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Global Developments in Electrical Safety Electrical Safety week, ICF, Perambur, 13th June 2003 P.G. Sreejith Cholamandalam AXA Risk Services Ltd.

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Presentation on theme: "Global Developments in Electrical Safety Electrical Safety week, ICF, Perambur, 13th June 2003 P.G. Sreejith Cholamandalam AXA Risk Services Ltd."— Presentation transcript:

1 Global Developments in Electrical Safety Electrical Safety week, ICF, Perambur, 13th June 2003 P.G. Sreejith Cholamandalam AXA Risk Services Ltd. P.G. Sreejith Cholamandalam AXA Risk Services Ltd.

2 Electrical Accidents-Statistics India Almost 12 people die due to electrocution every day (Source -NCRB) 42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD) 8% deaths that occur in factories are due to electricity

3 Electrical Accidents-Statistics United States 25% of all fires occur due to electricity 411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH) Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death ( ) NIOSH

4 Present Status - ES-India ES Awareness is slowly growing Use of HRCs /RCCBs is the rise, finer details are yet to be understood by many More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka, Delhi - Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings) Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices based on international standards (NFPA, IEEE, etc.)

5 Various ES Standards / organizations-US NFPA - NEC (1897) NESC (1913), from IEEE NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)-1970 OSHA (1970) NFPA 70 E & B (1979) -approved by OSHA Electrical Trauma Centre, Chicago (1990) NESF(1994), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC

6 Global Developments in Electrical Safety Electrical Safety Products ES Auditing Techniques ES System Certifications Electrical Risk-Based Maintenance System Electrical RM Programme

7 ES Products... Residual Current-Operated Circuit Breakers (RCCBs) Arc Fault Current Interrupters (AFCIs) Glowing Connection Detector (GCDs) Infra-Red Hotspot Detection Tool Thermography Surveys

8 ES Products Automatic Defibrillators Complete Home ES Kit Automatic Fire Detection & Extinguishing System Electrical Product Safety Recalls Linear Heat Sensing Cables (LHSC)

9 GFCIs & RCCBs GFCIs - 5 mA, RCCBs - 30, 100, 300 mA Delayed tripping RCCBs (200 mS)

10 AFCIs Arcs - temperatures up to 20,000 degree C, Suns outer temperature degree C No material on earth can withstand arc temperature RCCBs cannot detect arcing faults AFCIs - the innovative ES device after RCCBs AFCIs detects arcing waveforms and trips AFCIs - mandatory in all US homes from 2002 January onwards

11 Arcing types

12 Arcing Waveforms A loose wire at one terminal of a light bulb. Arcing generated by a loose wire at a screw terminal.

13 GCDs GCs are fires waiting to happen Loose connections at socket terminals will cause glowing connections Use of GCDs- recommended by Forensic engineers Glowing connections -will not detected by fuses, MCBs, RCCBs, AFCIs GCDs operate at 83 degree C Glowing connection hazards were detected by a UL study

14 Infra-Red Hotspot Detector Used as part of effective EPM Hotspot surveys on critical, high capacity motor terminations, measurement of continuously running critical motors Uses infra-red technology, with laser sighting Does not penetrate glass, plastic Interpretation of readings - very critical

15 HFFR Cables Halogen-Free Fire Retardant cables Emits very low smoke, compared to PVC & even FRLS cables Increasingly Used by many instead of FRLS (Fire Retardant low Smoke) cables

16 Thermography Surveys Part of predictive maintenance In the De-Terrified scenario, may be offered by general insurance companies Identification of potential survey points / equipment and interpretation - very crucial NFPA 70 E recommends Thermographic surveys

17 Automatic External Defibrillators (AED) 250,000 deaths every year due to sudden cardiac arrest AEDs - to be part of Emergency Medical Kit For every minute that passes w/o defibrillation, the chances of survival decreases by 10% Has a voice prompt, cost USD 3000/- UK - not a legal requirement, but a Statutory requirement in US No legal liability for deaths involving the use of AEDs

18 Linear Heat Sensing Cables Advantageous than detectors, more effective LHSC applications: Cable trays in cable galleries Transformers Switch gears

19 Automatic Fire D&E System Fire Trace - local flooding application inside electrical switch gears / power panels- detects heat and the heat -sensitive tube punctures, letting out Ozone-friendly fire extinguishing gas

20 More ES Products Non-Contact type voltage detector (magnetic field) Plug-In Wiring Checker (detects 14 wiring defects, ideal for testing sockets, BS 1363, faulty N, missing E, reverse P& N) Videoscanner, Metalliscanner (detects metallic pipes, conduits, rebar, within 15 concrete)

21 Home ES Kit Cutler Hammer, USA offers Home Safety kit, comprising of: Surge protector GFCI AFCI MCBs

22 Electrical Product Safety Recalls Part of product liability Electrical products recalled: Power tool battery packs (defective battery fixings) Building Wire (wrong earth wire identification) IBM 15 PC monitor( overheating of electrical components resulting in smoke) 3 pin plugs (improper earth connection)

23 ES Auditing Techniques Electrical Risk Assessment using Semi-Quantitative Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique Usage of software to carry out Lightning Risk Assessment, Hazardous Area Classification Electrical HAZOP (Electrical Hazard & Operability) studies Electrical Hazard Spotting Exercises

24 Electrical Risk Assessment (SQRR Technique) Risk Ranking based on severity, probability High Risk- Statutory Non-compliance, F&E hazards, Shock hazards, Risks that could result in immediate threat to life & property. Immediate correction Medium Risk - Maintenance flaws,Operational issues- correction at the next available opportunity. Low Risk - Mainly improvement measures, long term implementation

25 ES System Certification Integrated Occupational Health & Safety Management System certification (OHSAS 18001) ATEX Certification (applicable to manufacturers / user industries, applicable in EU, mandatory by July 2003) UL certification for Lightning Protection (based on NFPA 780 standard) Electrical Fires & Forensic Investigations

26 Forensic studies are commissioned by insurance companies in Japan, US, etc. Product liability claims Reconstruction of electrical fires Major electrical equipment failures (MBD) Investigation of Transformer fires Bus duct failures

27 Electrical Risk- Based Maintenance Risk & Reliability based Maintenance Schedules Re-Aligning the Electrical Systems in Line with Specialized International Standards to Improve electrical Safety (IEEE, NFPA 70B) Usage of Tools / Condition Monitoring Methods to have Effective Predictive Maintenance System

28 Lightning -Common Myths Lightning strikes only the tall objects/ structures Lightning does not strike the same object twice You are safe inside a metal bodied car during lightning!

29 Electrical Risk Management Programme Identification of electrical hazards Risk Ranking (SQRR of electrical risks) Risk Mitigation / Control using ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable) principle Continuous electrical hazard identification

30 HAC Risk Assessment Extension to the existing HAC approach Would be part of future European legislation Presence of ignition sources considered in HAC With this new HAC approach, the equipment optimization is expected to increase

31 New HAC-based Risk Assessment Matrix

32 Risk-Based ES Audit Electrical Safety Audits focussed on potential risks The audit methodology designed to identify all potential electrical risks (FTA, ETA, HAZOP, etc.) Semi-Quantification of events using available failure data

33 Wrap-Up Need for Electrical Safety is universal ES awareness is increasing Partnership between regulators, employers, manufacturers- growing Many injuries are prevented Learning from experience- very essential Innovative ES devices are being used by people Much More to be done in the field of ES in India!!

34 Technology can afford to get obsolete but not a technocrat!!

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