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Introduction to Social Marketing Thanks to: Dr. Debra Basil.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Social Marketing Thanks to: Dr. Debra Basil."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Social Marketing Thanks to: Dr. Debra Basil

2 Outline Social Marketing defined Behavior Management Tools: - Education - Marketing - Law Public Policy Perspectives Case study: UW traffic reduction

3 Social Marketing Social Marketing applies the principles of marketing to address social problems by influencing behavior change. Social marketing requires: –A customer focused approach –Voluntary behaviour change –An exchange – Individual or societal benefit (rather than corporate benefit or profit)

4 What is Marketing? Marketing is the process of planning and executing the product, pricing, promotion, and distribution/placement of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals. Social marketing applies these principles to individual behaviour change to benefit individuals and/or society.

5 Carrots, Sticks & Promises Based on Rothschild 1999, other works by Dr. Michael Rothschild, the Turning Point Initiative, and work by Dr. Sameer Deshpande

6 Behavior Management Three major classes of strategic tools –Education –Marketing –Force of law What do they share? –Spread knowledge –Change attitudes –Alter behaviors

7 Law-Education-Marketing

8 Marketing compared to Education and Law Proneness to behave Motivation/Opportunity/Ability Public policy perspective

9 Proneness to Behave Prone to behave as Desired Resistant to Behave as Desired Easy to See or Convey Self Interest Need to Manage and Show Benefits Cant See and Cant Convey Self Interest or Benefits EducationMarketingLaw no/weak competitionpassive/active competitionunmanageable competition

10 Behavior = Function (Motivation, Opportunity, Ability) Motivation: –Goal directed arousal –Self interest –Group norms Opportunity –Environment allows behavior Ability –Target has skills and proficiency

11 M OTIVATION O PPORTUNITY A BILITY yes no yes no prone to behaveunable to behaveresistant to behave unable to behave resistant to behave educationmarketingmarketing law law education marketing education marketing law

12 Education vs. Marketing Social Benefit vs. Self-interest Get your mumps immunization so that we dont have an epidemic Get your mumps vaccine because your testicles will really hurt and your friends (you give it to) will hate you

13 Education vs. Marketing Timing & Payback of the Exchange Education typically shows a vague payback at some point in the future, ex: exercise & eat better and you will lower the probability of dying of a heart attack (someday) Marketing shows an explicit and short-term payback, ex: eat this cereal and you will able to fit into that dress for the office Christmas party



16 Public Policy Perspectives Free Choice & Externalities How to balance free choice with control of health cost externalities? What are roles of law, education, and marketing? Example: Helmet laws

17 Public Policy Perspectives The Tragedy of the Commons How to balance free choice with control of resource depletion externalities? What are roles of law, education, and marketing? Example: Overfishing

18 Public Policy Perspectives Social Dilemmas How to deal with situations in which there is a net benefit to society even though each citizen is inconvenienced? What are roles of law, education, and marketing? Example: One Tonne Challenge

19 Public Policy Perspective Education: Clearly free choice Force of Law: Clearly coercive Where does (Social) Marketing fit? –Free choice with incentives? –Coercively appealing? –The pleasure of being targeted is all mine?

20 Case Study: University of Washingtons U-Pass program Problem: Volume of traffic in Seattles University District University of Washington decided to use social marketing strategies to reduce traffic in the district in 1991.

21 Segmentation Process Identify most relevant variables for segmentation Segment individuals Select target group(s) Select important secondary targets –Gatekeepers, influencers

22 Targeting Targeting Criteria –Segment size –Potential/expected growth or decline –Competition –Cost of marketing –Fit with org resources/objectives

23 Segmentation and Targeting: UW program Segmented based on affiliation with UW Segmented based on type of affiliation –Faculty and staff –Students Targeted all with UW affiliation –Different products based on type of affiliation UW Affiliates StudentsU Pass Faculty and Staff U PASS Reimbursed ride home Daily flex permits

24 Product Price Place Promotion Marketing: The Four Ps

25 Product Behaviour, service, product being exchanged with the target audience for a price and benefit Must compete successfully against the benefit of the current behaviour Actual product = primary behaviour advocated Augmented product = tangible objects/services to support behaviour Benefits: Positive outcomes occurring from product use

26 Product: UW program Actual product: –Alternatives to driving alone Augmented product: –U-pass program –Increased mass transit service at reduced rates –Shuttle service Benefits: –Save money (bus pass, parking, etc.) –Help environment

27 Price Cost to the target audience of changing behavior –Barriers to behaviour change Can be financial, or more often related to other costs –time –effort –lifestyle –psychological cost

28 Price: UW program Inconvenient Takes more time Less freedom

29 Place Channels through which products or programs are available (access) Move programs or products to places that the audience frequents, in order to ease access

30 Place: UW program Mass transit line (more stops) Home (shuttle service) Campus parking lots (free for carpools)

31 Promotion Communicating your offering and the benefits of behaviour change to individuals. –Promotional Methods: Advertising, Personal contact, Promotional items/incentives, Publicity (free media), Direct contact What is your message? –Be clear and single- minded

32 Promotion: UW program U-PASS: For You and the U Promotional materials, including posters, brochures, and campus newspaper advertising Commuter Information Centers Emphasis on the programs incentives: lower prices and more commute options Endorsement by University Vice President

33 UW promotional piece

34 Incentives and Disincentives Incentives: Additional enticements offered to encourage trial and use of the product Disincentives: Deterrents introduced to discourage current (undesirable) behaviour

35 Incentives: UW program Unlimited usage of mass transit during the month University parking rates increased significantly for single drivers (disincentive) Free parking to faculty and staff carpools Vanpools: Vans picked up and dropped off only 8-15 passengers at or near their homes. Cyclists: New bicycle paths through the University, free bike lockers and racks, free helmet ($5 for staff and faculty) with the purchase of a tune-up

36 Positioning Based on PERCEPTION Perceptual map –Relative to own products (your other offerings or potential offerings) –Relative to competition (behaviour you hope to extinguish)

37 Marketing: Perceptual Map Automobiles Price Reliability BMW Lexus Subaru Esteem Aspire Fiat Camry - - + +

38 Social Marketing: Perceptual Map UW Commuting Options Cost Convenience - - + + Mass transit Biking Driving alone Carpool

39 Outcomes: UW program Problem: –Extreme traffic congestion in the University District during morning and afternoon commutes. Situation affects University students, faculty, and staff plus local residents and workers and creates longer commutes, pollution, and frustration. Desired outcome: –Reduce single-occupancy vehicles in U District Measure of success: –UW single-occupancy vehicle use decreased from 33% to 23% –transit use increased from 21% to 33%

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