2Today’s Session Structure Four-Hour ReviewDesigned for Exam ReviewSectioned Same as ExamBreaks when needed
3What To Expect Multiple Choice and True/False 4 Sections 250 – Choose most correct answer70% Passing grade in each section
4Review Topics General Technology: Targeted Technology: Network Administration Emerging Technologies Telecom System Architecture Targeted Technology: Facilities Club Applications Resort / Spa Marketing / Web ApplicationsHotel Technology: Accounting / Payroll / HR Food and Beverage Lodging Applications Managing Technology: Time and Attendance SystemsGeneral Management System Strategies System Analysis and Selection
6Network Operating Systems A combination of programs, gives some computers and peripherals the capability to accepts request for service across the network, and provide computers the capability to correctly use network devices.
7Network Operating Systems NTServer 2003NovellLinuxUNIX (HP-UX/AIX)
8The O/S Kernel File Management Memory Management Peripheral Control Network Communication
9Network Design Connectivity Provides communications across a defined network.AdvantagesData SharingApplication SharingDevice SharingCommunications (packets)Local Area Network (LAN)Wide Area Network (WAN)Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
10Network ArchitectureDefinition: The technique used by a NIC/LAN adapter to control access to a cable and cable connectors.NIC: Network Interface CardLAN: Local Area Network
11Network Architecture Two Types: Peer to Peer: client-based Client Server: server basedHave a higher startup cost than peer to peer networks; provide good control, backup, and management of critical data; offers security, data management, fast response and room for expansion, but DOES NOT need all the software installed on the server.
12LANDefinition: A configuration of workstations that enables users in the same office to share data, programs, and output devices (such as printers).Cable Connections:Fiber, Twisted Pair, Coax, and TwinaxFiber Optics is used for the fastest possible throughput at very long cable lengthsTwinax is not the recommended line for moving large data or video files.Connection type and speed:10Mbps, 100Mbps, 1000Mbps (Gigabyte)
13WANDefinition: Multiple connection of computer networks, from building to building, city to city, state to state, and country to country utilizing DSU/CSU router.CSU/DSU: Channel Services unit/ Data Services unit. Is used to connect computers, video equipment, and multiplexors to digital phone lines.
14WAN Connections type and speed: NOT Associated Technologies ISDN (128Kbs)offers the lowest overall circuit cost type of service for connection of remote network sites to a central location.T1 (1.5Mbps) and T3 (up to 45Mbps)The standard speed is NOT 100Mbps.NOT Associated TechnologiesNIC’s, Repeaters, Hubs & Apple Talk
15Network Security Network Login and Passwords Single Sign-on Promptly change your password on initial login for proper security procedures for user-level passwordsSingle Sign-onComponents of a single sign-on system include authentication and a directory service.
16Network Security PGP - Pretty Good Privacy Software that implements public key cryptology that requires a key pair of both a public key and a private keySSL – Secure Socket LayerIs built upon Public key encryption, Digital Signature, and Digital Certificates, but NOT Single Key system using substitution encryption.To defeat SSL and PGP you would utilize Cryptanalysis, Reverse engineer of the implementation, and Pass phrase attack, but NOT insider security information.
17Network Security SNMP – Simple Network Management Protocol an application layer protocol that facilitates the exchange of management information between network devices.Network File Accesscontrols security rights for users filesBiometric TechnologyIs capable of enhancing physical security such as guest and employee entry.
18FirewallsSoftware and hardware that filters and secures your private network, allowing only authorized access and transmissions of your internal data.
19Computer Viruses Malicious computer programs: Unauthorized set of programmed code that attaches itself to other programs.WormIndependent programs that may replicate itself throughout the network.Trojan HorseMasquerades as a legitimate program but has malicious software insideAre computer bugs a virus??
20TCP/IP TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Is NOT a telecommunication communications protocol.TCP Packets:Are numbered so they can be reassembled in the correct sequence at the destination.Are transmitted over the network as capacity becomes available.Forwarded across the network separately and do not necessarily follow the same route.Do not contain destination addresses only.Header information includesTotal length of the packet, destination IP address, Source IP address, and Error checking information. DOES NOT include sender’s login information.
21TCP/IP Packet Switching Static verses Dynamic Addresses Checking for valid packets, destination address, best route, assembling packets in order, but NOT for data compression.Static verses Dynamic AddressesDHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is used to assign dynamic IP addresses on an as-requested basis.3 Classes of IP Addresses
22IP Address Classes Class A Class B Class C ###. xxx .xxx . xxx (ex. 26.x.x.x) (1-126).(1-254).(1-254).(1-254)Class B### .###.xxx .xxx (ex x.x) ( ).(1-254).(1-254).(1-254)Class C### .###.###.xxx (ex x) ( ).(1-254).(1-254).(1-254)
23Parallel Transmission Multiple channels to transmit several bits of data at a timeTimed pulses sent on other wires within the same cable to coordinate the flow of dataParallel ports, parallel cable, user configuration of controllerOver short distances -LANIn Computer Networks, the type of data transfer that uses multiple channels to transmit several bits of data simultaneously is called a(n)
24Serial Transmission Single channel to transmit bit by bit Bits travel as a sequence over a single wire with start and stop bits to coordinate data flowSerial cable, serial ports, user configuration of controllerLong distances - telephone transmission
25ModemsConverts on and off digital pulses of computer data into on-and-off analog tones that can be transmitted over a normal telephone circuit.Uses:Allow computers to communicate over distances, internet, bulletin boardsPolling, file transfer, system support
27Smart CardsEmbedded micro chips that store personal information, allow credit and commerce transactions, access to room and other information.
28XML – eXtended Markup Language Language that is not constrained to a fixed format and allows trading partners to create their own data tags for information exchange, has become the standard for all markup language, provides data in a format that is easily exchanged & non-proprietary.
30Bluetooth Distance Limitations New Technology 30 feet (10 meters)New TechnologyCommunications between any electrically powered device or appliance
31VPN – Virtual Private Network Allow for secure connections that “tunnel” through the Internet to connect 2 private LAN’s or Computers, which reduces costs overall.Common use is remote access to your company network while travelling or at home.Also used to separate guest access to the internet from your local administration network while using the same physical infrastructure
32VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol Set of facilities used to manage the delivery of voice information over the Internet. VoIP involves sending voice information in digital form in discrete packets rather than by using the traditional circuit-committed protocols of the public switched telephone networkEliminates the need for a direct, dedicated hard-wire connection between the phone and the phone switch.
33HSIA – High Speed Internet Access Acceptable methods for providing HSIA service to guest rooms:Wireless proximityTelephone networkElectrical wiring systemCable system
35ASP – Application Service Provider Is the server model in which hardware is housed and maintained off-site, yet users can access the application and data via a web-based Internet connection.Pros:Lower initial costs (no hardware purchases)Normally, nothing to install on clientsNo backup concernsUpgrades providedCons:Rely on Internet ConnectionAccessibility to DataUsability of data when discontinue service
36Telephone Switches Trunking Incoming call routing DeMarc Trunk lines are defined as a telecommunications line between 2 switching systems.Incoming call routingUses caller ID Automatic Number Identification (ANI) information to retrieve customer records from a database and send the records and call to a specific call center operator.DeMarcThe point where responsibility for telecom services into a building transfers from the carrier to the end user organization.
37Telephone Switches Voice over IP Automated Call Distributor (ACD) Place voice and fax calls over internet connections. Does not provide HSIA or In-room internet connectivity, hotel operators to receive free telephone services.Automated Call Distributor (ACD)Useful for Reservations, PBX and Room Service departments.ACDs would not be used to automatically generate Express Checkout reports.Automatic check out is not a function of a PBX system.
38Guest Room Telephones Features that may be included Data port sets 2 line capabilityADA hearing impaired feature handsetHands free speaker phone capabilityOne button dialing and redialing
39Database Management Software Allow users to catalog and store information for future useCollection of related facts and figures designed to serve a specific purposePossible Uses:Preparing mailing lists for marketing and promotional activities.Help managers sort through personnel records to identify performance review dates for employees that correspond to the dates on which they were hiredDatabase Management Software would be used for preparing mailing lists for marketing and promotional activities.Database management software - generic software programs would help managers sort through personnel records to identify performance review dates for employees that correspond to the dates on which they were hired
40Database StructuresFiles organized in ways that facilitate searching for data, updating data, and generating accurate, timely and useful reports for management.
41Files, Records, and Fields “THE” Databasei.e... Inventory, purchases, suppliersRecordsindividual informationcontains “key” fieldFieldsidentified by type of info.Text, Calculated, Logical, Date, etc.
42Database Structures Hierarchical Relational Flat Resembles that of the root of a treeArranges Files, Records, and FieldsMaster Records and Subordinate RecordsData inherit attributes, or rights, from it’s parentRelationalTables are related to each other through key fieldTabular StructureData appears only once and not replicated multiple timesFlatOne Large Table (Flat File)Files are stand-alone collections of data.Ask participants for examples of each:Hierarchical Example might include city, county, state, and national information. Point out that in some hierarchical relationships, data inherit attributes, or rights, from it’s parent. Chicago has laws but also must follow the laws of Illinois and of the US.Relational Data might include guest data from a convention resort. The guest might be in the rooms data area, in the guest history area, in the sales contact area (as a meeting planner) and in the accounts receivable area. In a true relational database, the data entity of this individual appears only once and is not replicated multiple times.Flat Data files are stand-alone collections of data. In the above example, the person in question would appear four separate times; once in each flat file.
43Data Management Concepts Data WarehouseCollection of data from different sourcesProvides input for decision makingThe repository of all dataData is received and stored following specific validation rulesData MartSeparate database designed for specific group of users (e.g. marketing, group sales, etc.)Data is extracted from Data Warehouse to protect its integrityData MiningStatistical and rule-based reasoning to find patterns in data (e.g. forecasting occupancy)Should be performed against the Data MartData Warehouse is the repository of all data. Data is received and stored following specific validation rules.Data Marts are extracted from the Data Warehouse to protect the integrity of the data warehouse while still making the data warehouse a useful and meaningful data collection tool.Data Mining should be performed against the data mart to protect the integrity of the data in the warehouse.
44Other TermsFile Server - Computer that controls the flow of information along a network and stores files created by application programs, has large storage hard drive with space to share, and provides the capability to simultaneously access the same file.Application server - Enables several users to offload specialized tasks onto a shared computer.Secondary storage devices - Refers to Hard drives, CD-RW, DVD-RW, Zip Disks, Removable storage devices, but NOT RAM.High Availability - Options include Multi-processors, disk arrays, redundant power supplies, but NOT Spare Memory Modules.
45Hotel Technology Section Two Who Knows the Hotels??
46Central Reservation Systems Affiliate SystemsSystem that services an entire chainAll properties are contractually relatedNon-Affiliate SystemsContracted to individual propertiesSubscription based serviceApply to independent hotel propertiesHave some type of charge or costInterfacesOne-Way verses Two-Way
47Global Reservation Systems (GDS) International joint ventures of diverse companiesDirect linking of: hotels, airlines, car rental companies, and travel agencies using the internet or other private computer networks
48Revenue and Yield Management Systems Revenue ManagementProgram helps hotel managers determine whether a reservation request should be accepted or rejected in order to maximize revenue for a specific period of time.Takes advantage of rate hurdlesYield ManagementThe ratio of actual revenue to potential revenue.Room rates should be higher when demand exceeds supply.Oversell Guidelines maximize revenue potential by selling all available rooms.
49Property Management System (PMS) The computer-based lodging information system that helps track guests and their special request or inquires.
50PMS Front Office Applications Reservations ModuleUsed to process room requests.Most helpful in forecasting occupancyRevenue Management ModuleMaintains the room and package ratesRooms Management ModuleMaintains current room status information.Guest Accounting ModuleMaintains the guest charges and payments
51Property Level Reservations Module An integrated module of the PMSReduces paperwork, redundancy, clericalInterface point to CRSQuick access to reservation information
52Rooms Management Module Strengthen communications between Front Office and HousekeepingCurrent room status informationRoom assignment and check-inIn-house guest informationOrganize Housekeeping activitiesManagement reporting
53Guest Accounting Module Enables posting directly to guest and non-guest accountsEnables management control over financial aspects of the guest cycleEliminates the need for guest folio cards and posting machinesMonitors credit and sets the folio at a no-post status when charges approach the house limit
54The Audit Trail Cross references from: source document serial number work-shiftscashiersPOS terminalsdepartmental accounts
55Credit Card Processing Interface to SystemsReduces CostInsures AccuracyNon-repudiationa solution that offers protection against disputed charges to the merchant.
56Integration v. Interfacing Integrated Systems: A systems which contains a number of subsets that perform separate tasks yet operate within the same structure.Interfaced Systems: More than one system that are linked together through the use of hardware and software in order to provide communication between separate programs.
58Call Accounting System (CAS) Designed to place and price outgoing calls, and post telephone charges to guest accounts.Not a guest’s credit cardInterfaces to PMS and Telephone SwitchAutomatic ID of outward dialing (AIOD)immediately identifies the extension from which a call is placedLeast cost routingDirects calls over the least-cost available line, regardless of carrier.When this line is busy, the device prompts the system to use the next least expensive line.
59Call Accounting System (CAS) Performs the following functionscall placementcall distributioncall routingcall ratingcall recordingPreferred FeaturesSeparate guest calls from admin callsLong-duration calls can be priced at flat rateArea codes can be updated by hotel managementReasons for reduced telecom revenueIncreased use ofCalling Cards/Pre-Paid CardsGrowing cell phone usageHigh mark-ups on long distance phone calls
60Accounting Modules / Systems Accounts ReceivableAccounts PayablePayroll AccountingInventory AccountingPurchasingFinancial ReportingIntroduction slide – we will cover each of these in the next section.
61Accounts Receivable Module Maintains account balancesProcesses billingsMonitors collection activitiesGenerates aging of A/R reportsAudit reporting on all A/R transactions
62A/R Ledgers Guest Ledger City Ledger Lists all accounts for in-house guestsCity LedgerLists all accounts receivable balances of guest who have checked outguest folio balancesnon-guest accountsbill-to accountscredit card billingsgroup accountsAdvance Deposit LedgerAdvance Deposit Ledger – is this part of City Ledger?Guest Ledger – Is a listing of in-house guests accounts (Part of A/R)
64Other Accounting Topics Payment Terms2/10 Net 30 DaysBlind DropsBasic Posting Formula in Audit Process2/10 NET 30 Days meansBuyer applies a 2% discount amount to the invoice if payment is made within 10 days of the Invoice date. If the discount period expires, full payment is expected within 30 days of the original invoice date.Basic posting formula used in the audit process:Previous Balance + Debits – Credits = Net Outstanding Value
65Payroll Module Gross and net pay for salaried and hourly employees Employee master fileGross and net pay for salaried and hourly employeesCuts paychecksPayroll and tax registers and reportsLabor and cost reporting for management
66Inventory Module Inventory Master File Inventory Status Inventory ValuationIf you have an inventory system you are typically maintaining a perpetual inventory
67Inventory Valuation Weighted average FIFO (First in First Out - Latest)LIFO (Last in First Out - Earliest)LIPO (Surgical Removal of Subcutaneous Fat)Actual costWeighted average
68Purchasing Module Purchase Order File Telecommunication of P/O’s par levelslead time quantity reorder pointTelecommunication of P/O’sBid Specification File
69Financial Reporting Module Chart of AccountsTrial Balance FileFinancial StatementsBalance SheetIncome StatementStatement of Cash FlowsRatio Analysis
70POS Terminology Auto-Coursing - time dependent circle of service Forced Modifiers - automatic prompts for order detailsMenu Engineering - profitability and sales analysisPrechecking - authorization for production/servicePostchecking - check totaling for print/settlementReports - server, day part, shift, terminal, outletServer Banking - reconciliation by server, not cashierHand Held – remote input device
71Food and Beverage Management Applications Process data related to back-of-the-house food service activitiesCommon management applicationsRecipe ManagementSales AnalysisMenu Management,Engineering and Costing
72The Menu Engineering Grid $ $ $PuzzleStarContributionMargin $DogPlowhorse70% Menu Mix %
73F&B Cost Control Standard Recipe Benefits Net Weight/Volume Standard Portion Cost#60 ScoopStandard Recipe BenefitsProduct will look the sameProduct will taste the sameProduct will cost the sameGuesswork is eliminatedNet weight after it has been processed or prepared is known as its YIELDStandard Portion Cost is the cost of preparing and serving one portion of food or one drink item according to the standard recipe.#60 Scoop = an implement that equals 60 level scoops, or servings, per QUART
75Event Management Systems Sales / Catering Software Proposal / ContractMaintains client requests, room nights, menu items, and records all equipment and space commitments.Banquet Event Orders (BEO)Serves as a final contract for client and generates work assignments for the Catering staff.Ingredient FileContains items like tables, chairs, china, flatware, tents and entertainment.
76CRM - Customer Relationship Management Enables organizations to know their customers on an on-going basis and not just for the life of that transaction, that meal or that guest stay.Will track the history and status of every customer interaction and help workers to give personalized service.Covers Q 212 and 222
77CRM - Customer Relationship Management Implementation Includes:Customer Data and AnalysisTechnology and StaffStrategies and goalsConsiderations should NOT include:Thanking regular customers for their loyaltySurveying customer needsCovers Q 212 and 222
78Marketing Techniques Broadcast (Mass) Permission One to One One to One marketing to personalize advertisements to individual customers via . NOT VIRAL (2.4.1)One to One is difficult to personalize on a large scale, costly, and difficult for software to supplement the human touch. It is easy to interface the web site to the customer database. (2.4.3)Permission Marketing is when the marketer does what? You guessed it asked for and receives permission to send products and services (as little as a check box) (2.4.4)
79Web Based Marketing Cookies / Tokens Unique Visits / Hits Client-side tracking so customer does not have to identify themselves againUnique Visits / HitsServer-side tracking by using log files to identify the customerBanner AdvertisingIs a cost per actionConversionThe moment a customer buys
80E commerce b2b (business to business) b2c (business to customer) Most sophisticated type of internet transactionRequires the highest level of trust between the partiesb2c (business to customer)Customers should get same benefits at the store / location as on the InternetDiscounted prices on the web site versus voice is not a consistent B2C ecommerce modelb2e (business to employee)Employee portal that allows access to human resource information such as job postings, work schedules and work policiesSecure Electronic Transaction (SET)More secure than SSLNon biased authenticationA single trusted international source
81Web Terminology World Wide Web (www) consists of three components HTTP – Hypertext Transfer ProtocolHTML – Hypertext Markup LanguageURL – Uniform Resource LocatorDomain Name System (DNS)An internet service that converts internet names and resolves them into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
82Targeted Technology Section Three FacilitiesClubsResort/SPAEmerging Technologies
83Electronic Locking Systems Hard-Wired SystemCodes the key and changes the door at time the key is first made at the front desk.Micro-Fitted SystemDepends upon a pre-coded microprocessor in each lockset at the guest room door and front desk encoder.
84Electronic Locking Systems FeaturesUnique keys (instantly changes)Audit trail capabilityKey code expirationAutomated dead-bolt with “Do Not Disturb”Key must be removed for door to open to protect from possibility of keycard theftControl access to virtually every area of the hotel, including exterior doors, storage areas, admin areas, meeting rooms and guestrooms
85Electronic Locking Systems FeaturesEnhanced guest security by monitoring the status of every guestroom door opening, even when entry is achieved without the guest’s issued keyReview the audit trail to determine which assigned keys gained entry to a guest room.
86Energy Management Systems (EMS) Guest ControlEnable guest to have full and complete control of room temperature when physically present in the room.Demand ControlTurns off units for varying periods of time without affecting environment or comfort conditions.Maintains pre-determined energy usage levels.Duty CyclingTurns off equipment on a sequential basis for a given period of time each hour also without affecting environment or comfort conditions
87Energy Management Systems (EMS) Room Occupancy SensorsInfrared or ultrasonic waves used to register the physical occupancy of a roomWhen the guest leaves, sensors react, and following a short delay, lights, and HVAC are reset to default settings.PMS InterfaceProvides energy control opportunities to minimized energy usage in direct relation to anticipated occupancy levels.
88Club Systems MEMBERSHIP TRACKING FIXED ASSET ACCOUNTING GENERAL LEDGER ACCTGINVENTORYCONTROLPAYROLL/PERSONNELEVENTMANAGEMENTPOINT-of-SALECONTROLHOTELOPERATIONS
89Club SystemsPrimary Objectives for Implementing a POS System in a Club EnvironmentIncreases internal controlsImproves member servicesEnhances staff productivityNOT to reduce staffWhen planning to computerize a club’s information systems, they should identify the application software first.
90SPA Systems Spa Reservation Systems 3 components A provider/associateA facility/roomThe equipment neededAllows automatic assignment of available time slots to multiple guest, all arriving during similar blocks of time, with various services being selected.
91SPA Systems Spa Reservation Systems Utilize criteria for treatment rooms and service specialists, instead of just rooms and available space requirements.Priority and Percentage Load methods are used to allocate spa resources when making an appointment for a treatment.
92SPA Systems Interfaces: Retail Inventory Point of Sale Property Managements System(s)Point of Sale SystemInternet ReservationsRetailInventoryPoint of SaleGift/Debit Card System(
93Golf Tee Time Systems Usage Ways To Book Reservations Book rounds weeks in advanceMatch individual players to create 4-somes (yield manage)Block individual holes for planned maintenanceManage play on multiple coursesWays To Book ReservationsIn PersonVia LotteryInternetCan be used:Book rounds weeks in advanceMatch individual players to create 4-somes (yield manage)Block individual holes for planned maintenanceManage play on multiple coursesWays to book:In personVia lotteryInternet
94Golf Tee Time Systems Golf Operations Terminology Shotgun Aeration HandicapCan be used:Book rounds weeks in advanceMatch individual players to create 4-somes (yield manage)Block individual holes for planned maintenanceManage play on multiple coursesWays to book:In personVia lotteryInternet
95Club Websites Typical divided into 3 sections Member PartitionStaff PartitionGuest PartitionDesired synchronization featuresMember roster synchronizationMember online account reviewPrivate club web sites are typically divided into 3 sections:Member partition, Staff partition, Guest partitionFrom the mgmt perspective, the 2 most highly desirable synchronization features are:Member roster sync’ing and Member online account reviewMember accounting data is most commonly shared with the Club website via a zipped file generated from the accounting system and sent to the website nightly.Real-time data access methods, such as XML or OLTP data mining, is not widely used in today’s Club applications.
96Club Websites Member Accounting on the Web Reasons For Failure most commonly shared via a zipped file generated from the accounting system and sent to the website nightlyReal-time data access methods, such as XML (eXtended Markup Language) or OLTP (OnLine Transaction Processing), is not widely used in today’s Club applicationsReasons For FailureContent under-appreciatedSite is under-promotedSite is under-fundedSite is under-appreciatedPrivate club web sites are typically divided into 3 sections:Member partition, Staff partition, Guest partitionFrom the mgmt perspective, the 2 most highly desirable synchronization features are:Member roster sync’ing and Member online account reviewMember accounting data is most commonly shared with the Club website via a zipped file generated from the accounting system and sent to the website nightly.Real-time data access methods, such as XML or OLTP data mining, is not widely used in today’s Club applications.
97RFID Definition – Radio Frequency Identification A technology used to transmit data by a mobile device and read by a reader that is not connected via a wired connectionTwo types of RFID tags:Passive: Have no internal power supply. Incoming radio signal provides just enough power for the CMOSintegrated circuit in the tag to power up and send a response. Practical ranges of 10cm up to a few meters.Active: Have their own internal power source used to power ICs and broadcast the signal to the reader.Usually more reliable making them more effective in harsh environments. Practical range of 100 metersand a battery life up to 10 yearsPrivacy Concerns:Purchaser of an item may not be aware of the existence of the RFID deviceMyths related to RFID Privacy include:Easy to intercept the RFID signal and steal the individual’s identitySince many tags contain similar data elements, it is easy to confuse one’s identity with anotherTags can easily be removed and attached to other items or people
98RFID Types of Tags Passive Active Have no internal power supply Incoming radio signal provides just enough power for the CMOS integrated circuit in the tag to power up and send a responsePractical ranges of 10cm up to a few metersActiveHave their own internal power source used to power integrated circuits and broadcast the signal to the readerUsually more reliable making them more effective in harsh environmentsPractical range of 100 metersBattery life up to 10 yearsTwo types of RFID tags:Passive: Have no internal power supply. Incoming radio signal provides just enough power for the CMOSintegrated circuit in the tag to power up and send a response. Practical ranges of 10cm up to a few meters.Active: Have their own internal power source used to power ICs and broadcast the signal to the reader.Usually more reliable making them more effective in harsh environments. Practical range of 100 metersand a battery life up to 10 yearsCMOS - complementary metal-oxide semiconductorPrivacy Concerns:Purchaser of an item may not be aware of the existence of the RFID deviceMyths related to RFID Privacy include:Easy to intercept the RFID signal and steal the individual’s identitySince many tags contain similar data elements, it is easy to confuse one’s identity with anotherTags can easily be removed and attached to other items or people
99RFIDPrivacy ConcernsPurchaser of an item may not be aware of the existence of the RFID deviceMyths related to RFID Privacy includeEasy to intercept the RFID signal and steal the individual’s identitySince many tags contain similar data elements, it is easy to confuse one’s identity with anotherTags can easily be removed and attached to other items or peopleTwo types of RFID tags:Passive: Have no internal power supply. Incoming radio signal provides just enough power for the CMOSintegrated circuit in the tag to power up and send a response. Practical ranges of 10cm up to a few meters.Active: Have their own internal power source used to power ICs and broadcast the signal to the reader.Usually more reliable making them more effective in harsh environments. Practical range of 100 metersand a battery life up to 10 yearsPrivacy Concerns:Purchaser of an item may not be aware of the existence of the RFID deviceMyths related to RFID Privacy include:Easy to intercept the RFID signal and steal the individual’s identitySince many tags contain similar data elements, it is easy to confuse one’s identity with anotherTags can easily be removed and attached to other items or people
100Uses of RFID in Hospitality Cashless RFID SystemsAsset ManagementWaterparksLost ChildrenResort TasksCasino OperationsGaming chips are now embedded with RFID devices to track where users go and precisely how many gaming chips are usedEasy for guests to purchase high margin items such as drinksAsset mgmt can benefit from RFID on mobile, stationary, dusty, humid items that are deemed valuable and worth tracking.RFID removes the awkwardness of carrying around money or credit cardsCan assist in resorts to:Know where housekeepers areTracking valuables like TVs and LCD ProjectorsControl of underage drinkingGaming chips are now embedded with RFID devices to track where users go and precisely how many gaming chips are used
101Universal Serial Bus (USB) A widely used hardware interface for attaching peripheral devices.Up to 127 peripheral devices can be attached to the busHistoryBegan to appear on PCs in 1997Windows 98 was first version of the Windows operating system to support USB nativelyTypes of ConnectionsA – UpstreamB – DownstreamMini A & Mini BUsed on small portable devices such as PDAs, music players, digital cameras and cell phonesUniversal Serial Bus- A widely used hardware interface for attaching peripheral devices. USB ports began to appear on PCs in 1997, and Windows 98 was the first Windows to support it natively.Up to 127 peripheral devices can be attached to the busDEFINE UPSTREAM=Type A (Smaller connector) AND DOWNSTREAM= Type B (Larger end)Type A and B, Mini-A and B The USB ports on computers and hubs have a rectangular Type A socket, and peripheral devices have a cable with a Type A plug. Peripherals that do not have an attached cable have a square Type B socket on the device and a separate cable with a Type A and Type B plug. The Mini-A and Mini-B connectors are used on small portable devices such as PDAs, music players, digital cameras and cellphones. Hubs may use Mini-B instead of Type B for the computer connection.
102Cell Coverage In The Hotel Operational BenefitsStaff members can communicate with one device and not require cell phones, PDAs and pagersStaff can be contacted easily when away from the propertyStaff can respond to issues in real-timeConcrete and SteelCell Phone AmplificationIt’s expensiveCan be directly tied to guest satisfaction and Guest recovery strategiesIn-building solutions do not affect external coverage areasOperational BenefitsStaff members can communicate with one device and not require cell phones, PDAs and pagersStaff can be contacted easily when away from the propertyStaff can respond to issues in real-timeIn buildings made primarily of concrete and steel, cell coverage is typically weakest in back-of-house non guest areas (figure out why: where large, heavy equipment resides)Cell communication in basements can be enhanced using Cell Phone Amplification technologyIt’s expensiveCan be directly tied to guest satisfaction and Guest recovery strategies
103Evolving US TV Regulations Stations Convert to Digital FormatUS Markets must convert by 2/17/2009Most provide digital todayAnalog signals must be turned back to the government for first responder usePoint of EncryptionDigital movie producers require their signals to be encryptedAll the way to the display unit!!!TV stations serving US markets must convert their signals to a digital format by February 17, 2009Most are providing digital signals todayIn 2009, analog signals must be turned back to the gov’t for first responder useTo prevent piracy of digital movie content, all digital movie producers require their signals to be encryptedALL THE WAY TO THE DISPLAY UNITCan your in-room sets de-crypt the signal?ATSC=Advanced Television Standards Committee: created voluntary standards for TV sets which were adopted by the FCC in Addresses aspect ratios, resolution and frame rates and includes how the sound and video are encoded and transmittedHDTV-ready sets do NOT include the ATSC tuner. Only integrated sets do.
104Evolving US TV Regulations All TVs Sold After March 01, 2007Must be HDTV ReadyHDTV ready does not mean it includes a ATSC tunerATSC – Advanced Television Standards CommitteeCreated voluntary standards for TV sets which were adopted by the FCC in 1996Addresses aspect ratios, resolution and frame rates and includes how the sound and video are encoded and transmittedTV stations serving US markets must convert their signals to a digital format by February 17, 2009Most are providing digital signals todayIn 2009, analog signals must be turned back to the gov’t for first responder useTo prevent piracy of digital movie content, all digital movie producers require their signals to be encryptedALL THE WAY TO THE DISPLAY UNITCan your in-room sets de-crypt the signal?ATSC=Advanced Television Standards Committee: created voluntary standards for TV sets which were adopted by the FCC in Addresses aspect ratios, resolution and frame rates and includes how the sound and video are encoded and transmittedHDTV-ready sets do NOT include the ATSC tuner. Only integrated sets do.
105Managing Technology HR / Time and Attendance Section Four General ManagementSystem StrategiesSystem Analysis and Selection
106Time Clock Systems Controls when employees may punch in and out. Can not automatically correct missed punchesProduces management reportsUses an encoded employee badgeBadge number, SSN, Employee ID number, or biometric hand punch all valid methods to clock in/outCompares actual to forecastData from timeclock stored in computerTypically communicates via serial, Ethernet, or modem connections.Interfaces to Payroll system
107HRIS Systems Personnel & Benefits Administration Business Expense TrackingVacation days earnedI-9 InformationFamily Medical Leave Act (FMLA) TrackingOrganizational Information
108HR Concepts Personnel & Benefits Administration Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)Provides opportunities for employees and applicants without regard to Race, Religion, Pregnancy, Veteran StatusBereavement Leaveemployee benefit used to grant excused time away from the workplace to attend a funeral
109HR Concepts Personnel & Benefits Administration Computer Usage & Security PolicyShould be in place and understood by ALL to safeguard both the company and the employeeFamily Medical Leave Act (FMLA)A federal law that allows an individual up to 12 weeks leave based on medical necessity for self, child, spouse or parentsEmployers with 50 or more employees& Internet Usage PolicyAll Electronic mail messages are the property of the company
110General Management Executive Information Systems (EIS) Lifting Provide an overview and report statistics on Rooms, Payroll and Financial Data within your propertyLiftingnever twist at the waist rather than using your feet to change directionSlide load as close to your body as you canGet help if too heavy or bulkyRaise yourself using leg and hip musclesSlightly bend your knees
111General Management Human Resources Fire and Safety As a Technology manager, your first priority is to ensure the safety and security of your employees in the workplaceFire and SafetyUpon detecting a fireCall 911Remove yourself and others from harm’s wayNotify your leadersPrint an in-house guest list by room number (for EMS services to use)
112Asset Management Manage total cost of ownership (TCO) and life cycle Mandate employees use company owned equipmentTrack location of assets
113Cost of Ownership Software Costs Help Desk / Support Functions Training
114Networks / Security Peer to Peer / Client Server Multiprocessors Peer to Peer share equally the processingMultiprocessorsSecurity ControlsThe IT security plan should be designed and implemented by the systems manager not the security department, GM, or risk managerDisaster PlanShould include prevention, evacuation and recovery
115System Decision Factors Application FunctionalitySystem ReliabilityVendor Service/SupportSystem PerformanceEase of OperationVendor Reputation / ReferencesCommunications CapabilitiesSoftware FlexibilityPrice/Total System CostWhen evaluating vendor proposals and RFP rely on a multiple rating (use multiple criteria not just price)10 Ten NEVERS – Never be the first users, never be the largest, never be the last.OK to select a non-proprietary system
1161. Put together a “Systems Team” People from different areas of the operationEveryone has the potential to provide important inputInclude representatives from management, kitchen operations, service, and accounting
1172. Analyze Current Information Needs Create a profile of your operationoutlines the needs of the operation for the vendorsMeeting users needs is critical when purchasing a new computer systemPut together a “wish list”Include absolutely necessary and “nice to have”Attributes will become the “frame of reference”
1183. Collect Sales Information Contact system vendorsRequest sales informationObtain vendor information from local, or national organizations or publicationsVisit trade shows like…
1194. Establish System Requirements Use the list of attributes from step 2Add the optimum configurationFor example in a restaurantHow many terminals and printers will be necessaryWhat types of terminals (touch screen, keyboard interface, etc.)What type of network you would like to implementDon’t be locked into your initial vision.Ask each vendor if your proposed configuration is what they would recommend.Ask each vendor how their proposed configuration meets or exceeds your disaster recovery / redundancy requirements.
1205. Write an RFP Request for Proposals Create a Property Profile Describe the selection process and its parametersList your system requirementsDon’t allow vendors to use their own bid formatObtain Vendor InformationRequest Program DocumentationList System and Service CostsRequest estimation of hidden, indirect, direct but not opportunity costs
121Whose systems meet your needs? Request for ProposalsWhose systems meet your needs?RFP’s should include:Property/Company Materials (describe your business)Bidding RequirementsComputer Application RequirementsShould NOT include financial statementsTells vendor about the property’s business operationsEstablishes bidding requirements for vendor proposalsDeals specifically with user application requirementsTell them what the current system is lackingDon’t provide financial statements.Tell the vendor WHAT you want. Let them tell you HOW their solution meets your needs or business requirements.
1226. Evaluate Vendor Responses Establish criteria and a scoring systemHave each member of the project team evaluate each proposalCombine the results and narrow the field to 2 or 3 vendorsRespond to all vendors relaying their status in the selection process following the results of the evaluation of vendor responsesKeep in mind the vendor’s objective is to say YES to as many questions as possible.
1237. Visit “Live” SitesSchedule a site visit to one or more sites that are using the system in question.Take along a list of questions to ask the operator regarding the system and the vendor’s performance.It is hard to forget a bad experience, or stop talking about a good one.An alternate strategy is to ask the vendor for their entire install base and not just a handful of pre-selected references.
1248. Conduct Scripted Demonstrations Allows you to see exactly what you want rather than what the sales person wants you to see.Prevents unfocused demonstrations of neat system tricksProvide the vendor with your menu, or a sample of your menu.Construct a series of transactions that you would like to see, highlighting those transactions that are frequent and particular to your operation.Maintain control of the demo
125SupportDoes software support include upgrades? If not, what is the charge?What are the hours of the support help-line (nights and weekends)?How is support time billed? How are fractions of hours billed?Is there an additional charge for support that requires a site visit? What is the charge?
126Installation Factors Training Site Preparation Design of Printed MaterialsInitial entry of database elementsSystem ConversionDocumentationContingency PlanningVendor SupportAcceptance Testing
127Definitions Strategic Planning Operator’s Guide following levels of decision-making, supported by a management information system, involves future-oriented goals and objectives of an organizationOperator’s Guidecomputer system documentation serves as training material oriented toward specific application procedures
128Definitions System Conversion Contingency Planning Process of switching from the current information to the capabilities of a newly purchased computerized systemContingency PlanningPlans which are developed for possible operations where the planning factors (eg scope, forces, destination, risks, area of responsibility etc) have been identified or can be assumed.is NOT one of the Fundamental areas of acceptance testing of a new computer system
129Keys to a Successful Purchase Organize, Organize, OrganizeAvoid being rushedMaintain control of the processNever pay until product is ACCEPTEDAcceptance testing includes – system integrity, hardware and software efficiency but NOT contingency planning