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The Memory Gap: to Tolerate or to Reduce? Jean-Luc Gaudiot Professor University of California, Irvine April 2 nd, 2002.

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Presentation on theme: "The Memory Gap: to Tolerate or to Reduce? Jean-Luc Gaudiot Professor University of California, Irvine April 2 nd, 2002."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Memory Gap: to Tolerate or to Reduce? Jean-Luc Gaudiot Professor University of California, Irvine April 2 nd, 2002

2 Outline n The problem: the Memory Gap n Simultaneous Multithreading n Decoupled Architectures n Memory Technology n Processor-In-Memory

3 The Memory Latency Problem n Technological Trend: Memory latency is getting longer relative to microprocessor speed (40% per year) n Problem: Memory Latency - Conventional Memory Hierarchy Insufficient: Many applications have large data sets that are accessed non-contiguously. Some SPEC benchmarks spend more than half of their time stalling [Lebeck and Wood 1994]. n Domain: benchmarks with large data sets: symbolic, signal processing and scientific programs

4 Some Solutions Solution Larger Caches Hardware Prefetching Software Prefetching Multithreading Limitations Slow Works well only if working set fits cache and there is temporal locality. Cannot be tailored for each application Behavior based on past and present execution-time behavior Ensure overheads of prefetching do not outweigh the benefits > conservative prefetching Adaptive software prefetching is required to change prefetch distance during run-time Hard to insert prefetches for irregular access patterns Solves the throughput problem, not the memory latency problem

5 Limitation of Present Solutions n Huge cache: Slow and works well only if the working set fits cache and there is some kind of locality n Prefetching Hardware prefetching –Cannot be tailored for each application –Behavior based on past and present execution-time behavior Software prefetching –Ensure overheads of prefetching do not outweigh the benefits –Hard to insert prefetches for irregular access patterns n SMT Enhance the utilization and throughput at thread level

6 Outline n The problem: the memory gap n Simultaneous Multithreading n Decoupled Architectures n Memory Technology n Processor-In-Memory

7 Simultaneous Multi-Threading (SMT) Horizontal and vertical sharing Hardware support of multiple threads Functional resources shared by multiple threads Shared caches Highest utilization with multi-program or parallel workload

8 SMT Compared to SS Superscalar processors execute multiple instructions per cycle Superscalar functional units idle due to I-fetch stalls, conditional branches, data dependencies SMT dispatches instructions from multiple data streams, allowing efficient execution and latency tolerance Vertical sharing (TLP and block multi-threading) Horizontal sharing (ILP and simultaneous multiple thread instruction dispatch)

9 CMP Compared to SS CMP uses thread-level parallelism to increase throughput CMP has layout efficiency More functional units Faster clock rate CMP hardware partition limits performance Smaller level-1 resources cause increased miss rates Execution resources not available from across partition

10 Wide Issue SS Inefficiencies Architecture and software limitations Limited program ILP => idle functional units Increased waste of speculative execution Technology issues Area grows O((d 3 ) {d = issue or dispatch width} Area grows an additional O(tLog 2 (t)) {t= #SMT threads} Increased wire delays (increased area, tighter spacings, thinner oxides, thinner metal) Increased memory access delays versus processor clock Larger pipeline penalties Problems solved through: CMP - localizes processor resources SMT - efficient use of FUs, latency tolerance Both CMP and SMT - thread level parallelism

11 POSM Configurations All architectures above have eight threads Which configuration has the highest performance for an average workload? Run benchmarks on various configurations, find optimal performance point

12 Superscalar, SMT, CMP, and POSM Processors CMP and SMT both have higher throughput than superscalar Combination of CMP/SMT has highest throughput Experiment results

13 Equivalent Functional Units SMT.p1 has highest performance through vertical and horizontal sharing cmp.p8 has linear increase in performance

14 Equivalent Silicon Area and System Clock Effects SMT.p1 throughput is limited SMT.p1 and POSM.p2 have equivalent single thread performance POSM.p4 and CMP.p8 have highest throughput

15 Synthesis Comparable silicon resources are required for processor evaluation POSM.p4 has 56% more throughput than wide-issue SMT.p1 Future wide-issue processors are difficult to implement, increasing the POSM advantage Smaller technology spacings have higher routing delays due to parasitic resistance and capacitance The larger the processor, the larger the O(d 2 tLog 2 (t)) and O(d 3 t) impact on area and delays SMT works well with deep pipelines The ISA and micro-architecture affect SMT overhead 4-thread x86 SMT would have 1/8th the SMT overhead Layout and micro-architecture techniques reduces SMT overhead

16 Outline n The problem: the memory gap n Simultaneous Multithreading n Decoupled Architectures n Memory Technology n Processor-In-Memory

17 Observation: Software prefetching impacts compute performance PIMs and RAMBUS offer a high-bandwidth memory system - useful for speculative prefetching The HiDISC Approach Approach: Add a processor to manage prefetching -> hide overhead Compiler explicitly manages the memory hierarchy Prefetch distance adapts to the program runtime behavior

18 MIPS DEAP CAPPHiDISC (Conventional)(Decoupled)(New Decoupled) 2nd-Level Cache and Main Memory Registers 5-issue Cache Access Processor (AP) - (3-issue) Access Processor (AP) - (3-issue) 2-issue Cache Mgmt. Processor (CMP) Registers Access Processor (AP) - (5-issue) Access Processor (AP) - (5-issue) Computation Processor (CP) Computation Processor (CP) 3-issue 2nd-Level Cache and Main Memory Registers 8-issue Registers 3-issue Cache Mgmt. Processor (CMP) DEAP: [Kurian, Hulina, & Caraor 94] PIPE: [Goodman 85] Other Decoupled Processors: ACRI, ZS-1, WA Cache 2nd-Level Cache and Main Memory 2nd-Level Cache and Main Memory 2nd-Level Cache and Main Memory Computation Processor (CP) Computation Processor (CP) Computation Processor (CP) Computation Processor (CP) Computation Processor (CP) Computation Processor (CP) Cache Decoupled Architectures

19 What is HiDISC? A dedicated processor for each level of the memory hierarchy n Explicitly manage each level of the memory hierarchy using instructions generated by the compiler n Hide memory latency by converting data access predictability to data access locality (Just in Time Fetch) n Exploit instruction-level parallelism without extensive scheduling hardware n Zero overhead prefetches for maximal computation throughput HiDISC Access Processor (AP) Access Processor (AP) 2-issue Cache Mgmt. Processor (CMP) Registers 3-issue L2 Cache and Higher Level Computation Processor (CP) Computation Processor (CP) L1 Cache 3-issue Slip Control Queue Store Data Queue Store Address Queue Load Data Queue

20 Slip Control Queue n The Slip Control Queue (SCQ) adapts dynamically Late prefetches = prefetched data arrived after load had been issued Useful prefetches = prefetched data arrived before load had been issued if (prefetch_buffer_full ()) Dont change size of SCQ; else if ((2*late_prefetches) > useful_prefetches) Increase size of SCQ; else Decrease size of SCQ;

21 Decoupling Programs for HiDISC (Discrete Convolution - Inner Loop) for (j = 0; j < i; ++j) y[i]=y[i]+(x[j]*h[i-j-1]); while (not EOD) y = y + (x * h); send y to SDQ for (j = 0; j < i; ++j) { load (x[j]); load (h[i-j-1]); GET_SCQ; } send (EOD token) send address of y[i] to SAQ for (j = 0; j < i; ++j) { prefetch (x[j]); prefetch (h[i-j-1]; PUT_SCQ; } Inner Loop Convolution Computation Processor Code A ccess Processor Code Cache Management Code SAQ: Store Address Queue SDQ: Store Data Queue SCQ: Slip Control Queue EOD: End of Data

22 Benchmarks Source of Benchmark Lines of Source Code Description Data Set Size LLL1 Livermore Loops [45] element arrays, 100 iterations 24 KB LLL2 Livermore Loops element arrays, 100 iterations 16 KB LLL3 Livermore Loops element arrays, 100 iterations 16 KB LLL4 Livermore Loops element arrays, 100 iterations 16 KB LLL5 Livermore Loops element arrays, 100 iterations 24 KB Tomcatv SPECfp95 [68] x33-element matrices, 5 iterations <64 KB MXM NAS kernels [5] 113 Unrolled matrix multiply, 2 iterations 448 KB CHOLSKY NAS kernels 156 Cholesky matrix decomposition 724 KB VPENTA NAS kernels 199 Invert three pentadiagonals simultaneously 128 KB Qsort Quicksort sorting algorithm [14] 58 Quicksort 128 KB

23 ParameterValueParameterValue L1 cache size4 KBL2 cache size16 KB L1 cache associativity2L2 cache associativity2 L1 cache block size32 BL2 cache block size32 B Memory LatencyVariable, (0-200 cycles)Memory contention time Variable Victim cache size32 entriesPrefetch buffer size8 entries Load queue size128Store address queue size 128 Store data queue size128Total issue width8 Simulation Parameters

24 Simulation Results

25 VLSI Layout Overhead (I) n Goal: Cost effectiveness of HiDISC architecture n Cache has become a major portion of the chip area n Methodology: Extrapolated HiDISC VLSI Layout based on MIPS10000 processor (0.35 μm, 1996) n The space overhead of HiDISC is extrapolated to be 11.3% more than a comparable MIPS processor n The benchmark should be run again using these parameters and new memory architectures

26 VLSI Layout Overhead (II) ComponentOriginal MIPS R10K(0.35 m) Extrapolation (0.15 m) HiDISC (0.15 m) D-Cache (32KB)26 mm mm 2 I-Cache (32KB)28 mm 2 7 mm 2 14 mm 2 TLB Part10 mm mm 2 External Interface Unit27 mm mm 2 Instruction Fetch Unit and BTB18 mm mm mm 2 Instruction Decode Section21 mm mm 2 Instruction Queue28 mm 2 7 mm 2 0 mm 2 Reorder Buffer17 mm mm 2 0 mm 2 Integer Functional Unit20 mm 2 5 mm 2 15 mm 2 FP Functional Units24 mm 2 6 mm 2 Clocking & Overhead73 mm mm 2 Total Size without L2 Cache292 mm mm mm 2 Total Size with on chip L2 Cache129.2 mm mm 2

27 The Flexi-DISC n Fundamental characteristics: inherently highly dynamic at execution time. n Dynamic reconfigurable central computational kernel (CK) n Multiple levels of caching and processing around CK adjustable prefetching n Multiple processors on a chip which will provide for a flexible adaptation from multiple to single processors and horizontal sharing of the existing resources.

28 The Flexi-DISC n Partitioning of Computation Kernel It can be allocated to the different portions of the application or different applications n CK requires separation of the next ring to feed it with data n The variety of target applications makes the memory accesses unpredictable n Identical processing units for outer rings Highly efficient dynamic partitioning of the resources and their run-time allocation can be achieved

29 Multiple HiDISC: McDISC n Problem: All extant, large-scale multiprocessors perform poorly when faced with a tightly-coupled parallel program. n Reason: Extant machines have a long latency when communication is needed between nodes. This long latency kills performance when executing tightly-coupled programs. (Note that multi-threading à la Tera does not help when there are dependencies.) n The McDISC solution: Provide the network interface processor (NIP) with a programmable processor to execute not only OS code (e.g. Stanford Flash), but user code, generated by the compiler. n Advantage: The NIP, executing user code, fetches data before it is needed by the node processors, eliminating the network fetch latency most of the time. n Result: Fast execution (speedup) of tightly-coupled parallel programs.

30 The McDISC System: Memory-Centered Distributed Instruction Set Computer

31 Summary n A processor for each level of the memory hierarchy n Adaptive memory hierarchy management n Reduces memory latency for systems with high memory bandwidths (PIMs, RAMBUS) n 2x speedup for scientific benchmarks n 3x speedup for matrix decomposition/substitution (Cholesky) n 7x speedup for matrix multiply (MXM) (similar results expected for ATR/SLD)

32 Outline n The problem: the memory gap n Simultaneous Multithreading n Decoupled Architectures n Memory Technology n Processor-In-Memory

33 Memory Technology n New DRAM technologies DDR DRAM, SLDRAM and DRDRAM Most DRAM technologies achieve higher bandwidth n Integrating memory and processor on a single chip (PIM and IRAM) Bandwidth and memory access latency sharply improve

34 New Memory Technologies (Cont.) n Rambus DRAM (RDRAM) memory interleaving system integrated onto a single memory chip Four outstanding requests with pipelined micro architecture Operates at much higher frequencies than SDRAM n Direct Rambus DRAM (DRDRAM) Direct control of all row and column resources concurrently with data transfer operations Current DRDRAM can achieve 1.6 Gbytes/sec bandwidth transferring on both clock edges

35 Intelligent RAM (IRAM) n Merging technology of processor and memory n All the memory accesses remain within a single chip Bandwidth can be as high as 100 to 200 Gbytes/sec Access latency is less than 20ns n Good solution for data intensive streaming application

36 Vector IRAM n Cost effective system Incorporates vector processing units and the memory system on a single chip n Beneficial for the multimedia application with critical DSP features n Good energy efficiency n Attractive for future mobile computing processors

37 Outline n The problem: the memory gap n Simultaneous Multithreading n Decoupled Architectures n Memory Technology n Processor-In-Memory

38 Overview of the System n Proposed DCS (Data-intensive Computing System) Architecture

39 DCS System (Contd) n Programming Different from the conventional programming model Applications are divided into two separate sections –Software : Executed by the host processor –Hardware : Executed by the CMP The programmer must use CMP instructions n CMP Several CMPs can be connected to the system bus Variable CMP size and configuration depending on the amount and complexity of job it has to handle Variable size, function and location of logics inside of CMP to better handle the application. n Memory, Coprocessors, I/O

40 CMP Architecture n CMP (Computational Memory Processor) Architecture The Heart of our work Responsible for executing the core operation of data- intensive applications Attached to the system bus CMP instructions are encapsulated in the normal memory operations. Consists of many ACME (Application-specific Computational Memory Element) cells interconnected amongst themselves through dedicated communication links n CMC(Computing Memory Cluster) A small number of ACME cells are put together to form a CMC The Network for connecting the CMCs are separate from the memory decoder

41 CMP Architecture

42 CMC Architecture

43 ACME Architecture n ACME (Application-specific Computational Memory Elements) Architecture ACME-memory, configuration cache, CE (Computing Element), FSM CE is the reconfigurable computing unit and consists of many CC (Computing Cells) FSM govern the overall execution of the ACME

44 Inside the Computing Elements

45 Synchronization and Interface n Three different kinds of communications Host processor with CMP (eventually with each ACME) –Done by synchronization variables (specific memory locations) located inside the memory of each ACME cells –Example : start and end signals for operations. CMP instructions for each ACME ACME to ACME –Two different approaches Host mediated –Simple –Not practical for frequent communications Distributed mediated approach –Expensive and complex –Efficient CMP to CMP

46 Benefits of the Paradigm n All the benefits from being the PIM Increased bandwidth and Reduced latency Faster Computation –Parallel execution among many ACMEs n Effective usage of the full memory bandwidth n Efficient co-existence of Software and Hardware n More parallel execution inside of ACMEs by efficiently configuring the structure with considerations for applications n Scalability

47 Implementation of the CMP n Projected how our CMP will be implemented… According to 2000 edition of ITRS (International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors), in year 2008 –A High-end MPU with billion transistors will be in production with 0.06um technology and 427mm 2 –If half of the die size is allocated to memory, 8.13 Gbits storage will be available and 690 million transistors for logic –There can be 2048 ACME cells with each 512Kbytes of memory and 315K transistors for logic, control, anything inside ACME and rest of resources (36M transistors) for interconnections inside.

48 Motion Estimation of MPEG n Finding the motion vectors for a macro block in the frame. n It absorbs about 70% of the total execution time of MPEG n Huge amount of simple addition, subtraction and comparisons

49 Example ME execution n One ACME structure to find a motion vector for a macro block Executes in pipelined fashion reusing the data

50 Example ME execution n Performance For a 8*8 macro block with 8 pixel displacement 276 clock cycles to find the motion vector for one macro block n Performance comparison with other architectures


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