priming lead and oil coat is applied because it kills the resin in the knot and prevents discoloration.

45 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.01TRANSPARENT FINISHES c.Varnish 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects It is a resolution of resin in drying oil (oil varnish) or in a voltatile solvent such as alcohol or turpentine (spirit varnish). It contains no pigment and hardens into a smooth, hard and glossy coat by the oxidation of the oil or by the evaporation of the alcohol. The chief resins used in varnishes are - copal of African fossil gums; - dammar or resins from Singapore and the East Indies; - the residue left under the extraction of turpentine from pine resins, and rosin esters, obtained by treating resin with glycerine to make it waterproof when dry.

46 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.01TRANSPARENT FINISHES c.Varnish 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects In general, oil varnishes are more durable than spirit varnishes. Spirit varnishes are either dammar varnish, mad by treating dammar resins with turpentine, or shellac varnish, made by dissolving white or orange shellac in grain alcohol. They dry by the evaporation of the solvent. Drying time is from 4 to 24 hours. Varnish should never be applied when the weather is moist or humid.

47 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.01TRANSPARENT FINISHES d.Lacquer 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Lacquer is made synthetically, and is closely related to rayon or nylon fabrics. It requires a special thinner sold by each manufacturer for his own brand. Average drying time is 1-1/2 hours. For fine lacquer finishes, a special undercoat of lacquer sealer is applied over a wash coat of shellac. After the sealer has dried, it is sanded or steel- wooled to give the lacquer a gripping surface

48 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.02OPAQUE FINISHES a.Paint 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Paint is a mixture containing a pigment and a vehicle. The pigment is that solid, finely ground portion which gives to paint the power to obscure, hide or color the surface. The vehicle is the fluid portion of the paint. It carries the particles of the pigment in suspension and by the oxidation deposits and hardening binds them to painted surface or by evaporation deposits them thereon.

49 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.02OPAQUE FINISHES a.Paint 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects PIGMENTS: may be divided into white and colored pigments. The white pigments can, in turn, be divided further into hiding or active pigments and extender pigments. Hiding or active pigments are those which when mixed with the drying oil, produces an opaque finishing material. The most widely used active pigment is white lead which, when used alone withlinseed oil, will produce an excellent durable paint. Other active white pigments include: - zinc oxide - lithopone - titanium dioxide.

50 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.02OPAQUE FINISHES a.Paint 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Extender pigments: are inert pigments which when mixed with the drying oils possess very little hiding power. They are often referred to as fillers, extenders or suspenders. They serve to prevent the primary pigment from settling in a hard mass at the bottom of the paint can. The extender pigments include: - calcium carbonate - silica and - mica.

51 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.02OPAQUE FINISHES a.Paint 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Extender pigments: All paints other than white paints also contain color pigments in addition to white pigments. A good exterior paint should contain not less than 65% pigment by weight. High quality exterior paints contain not more than 10% of extender pigments

52 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.02OPAQUE FINISHES a.Paint 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects VEHICLE: The vehicle or liquid portion of the paint consists of: - a binder which forms the film - the drier to speed up formulation of the film and - the thinner or the volatile solvent. The volatile solvent facilitates application and contributes, through its evaporation, to the drying of the paint, but is not a permanent part of the film. The type of solvent used in a paint determines whether it is a - water-base paint (where the solvent is water) or - oil-base paint (where the solvent is an organic liquid). The vehicle of a paint should not contain more than 35% of the paints volume by weight.

53 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.02OPAQUE FINISHES a.Paint 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects The principal paint for exterior wood surfaces is oil paint, which contains white lead as the white paint pigment, color pigments and extenders in a vehicle consisting of a drying oil, usually linseed oil, dryers, and turpentine as the solvent or thinner. Other drying oils used are - tung or china oil, - soybean and - fish oils. Driers are added to the vehicle of paints containing drying oils to accelerate the hardening of paint by speeding the union of the oil with oxygen from the air. A good paints vehicle will contain 85 to 95% drying oil and the rest thinners and driers.

54 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.02OPAQUE FINISHES a.Paint 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Driers: may be classified into two types: - oil driers, used in powdered or crystalline form such as litharge (monoxide of lead), manganese dioxide, borate; and - liquid driers, inorganic compounds of lead, manganese and cobalt, which are dissolved in turpentine or benzene and which mix readily with the oil at ordinary temperatures.

55 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.02OPAQUE FINISHES a.Paint 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Thinners act as a solvent both for the materials of the paint and for the resin in the wood surface thereby providing greater penetration and anchorage in the wood pores. It improves the brushing and spreading qualities of the paint and also hastens its drying by absorbing oxygen from the air and transferring it to the drying oil. The best thinner is turpentine, a spirit obtained by steam distillation of the resin or gum which exudes from pine trees. (The residue of the distillation is known as rosin, used in the making of varnish.) Other thinners include mineral spirits (petroleum distillation products) benzol, solvent naptha.

56 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.02OPAQUE FINISHES a.Paint 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Thinners Turpentine is also added to the first or priming coat to assist the penetration of the paint and in much smaller quantities to the outer coats especially for exterior work. Because it dries without a gloss, it is mixed with the final coats for interior finishes when a flat or dull finish is required.

57 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.02OPAQUE FINISHES a.Paint 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Alkyd-resin or oil-resin emulsion paints where oil and resin emulsified in water makes a heterogeneous finishing material by an emulsifying agent such as casein. A great advantage of oil resin paint is that its viscosity can be easily reduced by the addition of water. Water is added as a thinner for the same reason that turpentine or mineral spirits is added to oil paints. Other advantages of oil-resin emulsion paints are that it dries quickly (two coats can be applied the same day); it is easy to apply; it is easy to recoat with itself or other paint, and it has little tendency to fade.

58 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.02OPAQUE FINISHES a.Paint 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Synthetic latex (rubber-base) paints is made from synthetic latex which acts as the pigment binder and the film-forming material for the paint. A careful balance of synthetic latex and alkyds resins gives a solution that can thinned with water for application as a continuous film with excellent adhesion and wash ability. Synthetic latex paints have little tendency to turn yellow because, unlike oil paints, they absorb very little oxygen from the air. Latex paint is the preferred paint for the plaster, cement, concrete and masonry

59 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.02OPAQUE FINISHES a.Paint 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Portland cement-base paints a water-base paint (where the solvent is water) used for painting concrete and masonry surfaces Enamel paints paints which use varnish as a vehicle. They have the ability of levelling brush marks, are more resistant to washing and rough usage, and have a harder and tougher film. They can have either a glossy, semi glossy or matt finish. Rust-inhibiting paints protective paints for ferrous metal and are of two types: - priming paint, e.g. red lead, litharge, lead chromate; - finish paints, e.g., lead sulfate and zinc dust.

60 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Well-formulated paint, skillfully applied over a properly prepared surface wears by gradual chalking and maintains a smooth, tough and durable film that constitutes a satisfactory surface for repainting. Such a paint film will remain an effective protective coating for a period of three to five years depending upon the locality and the characteristics of the original surface. It requires little treatment beyond surface dusting in preparation for repainting. Defective paint behavior and surface failures, on the other hand, are traceable to three main causes: 1. Improper paint formulation. 2. Inadequate surface preparation and careless application. 3. Faulty construction or building materials

61 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS a.Excessive or premature chalking 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects evidenced by surface dusting and rapid thinning of the film, sometimes to bare wood. caused by improper formulation or paint application. too high a percentage of volatile thinner forms a porous film subject has completely worn away. Film defects may result from one or any combination of these. The following are the various paint defects, their causes, prevention

62 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS a.Excessive or premature chalking 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects too high a percentage of volatile thinner forms a porous film subject has completely worn away. May be prevented by strict adherence to high standards of paint formulation and application.

63 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS b.Sagging and running 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects marked by irregular wavy lines that texture an otherwise smooth finish film. cause is usually paint formulation with too low a pigment volume, or too heavy and careless an application of a thin-consistency paint. It occurs sometimes when repainting an interior if an original gloss surface has not been cut by light sanding. Cure of condition necessitates sanding the irregularities and repainting. Prevention involves maintaining proper proportions of pigment and linseed oil as to formulation and careful brushing of properly thinned paint as to application

64 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS c.Storm spotting 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects usually occurring after continuous rains and electric storms, are characterized by unsightly and irregular color changes. Rain sometimes absorbs nitrates and peroxides formed by electrical discharges and penetrates the paint film, changing the refractive index of the coating. Cure of condition can sometimes be accomplished by rubbing spots with alcohol. Subsequent weathering usually restores the original color within a month or two.

65 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS d.Washing 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects is characterized by streaking on the surface, fading color, the final exposure of the original surface and accumulation of pigment particles below the painted area. caused by water-soluble compounds in pigments of poor paints or soluble compounds which develop by chemical reactions in the paint are dissolved during rain storms and wash out of the film. also when paints are applied during periods of high humidity and low temperatures, the film structure may be injured during the drying period.

66 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS e.Stains 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects are surface discolorations which often disappear gradually as the paint film wears. Sometimes, however, they go through the film necessitating its removal and subsequent repainting. Metal stains are sometimes caused by water dripping from exposed metal. Prevention involves coating metal. Galvanized iron should be painted with metallic zinc dust in spar varnish or paint containing zinc oxide.

67 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS e.Stains 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects Mildew stains are caused by air-borne fungi that feed on oil and multiply rapidly. They cannot be easily removed. Old growth should be removed before repainting by washing with 1 lb. of tri- sodium phosphate or sodium carbonate in 1 gallon of water. For prevention, the paint can be treated with about 1/4 oz. of mercuric chloride per gallon.

68 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS f.Checking 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects characterized by minute cracks on the surface of elastic paint films. Usually it is not a serious film defect, for checks do not extend through the film. cause is improper application or improper formulation of undercoats. The finish film is applied over a body coat not quite enough for a proper foundation. Unequal tensions occur in drying and small surface checks result. cure of condition involves wire brushing affected areas and repainting if checking does not disappear under influence of normal wear. prevention involves allowance of sufficient drying time between coats and formulation of the body coat with a minimum amount of oil in order to develop a hard foundation for finish

69 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS g.Alligatoring 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects an advance state of checking, varying in degree to a coarse texturing of the finish film. cause involves application of a harder drying finish over soft or slow-drying under-coats. As in checking, poor formulation with too much linseed oil in the priming or body coat may result in alligatoring. cure of condition, if extensive, requires removal of the film and repainting. prevention necessitates precautions noted above to prevent checking

70 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS h.Cracking and scaling 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects characterized by irregular cracks that subsequently curl at the edge, flake and finally scale off. Over wood, scaling is usually most marked in direction of or across the grain. cracking is a wear characteristic of hard-drying paints that contain large proportions of zinc oxide pigment. scaling comes from the water pressure when moisture seeps through the crack to the original surface. The condition is common to any surface coated with paint improperly formulated to withstand local conditions.

71 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS h.Cracking and scaling 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects cure of condition at an early stage requires vigorous brushing and recoating with a less brittle film. prevention involves formulation to produce a tougher, more elastic film. Usually this means an increased percentage of white lead.

72 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS i.Blistering and Peeling 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects characterized by swelling of the entire film which is usually followed by a break in the film and subsequent peeling. cause is water pressure from behind the film due to faulty construction that allows moisture seepage or abnormal condensation. This is a mechanical damage that may occur whatever the type or quality of paint used. sometimes also results also when damp surfaces are covered by quick- drying paints. This type of damage may be evident on wood, stucco or masonry surfaces.

73 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS i.Blistering and Peeling 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects cure of condition requires complete removal of the paint and repainting as for new work. prevention necessitates permanent removal of the moisture sources, often involving extensive repairs and waterproofing.

74 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS j.Spot fading 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects characterized by color changes and flatting of gloss in irregular patches on the film. cause is from uneven oil absorption, usually a result of insufficient coats or a priming coat improperly formulated to penetrate and adequately seal surface pores. It may be emphasized when skimping is attempted, that is, application of two coats when three are needed, or the use of a cheaply formulated paint. cure of condition is repainting. prevention requires merely the exercise of proper painting technique.

75 7.PAINT FINISHES 7.03PAINT BEHAVIOR AND DEFECTS k.Wrinkling 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects not to be confused with alligatoring, is marked by a tough, leather-like texturing. cause is usually when paint is put on too thickly and not well brushed out and may be contributed to by formulation if too high a proportion of oil is used in finish coats. cure of condition requires only sanding and repainting if texture is slight. Otherwise, film removal is indicated with subsequent painting as for new work. prevention requires strict adherence to high standards of paint formulation and thorough brushing out in application

76 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile 4. RESILIENT FLOOR FIN 4.01 Asphalt Tile/Sheet 1.04 Tooled Finish 1.05 Sand-blast Finish 1.06 Exposed Aggr 1.07 Wood Float Finish 1.08 Steel Trowelled 1.09 Integral Colored- Cement Finish 3.02 Ceramic Tile 4.02 Vinyl Tile/Sheet 4.03 Rubber Tile/Sheet 4.04 Linoleum Sheet 5. WOOD FLOOR FIN 5.01 StripFlooring 5.02 Plank Flooring 5.04 Parquet Tile Floor 6. CEILING FINISHES 6.01 Ceiling Board 6.02 Acoustic Tile 7. PAINT FINISHES 7.01 Transparent Fin 7.02 Opaque Fin 2. GRANOLITHIC FINISH 2.01 Granolithic 2.02 Terrazo 7.03 Paint Defects End of Div 09 FINISHES


Download ppt "BUILDING TECHNOLOGY I 1. CONCRETE SURFACE FINISHES 1.01 Stucco or Cement Plaster 1.02 Rubbed Finish 1.03 Brushed Finish 3. TILE FINISHES 3.01 Cement Tile."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google