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Innovative Electronic Systems for Vehicular and Nautical Applications

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Presentation on theme: "Innovative Electronic Systems for Vehicular and Nautical Applications"— Presentation transcript:

1 Innovative Electronic Systems for Vehicular and Nautical Applications
Roberto Saletti, Sergio Saponara, Luca Fanucci, Federico Baronti, Roberto Roncella, Pierangelo Terreni Dipartimento Ingegneria dell’Informazione University of Pisa, Italy APPLEPIES Roma June 11, 2012

2 Outline Motivations Electronics for vehicle applications
Embedded systems for automotive applications Electric and/or hybrid vehicles Energy Storage Systems Battery Management Systems Electronic replacement of mechanical subsystems AMDS (Advanced Mechatronic Door System) Electronics for nautical applications Superyacht market segment (Luxury yacht with LOA > 24m) Integrated data acquisition systems Innovative sensors for boat and seawater parameter measurement Freeboard measurements Seawater density measurement

3 Motivations Conference aim and scope
“defining the activities, topics, objectives and research areas of the applications of electronics” “the application domain – which was once considered as a separate level over the technology – is now a part of the technology itself” Show on-going activities in the electronic applications’ research field at the University of Pisa Show application systems where “hardware and software are the different faces of the same coin” Show examples of applications where electronics is the key factor for progress and improvement

4 Vehicular applications
The most significant improvements in last years vehicular market come from electronics Control Combustion control, Emission control, Traction control, Stability control, Drive-by-wire, steer-by-wire, X-by-wire Safety Active safety, Multiple Air-bags, Assisted braking systems, Intelligent seat belts, Parking aid and collision avoidance systems Info-tainments Vehicle-infrastructure communication, Traffic info, Navigational aids and info, Kids and passengers entertainment Vehicles contains hundreds of ECUs, communication systems and multiple computer networks

5 Trends for present/future vehicles
Increased environmental sensibility More stringent rules and laws for polluting emissions Electric and/or hybrid vehicles ZEV (Zero-Emission Vehicle) Replacement of mechanical systems with mixed (mechanical/electronics) ones that give unexpected performance with affordable costs

6 Electric/hybrid vehicles
An energy storage systems is mandatory Proper storage of energy Allows energy recovery during braking Rechargeable batteries are the solution Common rechargeable battery chemistries: Lead acid NiCd NiMH Li-ion Li-polymer Li-Iron-Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery of choice for portable applications: mobile phones, laptops, ecc. dominant in automotive (engine starter) and industrial applications (power backup and grid-load leveling systems) current choice for hybrid vehicles

7 Comparison of battery energy densities
Source: Due to the excellent performance in energy density and power density Lithium chemistry is emerging also in high power applications

8 Lithium chemistry Very high energy density, no memory effect, very low self-discharge, very high efficiency, etc. Very sensitive to overcharge and deep discharge and to exceeding specific temperature range Cell life shortening, …, risk of explosion Different technologies: Different choices for electrodes and insulator materials Lots of ongoing researches … Battery cells safety is mandatory Here comes Electronics Safety is increased by an electronic management system (Battery Management System – BMS)

9 Battery Management System (BMS)
Low-level functions: Cell voltage and temperature monitoring Current monitoring Cell balancing Communication with a host device High-level functions: Maintain each cell of the battery pack within its safe operating range Estimate SoC (State-of-Charge) and SoH (State-of-Health) Increase the battery pack lifetime Manage thermal aspects …and of course very little power consumption (al least when the battery current is zero)

10 BMS: hierarchical platform
Electric vehicle battery ( V) up to 1 kV for distributed energy storage in smart-grids Roughly 100 or more series-connected high-capacity elementary cells Battery pack usually partitioned in modules From 4 to 14 cells per module BMS architecture reflects the physical structure of the battery Cell Module Pack

11 BMS: hierarchical platform (cont.)
High flexibility and scalability Redundancy support Dynamic pack reconfiguration through the MBS Module-level active balancing ... CMU MMU PMU Vehicle Management System PMU (Pack Management Unit) MMU (Module Management Unit) CMU (CellMonitoringUnit) PPS (Pack ProtectionSwitch) MBS (Module Bypass Switch)

12 BMS: Cell Monitoring Unit
Benefits of an intelligent cell: Local voltage and temperature measurement Cell identification Cell history (lifetime, cycle number, etc) Second market application Very simple design A small 8-bit µC w/ 10-bit ADC Few external components to provide isolated communication with the MMU

13 BMS: CMU design example
CMU implementation with discrete off-the-shelf components CMU prototype applied to a 31 Ah LiPo cell

14 BMS: MMU design example

15 MMU: board prototype Connectors to the CMUs AuxCell
Active charge equalizer based on a Buck-Boost Converter with super-capacitor

16 BMS: MBS design example
Isolated gate driving Very low dead-time Liquid cooled heatsink

17 BMS: MBS design example (cont.)
Battery pack for a fuel-cell hybrid small van (steady state current up to 160 A) ΔT=70 °C & Ibattery=160 A Little efficiency degradation e.g. N=11 Vcell=3.7 V At maximum load!

18 BMS: hierarchical platform prototype
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (H2FC-HEV) which is being developed at University of Pisa 14.4 kW hydrogen fuel cell 155 V - 40 Ah LiPo battery pack M. Ceraolo et al., “Experiences of realisation and test of a fuel-cell based vehicle,” SPEEDAM 2010

19 BMS: hierarchical platform prototype
Module implementation: 11 40 Ah LiPo cells FC-HEV battery built up of 4 modules 11 CMUs 1 MMU 1 MBS Electronic system with: Hardware 14 microcontrollers FPGA Power devices Hall sensors Temperature sensors Software/firmware 3 level hierarchical applications Low level micro firmware Medium level micro firmware High level Labview application

20 BMS: hierarchical platform prototype
Module implementation: MMU connected to a PC by CAN bus LabVIEW app emulates the PMU Testing of BMS functionalities Screenshot refers to an on-going balancing cycle (see the differences in cell voltages)

21 Electronic replacement of mechanical parts
Advanced Mechatronics Door System E-Latch Fully electronic vehicle latch Existing sensors Electrical motor drive for actuation Cinched door Electrically activated door closure Electrical crystal glass control with anti-pinch control A challenge for the stringent automotive specs

22 Superyacht nautical market
Italy is by far the world largest producer of superyachts Nautical market has collapsed because of the global financial crisis New impulse is expected after the crisis New products and applications are expected to come

23 Electronics application to Superyacht test
Superyachts are complex systems embedding hundreds of heterogeneous electronic controlled systems Lack of integration and standardization Extensive Test & Correction procedure before final delivery to customers So far, manual registration of the data displayed on the dashboard, combined with feelings of expert drivers

24 Dedicated acquisition system for Ferretti
Multi-sensor, multi-protocol acquisition system Integrated and synchronous Hz from: Engine subsystems (CAN SAE-J1939, CANOpen) Navigation subsystem (Raymarine SeaTalk, NMEA-0183) Flap and Trim subsystems (Analog, CANOpen, MODBUS TCP/IP) Custom two-axis wireless inclinometer Automatic configuration for hundreds of yacht models

25 DAQ features Unified user interface for data visualization
System guided automatic test procedure Test results are stored and compared with references Remote analysis of the test results

26 Useful data

27 Innovative sensors for nautical applications
Freeboards measurements to provide information about the yacht weight and trim Wireless sensor network of magnetostrictive linear displacement sensors

28 Freeboards measurements

29 Freeboards measurement results I
Data acquired from different nodes are strictly related

30 Freeboards measurement results II
The operator’s weight (90 kg) causes a not negligible error! ≈ 20 mm

31 Electronic seawater density meter
Magnetostrictive displacement sensors to read the immersion of a structure semifloating in seawater Immersion depends on seawater density

32 Conclusions Overview of research activities at the University of Pisa on the application of Electronics Main research fields are Vehicular electronics Nautical applications All the examples show a deep interaction between Hardware Sensors and data conditioning and conversion Controllers Power devices Software Microcontroller firmware Higher level software (C++, Labview, Web applications) Knowledge of the application domain is mandatory Electronic engineers are ever more often asked to tackle and solve multidisciplinary (mechanical, thermal, etc.) issues

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