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International hearing on Climate change and energy access for the poor 26th-28th March 2010, Limbé, Cameroon MICRO-GRID POWER SYSTEMS BASED ON RENEWABLE.

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Presentation on theme: "International hearing on Climate change and energy access for the poor 26th-28th March 2010, Limbé, Cameroon MICRO-GRID POWER SYSTEMS BASED ON RENEWABLE."— Presentation transcript:

1 International hearing on Climate change and energy access for the poor 26th-28th March 2010, Limbé, Cameroon MICRO-GRID POWER SYSTEMS BASED ON RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION: BENEFITS, EXAMPLES AND STEPS TO PROMOTE THESE SOLUTIONS Xavier Vallvé, Engineer International consultant - Trama tecnoAmbiental, Barcelona,Spain –

2 Battery Conversion and control Consumptions Autonomous Electrification with RE PV generator

3 BACKGROUND: Typical Design approach Technical specification for PV-hybrid micro-power plants (<100 kW, LV) partially adapted from IEC 62257 TS series, IEA PVPS Task3 and Task11 recommended practices, etc Demand analysis and segmentation Monitoring of systems to validate technology and the service 10 yr. Service horizon with local operator and local capacity building Standardized technical solutions with high PV penetration Experience in Design and Project management of PV-hybrid micro- power plants in rural areas of southern Europe, Africa, Latin America, Pacific …

4 The diversification of the energy resources increase the quality of the service The rational use of energy allows savings in the initial investment and in the maintenance costs

5 Energy access for the poor: current situation in SSA

6 Low population density Remoteness from the public grid Low demand in electricity but with very high value High energy losses on the transmission lines High costs of grid extension and connection High Operation and Maintenance costs Lack of adequate regulation/business models for decentralized electrification Energy access for the poor: current situation in SSA

7 Existing micro grids running with Gensets (many are not working) Many villages and households and villages not connected to the grid But essential to access to electricity for basic needs (high value for the first few kWh) Energy access for the poor: current situation in SSA

8 Autonomous RE cheaper than grid extension for remote areas Comparison of investment costs for grid extension in selected countries. Source ESMAP 2000 CountryLabour & other costs MaterialsTotal ($/km) Bangladesh3506 3406 690 Laos1 4207 2308 650 El Salvador2 0906 1608 250 Kenya6 5905 96012 550 Senegal5 15010 81015 960 Mali2 59015 17019 070

9 PV cheaper than grid extension for remote areas Comparison of investment costs between grid extension and off-grid PV in Spain

10 RE Hybrid micro grids more sustainable than fossil fuelled Gensets Levelized costs for PV and Diesel technologies in microgrid for 340 users in Peru (D.R. 5%, Diesel: 1 /l) Source:

11 From interim to permanent solutions

12 Typical load profiles Profile 1- Daily Cycle rigid slim loads Profile 2- Base Load 2a-Base Load 2b- Base Load Interruptible 2c- Base Load- Stand-by

13 From individual PV autonomous power plants to micro-grids Application typesTypes of uses Home applicationsLighting Audio/video Refrigerator Small household appliances Washing machine Irons Freezer Odd jobs Public areas applications (places of collective life: worship halls, community centre, health centre, etc.) The same appliances as above are used, but more and more powerful. Public lighting. Village water pumping. Economic activities applicationsProcess equipment supply (mainly motors) Individual PV micro plants in Europe Multi-user micro grids (MSG) in Developing Countries

14 What is a Hybrid Mini Grid with RE? A combination of different but complementary energy generation technologies based on renewable energies or mixed (RES + genset) Hybrid powered mini-grids can provide steady community-level electricity service, such as village electrification, offering also the possibility to be upgraded through grid connection in the future Total installed power up to 100 kW (according to IEC) Distribution line in Low Voltage (up to 1.000V) (only distribution) Single or 3-phase grid PV Hybrid Mini Grid in West Bank, Palestine

15 From single user to villages: MSG (Multi user Solar Grid) up to 150 kWh/day Typical layout (DC bus-bar micro power plant+AC single phase grid )

16 Comparison of PV Individual and Micro grids AdvantagesDisadvantages Individual Electrification Micro plants Consumption is user managed on a day to day basis. Black outs affect only one user. PV micro plants can be easily moved to a new location. Limited surge power capacity. Monitoring individual plants can be expensive and difficult. Maintenance and repair service complex to organize in rural areas. Multiuser Solar Grids (MSG) Improved quality (surge power, load shedding, etc). Lower investment for compact villages. Energy saving can be practiced using improved management tools. Lower maintenance costs. Telemetry can be economic for monitoring plants status. In a general power plant failure, everybody is cut off. Social rules required to distribute energy availability. Local management required. Plants generally need to be serviced on site. Challenge: sharing the energy available without conflicts Energy distribution and metering issue!

17 VISION: Universal electrification-individual plants and micro grids under one operational scheme Individual Micro-Power Plants MSG

18 Examples MSG (Multi user Solar Grids) Akkan, Morocco, Africa

19 Akkan, Morocco PV HYBRID POWER PLANT PV GENERATOR Installed PV capacity5.760 Wp Module type80 Wp 36 cell – mono crystalline Number of modules72 Inclination / orientation43º / +5º S PV CHARGE CONTROLLER Rated power6.000 Wp Control algorithmMPPT - Boost BACK UP GENSET Rated power8,2 kVA single phase FuelDiesel BATTERY Number of elements (voltage)24 (48V) ModelHawker 2AT1500 Capacity (C100)1.500 Ah Autonomy4 days INVERTER Voltage input / output48 V DC / 230 V AC Rated power7.200 W Harmonic distortion< 2,5% DATA LOGGER Memory / log frequency300 kbyte / hourly Type of dataEnergy, voltage, radiation, etc. ELECTRICITY DISPENSER – METER Input230 V AC 50 Hz Maximum current10 A AlgorithmConfigurable Daily Energy Deliverability STREET LIGHTING Number of lamps13 Type70 W hp sodium / 2 level electronic ballast Total power - high910 W Total power - low683 W INDIVIDUAL LOADS Households 275 Wh/day23 Households 550 Wh/day3 School 550 Wh/day1 Mosque 550 Wh/day1

20 Diakha Madina, Senegal, Africa

21 Diakha Madina, Senegal PV ARRAY PV installed power3.150 Wp PV Module modelPW750 75 Wp 12V Nº PV modules42 Orientation/Inclination0º S / 10º S PV Area46 m 2 AVAILABLE ENERGY Available Energy (Wh/day)4.803 Irradiation ( pHp) 5 HPS Month of designDecember BATTERY Nº elements24 Battery typeTudor 6 OPzS 420 Capacity (C100)672 Ah Day of autonomy4 days CHARGE CONTROLLER Regulation capacity4.000 Wp Mode of charge controlMPP Tracker INVERTER Input / Output voltage48 V DC / 230 V AC Nominal Power3.600 W DC/DC Converter (12 V)10A máxima de corriente Harmonic distorsion< 2% DATA LOGGING Memory / freq. of logging300 kbyte / hourly PUBLIC LIGHTING Number2 Type of lamp70 W / electronic ballast PUMPING SYSTEM Power of the pump1.100 W Flow5m 3 /h Deep49 m Height of the tank7 m Tank capacity20 m 3 BACK-UP GENSET Nominal power4,2 kW single phase FuelDiesel

22 Civil works of multi purpose building Agreements with users Local kick-off meeting Floreana island (Galapagos), Ecuador, South America (I)

23 Building entry Data download Battery Floreana island (Galapagos), Ecuador, South America (II)

24 San Lorenzo, Ecuador, South America (I)

25 Typical household San Lorenzo, Ecuador, South America (II)

26 San Lorenzo, Ecuador, South America (III)

27 Electricity Dispenser / meter Metering and invoicing interface Energy and power limitation and guidance according to energy allowance contracted User pays for availability of energy, not for the consumed energy

28 Community based scheme vs Utility based scheme Ownership and Operation

29 Users fees can sustain operation and replacement during the horizon of the project Typical cash flow for MSG of 20 households and monthly fee of 8 USD

30 Present and future potential for Renewable Energy Micro grids Villages not connected to the grid, where the grid extension is too expensive and not cost effective: micro-grid for basic needs (health, school, water, etc) Villages with obsolete diesel generator because of the high running costs (Operation and Maintenance): refurbishing distribution grid, electrical installations, etc Short-term (0-2 years) Medium-term (5-6 years) Long-term (10 years onwards) Villages not connected to the grid: extension of the mini-grid to private applications and productive uses Villages not connected to the grid: interconnection of several mini-grids between them or/and the national grid

31 Constraints and limitations Training and capacity building High costs of investment Critical density for adequate maintenance Management of accumulated money Social organization may be a critical issue depending of the management scheme Unfair existing regulation (unfair regulations that discriminate against technologies that are especially suited to rural areas)

32 New technologies available with Renewable Energy hybrid micro-grids Possibility of decentralised productive electricity uses MSG little knowledge and often not considered Very good local governance capacity building Lack of demonstration and monitoring Existing barriers: Conventional tariff structure Institutions and infrastructure Engineering and social experience SOME CONCLUSIONS

33 Thanks for your attention!

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