Presentation on theme: "Bullying Jane LeVieux, PhD, RN, LPC Psychiatry Consult Liaison Service"— Presentation transcript:
1Bullying Jane LeVieux, PhD, RN, LPC Psychiatry Consult Liaison Service Children’s Medical Center Dallas
2What is BullyingAn Imbalance of powerRepeated and systematic harassment and attacks on othersPerpetrated by individuals or groupsSource: Health Resources and Services Administration National Bullying Campaign, 2004
3Bullying is.. Physical violence Verbal taunts, name-calling, and put-downsThreats and intimidationExtortion or stealing money and/or possessionsSpreading rumorsHarassment via technology ( , text messaging, etc.)
4Sometimes, we just don’t want to know… 4 out of 5 middle school students admit they act like bullies at least once a month.7% of eighth-graders stay at home at least once a month because of bullies.14% of 8th-12th graders and 22% of 4th-8th graders reported “bullying diminished their ability to learn in school.”10% of students who drop out of school do so because of bullying.
5It’s out there, don’t hide your head in the sand Six out of ten teens witness bullying at least once a day.66% of youth are teased at least once a month, and nearly one-third are bullied at least once a month.An estimated 160,000 students miss school every day due to fear of attack or intimidation by other students.
6Bullying as a Wide-Ranging Social Problem Bullying played a major role in two thirds of the 37 school shooting incidents reviewed.75% of school shootings had some link to bullying or social cruelty. Chronic victims of bullying report a variety of physical and mental health problems.Bullying negatively impacts social climate at school- creates “hostile environment” and “climate of fear andanxiety.”
7Gender in BullyingGirls tend to bully via teasing about clothes and boyfriends or via social exclusion, spreading rumors.Boys tend to bully both boys and girls, while girls are more likely to victimize other girls.Girls are more likely to bully in a group.
8Features and Characteristics of Bullying Distinguishing features and key elements of bullying aggressions:involves a power imbalance in which the child doing the bullying has more power owing to such factors as age, size, support of the peer group, or higher status.
9Features and Characteristics of Bullying Difficult to completely distinguish “bullying” from other forms of conflict:Verbal and physical aggression frequently occurs among children /students of similar age, size, or status
10Characteristics of Bullying Bullying includes verbal aggression, physical aggression, and relationship damaging behaviors.Bullying may have sexual content, especially in the later elementary and middle school years.Bullying is often categorized as direct or indirect to differentiate behaviors that are expressed overtly from those that are expressed covertly.
12Seven Components Verbal and nonverbal (including physical contact) Repetitive or patternedUnwelcome and unsolicitedViolation of a standard of appropriate conductHarmful or cause psychological or physical injuryIntended to harmExploiting actor’s position of power over targetAPA Monitor on Psychology, July/August, 2006, p. 69
13Personal Attitudes & Beliefs Children who bullyWant powerHave a positive attitude toward violenceHave quick tempersHave difficulty conforming to rulesGain satisfaction from inflicting injury and perceive “rewards” (prestige, material goods) from their behaviorHave positive self images
14Children who Bully Lack empathy Are concerned with their own desires rather than those of othersFind it difficult to see things from someone else’s perspectiveAre willing to use others to get what they want
15Signs that a child is being bullied The child comes home with torn, damaged, or missing pieces of clothing, books or other belongings;The child has unexplained bruises, cuts or scratches;The child seems afraid of going to school, walking to and from school, riding the school bus or taking part in organized activities with peers;The child appears sad, moody, teary or depressed when he or she comes home;The child frequently appears anxious and/or suffers from low self-esteem.
16Behavioral ChangesChanges in eating or sleeping habits (e.g., nightmares);No longer wanting to participate in activities onceenjoyed;Beginning to bully siblings or mistreat family pets;Hurting self, attempting or threatening suicide;Suddenly changing friends
17Impact on the Victim Increased absenteeism Increase in academic problemsIncrease in somatic symptomsIncrease in suicideIncrease in homicideSource: Espelage & Swearer, 2003; Fried & Fried, 2003; Juvonen& Graham, 2001; Orpinas & Horne, 2006;Zins, Elias, & Maher,2007
18Children who are bullied perceive school as an unsafe place and are likely to miss more days of school than their peers, as a result their education is negatively affected.
19When peers intervene, Bullying stops within 10 seconds, 57% of the time.
20Adult Responses To Bullying Bullying is often perceived as a harmless rite of passage that all children will experienceUnless bullying is likely to lead to physical injury, many adults believe it is best left to be resolved by children and their peers
21Impact of Bullying on Teachers On a daily basis…6250 teachers are threatened by students260 teachers are physically attackedIn an average month in public secondary schools…5000 public teachers are actually harmedTeacher Shortages29% of teachers leave within 3 years8% of teachers leave within 5 years
22Prevention & Intervention 1. In order to reduce bullying, it is important to change the social climate of theschool where teaching and non-teaching staff all work together;2. Assess bullying at your school using an anonymous questionnaire to students about bullying;3. Obtain staff and parent buy-in and support for bullying prevention;4. Form a group to coordinate theschool’s prevention activities that includes:an administrator,a teacher from each grade,a member of the non-teaching staff,school counselor anda parent.
23Develop a school-wide bullying policy raise awareness of teachers and administratorscreate a framework for responding to bullyingimprove overall school environmentensure change is occurring in the classroomempower students through programssuch as peer counseling, mediation, or conflict resolution
24Raise awareness of bullying: Allow students to fill out surveys to better understand their perspective of bullyingInform caregivers of bullying policies/curriculum through conferences, newsletters, or PTA meetingsEncourage parent involvement in anti-bullying initiatives
25The Role of the Family in Bullying Inconsistent parental discipline and monitoringFamily interactions high in negative emotionsFamily interactions low in positive emotionsParents are tolerant of aggressionFamily interactions model the use of bullying and aggressionDomestic violence and child abuseEspelage & Swearer, 2003; Fried & Fried, 2003
26Peer Influence Bullies become empowered Find targets and people to witness theirbehaviorWitness role - Skill Training for WitnessesE - empathyL – languageK - kindness
27How the School Influences Bullying Poor classroom managementLack of adult supervisionLack of awareness of the problemPoor understanding of bullyingTeachers less likely to consider verbal andrelational/emotional forms of aggression as bullyingDiscomfort in responding students’ aggressionAcceptance of bullying which increases asstudents get older
28Steps to Implement a Plan Bullying Prevention CommitteeStudent questionnaireDetermine what behaviors will no longer be allowedDevelop consequences for inappropriate behaviorShare expectations and consequences withparents, students, all school staffDevelop empathy for victims and empower “silent” majority of studentsClassroom meetingsTeach problem-solving techniquesEmphasize no bullying/harassing rulesRe-evaluate
29When to consider Law Enforcement Consider involving the police if another child has physicallyassaulted a child or is seriously threatening him or her with bodilyinjury;Law enforcement can also intervene when bullying incidents are notaddressed by the school. If school administrators are notadequately addressing a bullying problem, parents could also contactlaw enforcement for assistance;Parents should ask the school to keep a written record of alloffenses committed against a child in case law enforcement officialsneed the information for future complaints;Changing bullying behavior in the schools requires a coordinated approach. Law enforcement officers can help stop the spread of fearand violence in our schools by assisting in the implementation of acomprehensive bullying prevention program.
31Resources Bullying Resources www.bullying.org/help.html I am H*E*R*E Coalition for Teen and Young Adult Mental HealthOlweus Bullying Prevention ProgramComprehensive program for schoolsTraining for those implementing the programStop Bullying Now!U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services AdministrationTake a Stand! Lend a Hand! Stop Bullying Now!Online webisodes and gamesResource kitWebsite:Fast Facts from American Academy of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryStop Bullycide :
32ReferencesBauer NS, et al. (2006). Childhood bullying involvement and exposure to intimate partner violence. Pediatrics, 118(2): Beaty LA, Alexeyev EB (2008). The problem of school bullies: What the research tells us. Adolescence, 43(169): Cohn, A., & Canter, A. (2003). Bullying: What schools and parents can do. Retrieved October 8, 2010, from Nansel T, et al. (2003). Relationships between bullying and violence among U.S. youth. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 157: Pamphlet, You Are Not Alone. Retrieved Oct 20, 2005 from Teach Peace Now The ABC’s of Bullying, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services available online at