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Representing the Real World

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Presentation on theme: "Representing the Real World"— Presentation transcript:

1 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

2 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou Representing the Real World Representation in GIS Objects and fields Raster and vector representation GIS and maps Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

3 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou Representation in GIS All human activities requires knowledge about the Earth. Past, present and future Representation occurs in human mind in photographs in spoken and written languages in numbers (i.e. measurements) Law of geography: everything relates to everything, but nearby things are more related than those far apart. Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

4 Example: representation in space and time
Prof. Qiming Zhou Example: representation in space and time 06:00 10:00 14:00 18:00 22:00 Home City centre Dad’s work School Airport Dad Mom Sister Brother Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

5 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou Representation Representation help us assemble more knowledge about the Earth than is possible on our own. e.g. maps Digital representation Every item of useful information is ultimately reduced by a GIS to combinations of 0s and 1s. Digital representation is simple with low costs. Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

6 Geographical representation
Prof. Qiming Zhou Geographical representation Geographical representation is concerned with the Earth’s surface or near surface. The key representation issues are what to represent and how to represent it. Many plans for the real world can be tested on models or representations. Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

7 Geographical representation (cont.)
Prof. Qiming Zhou Geographical representation (cont.) Geographical data link place, time and attributes. Geographical attributes are classified as nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. When enough atoms of geographical information are collected, a complete representation of the world can be built. Digital earth: to explore the world by interacting with its digital representation Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

8 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou But … The world is infinitely complex. Computer systems are finite. Representation is, therefore, all about the choices that are made in capturing knowledge about the world. Creating spatial models Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

9 The concept of spatial models
Prof. Qiming Zhou The concept of spatial models The essential function of the spatial data we store and manipulate is to subdivide the Earth’s surface into meaningful entities or objects that can be characterised. In this way, the contents of a spatial database is a model of the Earth. — Star and Estes, 1990, pp 32 Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

10 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou Objects and fields The fundamental representation in geography: Discrete objects Fields Discrete object view represents the world as objects with well-defined boundaries in empty space. The field view represents the real world as a finite number of variables, each one defined at every possible position. Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

11 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou Example of objects Houses in a countryside are conceived as discrete objects with their clear boundaries and surrounding empty space. Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

12 Database entries of discrete objects
Prof. Qiming Zhou Database entries of discrete objects House ID Owner Built area (m2) Location Year built 12 J. Smith 210 42:30:12 E 43:40:10 N 1974 23 K. Jones 155 42:35:40 E 43:38:12 N 1932 51 M. Robert 346 42:41:06 E 43:40:45 N 1992 98 Skyline Co. 622 42:37:38 E 43:36:55 N 1997 Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

13 Object representation in 2D
Representing the Real World

14 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou Field representation Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

15 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou Object or field? Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

16 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou Definition of river Object view: two-dimensional, discrete object in an empty geographic landscape. Field view: all points are either river or non-river. Fuzziness: the “membership” of river River Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

17 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou Membership of “river” Membership grade (%) Definition Always dry 25 Sometimes flooded 50 Wetland vegetation river band sediment 75 Most time water flow with river bed sediment 100 Always water flow Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

18 Abstraction of geographical entities
Prof. Qiming Zhou Abstraction of geographical entities Points: locations of, e.g., oil and water wells, bus stops, cities on a small scale map Lines: centre lines of, e.g., railways, highways, natural streams Polygons: enclosed regions such as reservoirs, lakes, local government areas Volumes: solid bodies such as building blocks, mine bodies, capacity of a reservoir Processes: changing bodies such as landslides, moving objects Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

19 Raster and vector models
Prof. Qiming Zhou Raster and vector models There are two fundamental approaches towards the representation of the spatial component of geographical information — the raster and vector models. In both models, the spatial information is represented using finite, discrete homogeneous units. In the raster model, the homogeneous units are grid cells (or pixels). In the vector model, the homogeneous units are points, lines and polygons. Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

20 Raster and vector representations
Prof. Qiming Zhou Raster and vector representations Real World 561000 581000 House River Pine Forest Eucalypts E P H E R H P Raster Representation Vector Representation Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

21 Vector to raster data conversion
Prof. Qiming Zhou Vector to raster data conversion 100 B A 100 Presence/Absence (Points and Linear Features) Percent Occurrence (Areal Features) A B 1 2 A B 1 2 Dominant Type (Areal Features) Centroid of Cell (Areal Features) Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

22 The raster representation
Prof. Qiming Zhou The raster representation Divides the entire study area into a regular grid of cells Each cell contains a single value Is space-filling since every location in the study area corresponds to a cell in the raster Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

23 The raster coordinates
Prof. Qiming Zhou The raster coordinates Y (row) X (column) Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

24 Raster geographical database
Prof. Qiming Zhou Raster geographical database Buildings 3 1 2 1 2 3 Forest types 1 2 3 Soil types Topography Soils Real world Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

25 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou Resolution The minimum linear dimension of the smallest unit of geographical space for which data are recorded. In the raster model, the smallest units are rectangular (for most systems). The smallest units are known as cells or pixels. The array of cells is known as lattice, grid or matrix. High resolution refers to raster with small cells. Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

26 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou Orientation The angular difference between the direction depicted as true north and direction facing a designated upper edge of the cartographic plane. In raster systems, the orientation is defined as the angle between true north and the direction defined by the columns of the raster. Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

27 Resolution and orientation
Prof. Qiming Zhou Resolution and orientation Australia New South Wales Victoria Queensland South Australia West Australia Tasmania Y X Northern Territory N Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

28 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou 3-D representation 10 20 30 40 50 Column number Row number Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

29 3-D surfaces Discrete surface Continuous surface
Prof. Qiming Zhou 3-D surfaces Discrete surface (No slope between Grid Cells) Continuous surface (Continuous slope between Grid Cells) Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

30 The vector representation
Prof. Qiming Zhou The vector representation Based on vectors The fundamental primitive is points. Objects are created by connecting points with straight lines (or arcs). Areas are defined by sets of lines. Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

31 The Vector Coordinates
Prof. Qiming Zhou The Vector Coordinates 10 X Y X = 2 Y = 3 (2, 3) A (1, 7) (3, 6) (3, 4) (5, 3) (7, 10) (5, 7) (7, 5) (9, 5) (8, 7) (9, 8) Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

32 Representing the Real World
A vector data layer Representing the Real World

33 Triangulated irregular network (TIN)
Prof. Qiming Zhou Triangulated irregular network (TIN) 1 2 3 6 5 8 7 9 11 10 4 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N EDGES adjacent A B C D E F G H I J K L M N B, K A, C, L B, D C, E, L D, F E, G F, H, M G, I H, J, N I, K A, J, N B, D, M G, L, N I, K, M NODES node# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 1, 6, 7 1, 7, 8 1, 2, 8 2, 8, 9 2, 3, 9 3, 4, 9 4, 9, 10 4, 5, 10 5, 10, 11 5, 6, 11 6, 7, 11 7, 8, 9 7, 9, 10 7, 10, 11 X-Y Coordinates node# coordinates 1 2 3 11 . . . x1, y1 x2, y2 x3, y3 x11, y11 Z Coordinates node# z_value 1 2 3 11 . . . z1 z2 z3 z11 Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

34 3-D surfaces represented by TIN
Representing the Real World

35 Comparison between raster and vector approaches
Prof. Qiming Zhou Comparison between raster and vector approaches Raster approach Vector approach Advantages: 1. It is a simple data structure. 2. Overlay operations are easily and efficiently implemented. 3. High spatial variability is efficiently represented in a raster format. 4. The raster format is more or less required for efficient manipulation and enhancement of digital images. Disadvantages: 1. The raster data structure is less compact. 2. Topological relationships are more difficult to represent. The output of graphics is less aesthetically pleasing because boundaries tend to have a blocky appearance rather than the smooth lines of hand-drawn maps. This can be overcome by using a very large number of cells, but may result in unacceptably large files. Advantages: 1. It provides a more compact data structure than the raster model. 2. It provides efficient encoding of topology, and as a result, more efficient implementation of operations that require topological information, such as network analysis. 3. The vector model is better suited to supporting graphics that closely approximate hand-drawn maps. Disadvantages: 1. It is a more complex data structure than a simple raster. Overlay operations are more difficult to implement. 3. The representation of high spatial variability is inefficient. 4. Manipulation and enhancement of digital images cannot be effectively done in the vector domain. Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

36 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou GIS and maps Paper maps is a source of data for geographical databases. A paper map is an analog product from GIS. A paper map is an effective communication tool. portable easy to use cheap to make mass production Representing the Real World Representing the Real World

37 Representing the Real World
Prof. Qiming Zhou Summary All geographical phenomena need to be represented in some way. There are two fundamental representation in geography – objects and fields. Geographical entities can be abstracted as points, lines, polygons, volumes and processes. Two approaches for representing the geographical entities are vector and raster representations. Representing the Real World Representing the Real World


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