2 AGENDA 1 – GENERALITIES 2 – COMPOSITION 3 – TYPE OF IED 4 – THE BIG FIVE
3 1 - GENERALITIES11 - DefinitionAn improvised explosive device (IED) is a homemade bomb made and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action. It may be done with:Conventional military explosives (artillery round)Home made explosives (fertilizer, gazoline..)CheapEasy to built and implementComponent can be find in any combat field and living areaLow risk – important result/damage
4 Chechnya Iraq Lebanon North africa Far-East Europe Afghanistan HQ ISAF31/03/201712 -WHERE IEDs ARE USED???ChechnyaIraqLebanonNorth africaFar-EastEuropeAfghanistanIEDs are a world-wide threat.Cross pollination of IED TTPs in Afghanistan from other countriesCross pollination of experience at the tactical level through ‘journey-man’ jihadists and training camps (Bekaa Valley one example).Modern media and reporting assists in research and development of TTP’s.IED makers are trained in Pakistan, then sent to Afghanistan.- Example – Afghan suicide coach was in Afghanistan in , learned trade here, then went to Iraq and was responsible for 2200 deaths.4
5 2 - COMPOSITION A SWITCH / TRIGGER AN INITIATOR ( FUZE / DETONATOR) MAIN CHARGEPOWER SOURCEA CONTAINER
7 VICTIM INITIATE THE FUSE/DETONATOR PRESSURE PLATEVICTIM INITIATE THE FUSE/DETONATORPRECISE / EASY TO USE (NO NEED TO BE AN EXPERT)CHEAPMAIN CHARGEHere is an example of a crude pressure plate. The two metal strips are insulated from one another by a non conductive material (i.e. pieces of rubber) at each end. A wire from the battery is attached to one metal strip. A lead wire from the electric caps is attached to the other metal strip. The inner tube is used to weather proof, and provide camouflage. When a vehicle drives over the pressure switch, it compresses the two metal contacts, allowing them to touch, that completes the firing circuit.BATTERYFUSE/DETONATORBLADE / METAL STRIPSWOODEN BOARDINSULATING RUBBER77
8 PRESSURE PLATE BATTERY HQ ISAF 31/03/2017 PRESSURE PLATE The Pressure Plate IED is the most common of the VOIEDs.In this picture you see two devices; the one in the upper corner is made with wood, saw blades and bicycle tubing. In the larger picture, the pressure plate is completely rapped in bike tube to keep the rocks out and better conceal it. You can also see the battery by the bush in the back ground.A variation of the pressure plate is the “crush plate”, which is common to Kandahar and Zabul provinces.PRESSURE PLATE
9 RCIED TRANSMITTEUR RECEIVER FUSE/DETONATOR INITIATOR SYSTEM MAIN CHARGEPOSITION DE TIRFUSE/DETONATORThe transmitter used in this slide is a Kenwood radio with DTMF function. The receiver is a Mod 4 Spider. This is easily identified by the four LEDs mounted on the front.INITIATOR SYSTEM
10 Remote Control FOB Trigger (RFT) HQ ISAF31/03/2017LOW POWER TRANSMITTERWireless Door BellGarage Door Opener1. This slide illustrates that RCIEDs can be made from anything that can send /receive a signal. The insurgent modifies the receiver to send the output to the blasting cap. As you can see from the examples it is only limited to the bomber’s imagination and his knowledge.2. RCIEDs to watch out for.These are just a few electronic devices that have been found in Afghanistan and used as RCIEDs. If you see these devices, are they normal for the area?Garage Door Openers – do Afghanis have a need for this? Not very common in Afghanistan.Wireless Doorbells - Cheap. Not many used in country to date, but some have been. Not many Afghans use these. Be aware if you see this in a cache, LOOK LINK THINK.Keyless entry systems with transmitter – most cars here are older cars, not many new automobiles here so do they need remote entry systems or car alarms. I have yet to be waken in the middle of the night here by a car alarm going off. Transmitter on the right has the capability of multiple firing. Shock sensor can be rigged as anti-removal device.Personal Mobile radios (PMR) - Can be purchased anywhere, hard to trace. Some ISAF units currently have these for inter-squad communicationsRC Car – Two RCIED attacks in Khowst, RC (E), in May 2008 have demonstrated such a degree of similarity (in placement and design) that the same INS group is highly likely to be involved. Of concern is the use of RC car type receiver units operating in the 27 – 49MHz range.Remote Control FOB Trigger (RFT) – Purpose built RCIED device – like DTMF. Transmitter can initiate up to 3 separate devicesRemote Control FOB Trigger (RFT)Personal Mobile Radio(PMR)NATO CONFIDENTIAL REL TO ISAF - EXERCISE10
11 HIGH POWER TRANSMITTER HQ ISAF31/03/2017HIGH POWER TRANSMITTERAnother possibility of high power transmitter is cell phones.Every Afghanistan cellular phone operator is licensed to provide coverage in the 900 and 1800 MHz band.Since 2006 there has been attacks by insurgents using cellular phones to arm or detonate a device, even if it is not so common (around 2% of all the RCIEDs).The problem for them is that the network is not really good and doesn’t cover all the country as you can see on the map coverage for Roshan (one of the service provider).Moreover it is not so accurate due to delays in signal going through from phone to phone.2006Cell phones
12 RECEIVER MOD 3 MOD 1 MOD 2 MOD 4 MOD 5 There are 5 different modifications of the Spider device as follows :MOD 1Typically found in ballast boxes, doorbell housings and black security system boxes.2 separate boards (on slide, decoder on left, receiver on right)Boards separated by a piece of nonconductive material ie cardboard and held together with rubber bandsUsually 3-4 DTMF tones to initiateCan have 2 separate outputs (not seen since 2004)MOD 2Typically found in Toyota Diesel Timer boxes and Toshiba Heater Timer boxesSingle printed circuit board / side-by-side board conceptUsually 2-4 DTMF tones to initiate3. MOD 3Found in soap dishes, white or black plastic boxesTwo printed circuit boards – decoder board on top of receiver board separated by metal stand-offsUtilizes a microprocessor, an internal timer and a power saving modeFirst DTMF tone must be entered for a minimum of 5 seconds to exit power saving modeHas safe to arm LEDsMOD 4Found in black plastic box with 4 LEDs on front panelConsists of one printed circuit board where decoder and receiver boards are connectedLarge capacitor in series with input powerUtilizes a power saving mode and safe to arm feature embedded in an internal timer2-4 DTMF tones to initiateThe receiver only scans the frequency for about 0.5 secs every 2 secs. Hence orange flashing light. Codes have to be held down for about 3 secs apieceMOD 5Found in black box with Matsuchita Power Supply stickers (can be blue, green and purple)Consists of 2 printed circuit boards (receiver and decoder)Utilizes micro-processorsafe to arm technology embedded in microprocessor – no bypass available15 minute safe-to-arm time on “power up”Typically 2-4 DTMF codesThese are different variations of the Mod 1 spider device. Each is made up of two circuit boards – a receiver board that essentially received the DTMF signal and digitizes it, and a decoder board which interprets DTMF signals that are transmitted in the correct sequence and releases power to the detonator upon command. On each of these has the receiver board on the right (identifiable by the small copper “squiggly” wires), and the decoder board on the left (the large IC in the center of the board is the decoder chip). On the Mod 1 and 2 the decoder chip has jumper wires connected to different pins. Since we have schematics for these chips, we can tell by observing which pins the jumper is soldered to what the firing code is. The decoder board has three Silicon Control Rectifiers (SCR) which are essentially electronic switches. I like to think of these SCRs as if they are small dams preventing electricity from flowing down the circuit. If the “upstream” dam is opened (by pressing the first digit in the firing sequence), the power is allowed to flow downstream. If the second digit of the firing code is entered, the second SCR “opens” and allows power to flow further downstream until it reaches the final SCR. When the third digit of the firing code is entered, the third SCR “opens” and allows the power to release to the blasting cap. If any of the codes are entered in the wrong order, the device resets and is immediately ready to receive signals again.MOD 1MOD 2MOD 4MOD 5
13 COMMAND WIRE (CW) 13 HQ ISAF 31/03/2017 1. Command wire or Hard line IEDs.A. Command wire IEDs use heavy and light gauge wire, an initiator, ordnance/explosives and a power source, normally a car or motorcycle battery. There is higher risk to Insurgent due to close proximity of attack and his physical link with the IED.B. The longer the wire, the more powerful the battery has to be.2. Emphasize getting out of your vehicle. CWIED is buried good, near the road, but away from the road not buried away from road, so can be seen easier.13NATO CONFIDENTIAL REL TO ISAF - EXERCISE13
15 COMMAND WIRE (CW) HQ ISAF 31/03/2017 BRIDGE AND CULVERT VP CHECK ASSESSMENTIt is possible that the main charge was concealed by the INS having tunnelled through the concrete inside the culvert.The CW was split locked, which is where a shovel is utilized to lift the soil the wire is inserted then the soil is pressed down. This leaves minimal signatureThe VP drill employed (inverted V) in this case would have had very little chance of detecting the CW.Consider an isolation search.During Dismounted VP checks , searchers must look inside culvert and inspect side walls for integrity.BRIDGE AND CULVERTVP CHECKNO IED FOUNDCW VERY WELL HIDDEN READY TO BE LINKED WITH IED
17 PYROTHENIC FUSE/DETONATOR INITIATOR / FUSE / DETONATOR HQ ISAFHQ ISAF31/03/201731/03/2017EXPLOSIVE FUSEPYROTHENIC FUSE/DETONATORINITIATOR / FUSE / DETONATORTo initiate the main charge, they need an initiator.These are made of more sensitive explosives.You have electric and non-electric types, commercial and homemade.And they are reinforced by detonation cord.Usually it’s commercial one with flashy colors (red…).MILITARY FUSEELECTRICAL FUSE/DETONATOR17
18 12 - Composition A SWITCH / TRIGGER AN INITIATOR ( FUZE / DETONATOR) MAIN CHARGE
19 MAIN CHARGE HQ ISAF 31/03/2017 AT MINE MORTAR POTASSIUM CHLORATE ALUMINIUM POWDERFinally they can also made it by themselves.In this case, we talk about HME for HomeMade Explosive.You have different types.ANAL – Ammonium Nitrate and ALuminumANFO – Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel OilNitric AcidPotassium NitratePotassium chlorateStrontium Nitrate / MagnesiumAmmonium perchlorateSodium chlorateTATP – TriAcetone TriPeroxideHMTD – Hexa Methylene Triperoxide Diamine…* Clic *Insurgents will use HME more often as the availability of military ordnance decrease.NITRIC ACIDPOTASSIUM NITRATE19
20 12 - Composition A SWITCH / TRIGGER AN INITIATOR ( FUZE / DETONATOR) MAIN CHARGEPOWER SOURCE
21 POWER SOURCE HQ ISAF 31/03/2017 HQ ISAF 31/03/2017 To initiate the device, we need some power source.In function of the power needed, they will use some improvised battery pack.A 9V battery or a 12V motorcycle battery or even a car battery.21
22 12 - Composition A SWITCH / TRIGGER AN INITIATOR ( FUZE / DETONATOR) MAIN CHARGEPOWER SOURCEA CONTAINER
29 NO LIMIT FOR IMAGINATION Artillery shell-based IED hidden inplaster made to look like a concrete blockAnti-Tank Mine encased inconcrete and commanddetonated via remote controlArtillery shell-based IEDs hidden in bags along roadsArtillery shells rigged as IEDs
32 IED Vulnerable Points CULVERT (1). Culvert – Culvert are used because the enemy doesn’t have to dig or prepare the site, it is already for them to put the IED in. Stream beds are good to place IEDs in low water or rocky areas.
33 UPHILL SLOPE/ DOWNHILL SLOPE - IED Vulnerable PointsIEDUPHILL SLOPE/ DOWNHILL SLOPE -(2). Up / Downhill slope – Either is hard to see once you are traversing them. You also slow going up or down hills which makes it easier to time the detonation.
34 IED Vulnerable Points Wadi / STREAM BED (3). Wadi / Streambed / River – Ease of emplacement.
35 IED Vulnerable Points SAND (4). Soft Sand – Easy and Quickness of emplacement.Blast Seat
36 IED Vulnerable Points CURVE/ NARROW PASS (5). Choke Point / Sharp Turn – Canalizisation and TimingB. The more of these you have, the more likely there is or will be an IED located there. When a site has 4 or 5 of these, then eventually there will definitely be an IED there.
37 BAD LUCK BIG FIVE IED Vulnerable Points Canalisation CULVERT UPHILL/ DOWNHILLIED Vulnerable PointsA. These danger areas are where the enemy targets ISAF patrols. The more of these danger areas you have, the more likely you will be attacked.(1). Culvert – Culvert are used because the enemy doesn’t have to dig or prepare the site, it is already for them to put the IED in. Stream beds are good to place IEDs in low water or rocky areas.(2). Up / Downhill slope – Either is hard to see once you are traversing them. You also slow going up or down hills which makes it easier to time the detonation.(3). Wadi / Streambed / River – Ease of emplacement.(4). Soft Sand – Easy and Quickness of emplacement.(5). Choke Point / Sharp Turn – Canalizisation and TimingB. The more of these you have, the more likely there is or will be an IED located there. When a site has 4 or 5 of these, then eventually there will definitely be an IED there.SANDWadi/Streambed/RiverBIG FIVE37