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ADA* for Roads & Bridges

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1 ADA* for Roads & Bridges
Incorporating PROWAG** * Americans with Disabilities Act ** Public Rights of Way Accessibility Guidelines Transportation Accessibility: The Construction of Sidewalks, Curb Ramps, Detectable Warnings, Crossings, and Other Pedestrian Facilities within Public Rights of Way Dean Perkins, Architect, ADA Coordinator

2 Introduction Brief overview of ADA How ADA impacts FDOT projects
Features of Accessibility New Concepts Examples of FDOT projects Random images How you can help us comply

3 Background of the ADA ADA - Civil Rights Law 1964 - 1990 Federal Laws
1964 Civil Rights Act 1968 Architectural Barriers Act (federal buildings) 1973 Rehabilitation Act (s federal programs)

4 Background of the ADA 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act
July 26, signed January 26, 1992 – effective date July 1, 1994 – Revised ADA Standards. July 26, 2004 – new ADA guidelines (ADA/ABA) Nov 23, 2005 – new PROW guidelines (PROWAG) Nov 26, 2006 – FHWA adopts ADA Standards for Transportation Facilities (ADASTF) July 23, 2011 – Access Board proposes issues NPRM for PROWAG (public comments) Comment period closed 2/2/2012

5 Transportation……….

6 Roadside Accessibility
Accessible Route Requirements (PROWAG – Pedestrian Access Route) Widths Running slopes Cross Slopes Surfaces Changes in Level Gaps / Grates Protruding Objects Signs & Equipment Landscape Materials

7 Accessible Route (AR) & Pedestrian Access Route (PAR)
AR = 36” continuous unobstructed path PAR = 48” (FDOT Stds. & PROWAG) AR = 32” min. at a ‘point’ (24” max.) 60” x 60” passing 200’ Slopes: ≤1:20 (≤5%) is not a ramp >1:20 (>5%) is a ramp 1:12 (8.33%) max. allowed * Cross-slope 1:50 (2%) max. allowed * 1:75 (1.5%) preferred 24” max. 32” Min. 48” Min. 48” Min. * Exceptions in PROWAG

8 Surfaces Firm, stable, slip-resistant Changes in level Gratings
Dry or wet! Changes in level ≤ ¼” – Vertical > ¼” ≤ ½” – 1:2 slope > ½” – 1:12 slope (ramp) Gratings ½” max. gap (!!!) ½” max. ¼” max. ½” max. March 17 ADA & Sidewalks

9 Protruding Objects 27” - 80” range above grade
Post-mounted (≤4” offset) Wall mounted (≤4” offset) Overhanging (≤80” above grade) March 17 ADA & Sidewalks

10 Pedestrian Access Route (PAR)
R302.3 Continuous Width The minimum continuous and unobstructed clear width of a pedestrian access route shall be 4 ft, exclusive of the width of the curb Measure from back of curb! Similar to ADAAG, the PROWAG contains MINIMUM requirements. The minimum continuous and unobstructed clear width of a pedestrian access route shall be 4.0 ft. (48 inches), exclusive of the width of the curb. The 4-feet minimum refers to that portion of a pedestrian route that is unobstructed (meaning no trees, park benches, light poles, and parking meters.). In measuring the width of a sidewalk, the measurement is taken from the back of curb. 4’

11 The Sidewalk ‘Zone’ System
Curb Zone Furniture Zone Pedestrian Zone (PAR) Frontage Zone To put these various widths into perspective, it is important to think of the pedestrian corridor in terms of zones. Utilizing a zone system makes it easier to provide accessible sidewalks. The Zone System identifies four distinct zones – the curb zone, furniture zone, pedestrian zone, and the frontage zone. These zones help separate the various functions of the sidewalk corridor.

12 Zone System: Residential
Curb Zone Furniture Zone Pedestrian Zone (PAR) Frontage Zone This photo highlights the zone system in a residential area - there’s the curb zone, the furniture zone (which in this photo contains landscaping/utility placement), the pedestrian zone and the frontage zone.

13 Zone System: Commercial
Street Parking Curb Zone Furniture Zone Pedestrian Zone (PAR) Frontage Zone This photo is a good example of the zone system in a commercial setting. A wide sidewalk with trees and street furniture along the curb, an open area in the center and planters and signs near multiple building entrances.

14 Ramps – “supported slopes” i.e., Bridges
5’ min. 30’ - 40’ max. 6’ min. Top/Interim Landing Bottom Landing Depending on slope (see below) “Level” means: 2% or less slope 30” max.

15 Sidewalks Are Pedestrian Access Routes (PAR)
48” min. width FDOT Design Standards – Index 310 PROWAG – Section R302 Cross-slopes – 1:48 / 2% max. Check Surfaces – “Firm, Stable, Slip-resistant” Look for Level changes – ¼” / ½” Look for Protruding Objects – 27”-80” Index 310 (4’ min.)

16 Curb Ramps R207 & R304 Detectable Warning
Curb ramps are usually categorized by their structural design and how they are positioned relative to the sidewalk or street. The structure of a curb ramp is determined by how the components, such as ramps and flares, are assembled. The type of curb ramp and location will determine its accessibility. The ramp pictured on the left is a perpendicular ramp which is the typical ramp design shown on most ramp photos. This is just one of several types of curb ramps to be discussed later in this module. When planning for, designing and constructing curb ramps it is important to understand the needs of the users. It is hoped that through enhanced awareness, designers will be better equipped to select appropriate curb ramp types and locations within existing site constraints.

17 Curb Ramps Running Slopes (1:12 / 8.3% max.)
Cross-slopes (1:48 / 2% max.) Landing at top (48” min.) Detectable Warnings 12 X = 48” min. Just a couple of changes have been recommended for curb ramps – both have impact to public rights-of-way. The landing at the top of the curb ramp has been increased to 48” (from 36”), and the detectable warnings pattern has been modified to make it more accessible to person using mobility aids. ADAAG 4.7

18 Curb Ramp Grade R304 Least slope possible is preferred
Maximum grade – 8.3% Recommended maximum grade to allow for construction tolerance – 7.1% Exception: when “chasing grade,” ramp length need not exceed 15’, but slope must be uniform With regards to ramp grade running slope, the ramped portion of the curb ramp should be designed with a 7.1% slope. Although PROWAG permits a maximum slope of 8.3%, 7.1% is desirable because it allows for variations during installation and it is easier for persons with mobility impairments to negotiate. Designers should avoid increasing sidewalk and ramp slopes to reach 8.3%. The least slope possible is preferred. When “chasing grade”, ramp length need not exceed 15 feet, but slope must be uniform. Chasing grade is where a ramp is placed on a steep slope and using the standard 8.3% would be impossible without a very long ramp. 7.1% desirable 8.3% max

19 Change of Grade (Counterslope) R303.3.5
PROWAG allows 8.3% ramp and 5% grade at the adjacent street = 13.3% Recommendation: 11% maximum Provide 2’ level area if greater than 11% 8.33% MAX Algebraic Difference Greater than 13% Not Permitted 5% MAX Provide 24” Level Strip if Exceeds 11% 24” 3% In calculating a change in grade, consider the running slope of the curb ramp plus the grade of the adjacent street. If the running slope is 8.3 percent and the grade of the adjacent street is 5 percent, the change in grade equates to 13.3 percent. While this is allowable under PROWAG, it is recommended that a 24 inch level strip be provided at the gutter if the algebraic difference exceeds 11%. See notes in Index 304

20 Transportation………

21 Curb Ramps and Detectable Warnings
Curbs are an 'edge cue' for pedestrians who are blind or have low vision Curbs are a barrier for persons in wheelchairs Curb ramps remove the barrier for wheelchairs Curb ramps remove edge cue for peds with vision impairments Detectable warnings are a replacement cue to indicate location of the street Curbs are a cue for pedestrians who are blind or with low vision enabling them to detect the boundary between the sidewalk and the street. However , curb ramps are essential to wheelchair users’ mobility within the public right-of-way. Removal of the curb would be a concern for blind and low vision persons if not for detectable warnings, truncated domes (which provide equivalent facilitation in the absence of curbs). Detectable warnings are a replacement cue to indicate the location of the street/hazardous vehicular way. Pedestrians with low vision learn to avoid ramps wherever possible to orient themselves.

22 Perpendicular Curb Ramps R305.2.1
24” Perpendicular Curb Ramp Place DW at back of curb or at grade break Truncated dome detectable warning shall be placed at the back of the curb or at the grade break. Ramp

23 Directional/Linear Ramps R305.2.1
Greater than 5 feet setback . . . Place DW on bottom landing if level landing is more than 5’ deep at any point > 5’ Ramp Place the detectable warning on the bottom landing if landing is more than 5 feet deep at any point, at the back of curb.

24 Directional/Linear Ramps R305.2.1
Equal to or less than 5 feet setback from bottom of curb ramp . . . Place DW at grade break if level landing at bottom of ramp is 5’ deep or less ≤ 5’ On perpendicular ramps, place the detectable warning at the grade break if the level landing at bottom of ramp is less than 5 feet deep. Ramp

25 Parallel Ramps R305.2.2 24” Ramp LANDING
As shown in the diagram above, a parallel curb ramp has two ramps leading down towards a center level landing at the bottom. A level landing is required at the top of each ramp. Detectable warnings should be contained within the lower landing bordering the roadway.

26 Blended Transitions R305.2.3 – “Full Width!”
The photos on the left are examples of incorrect applications of detectable warnings: incomplete coverage with gaps between the detectable warnings and the curbs. The photos on the right show the proper application of detectable warnings on a blended transition or depressed curb: full width of the flush transition between the curb ramp and the roadway.

27 Pedestrian Controls R306 & MUTCD 4E.06
In reach ranges (48” max.) 42” FDOT Standard 15” max. reach - over obstruction/edge of sidewalk 2” dia. raised buttons Maneuvering space (30” x 48” min., level) Again, a level maneuvering space is vital to access to the control. And make sure the buttons are within the reach ranges of a wheelchair user. The control should operable with a closed fist. 3’-6” Index 17784

28 Accessible Pedestrian Signals MUTCD 4E-09
For pedestrians with vision impairments Used in conjunction with pedestrian signal timing Add “non-visual” information: Tactile features Audible tones Vibrating surfaces Speech messages Must indicate which crossing is served by each device We will start seeing a lot more of these. Accessible pedestrian signals provide crossing information for pedestrians who are blind or have low vision (and for others who may not be 'paying attention'). The 'non-visual' information allows them to find the push-button, know when the "WALK" phase is on and which direction to walk. When installed, it must be evident which push button serves which crossing. This may be accomplished by having the devices more than 10' apart and in-line with each crossing; or have them 'talk' to the users. FDOT has a procedure in the Traffic Engineering Manual that allows folks to request accessible pedestrian signals.

29 Pushbutton Locations R403 & MUTCD 4E
The illustrations pictured here, taken from the 2009 MUTCD, are provided to show examples of appropriate pushbutton locations in relation to the curb ramp configuration: near the top of a curb ramp, with a level maneuvering area in front of the button. NOTE: It must be clear which button controls which crossing. (per MUTCD). If APSs cannot be placed at least 10 apart, they must ‘speak’ to you.

30 Pedestrian Crossings R306
Slope of crossing = cross-slope of roadway Cross-slope of crossing = grade of roadway Cross Slope of crossing: ‘STOP’-controlled: 2% max. Non - ‘STOP’-controlled: 5% max. i.e., ‘YIELD’, signal or no control Mid-block: Match grade of roadway Upper photo shows ducks crossing a roadway near a railroad track. Lower photo shows an aerial view of a mid-block crossing with pavement markings.

31 Crossings R306 Curb Ramp “wholly within” marked crossing
Check Transitions (13% max., 11% rec.) Ramp = 8.3% max. Roadway counter slope = 5%, 3% max. Verify Slopes (1:12 max.) Cross-slopes Look for Level changes Pedestrian Controls Level Maneuvering Space (30”x48” min.) Basically, make sure the curb ramp is “accessible to and useable by” a person using a mobility aid (wheelchair, etc.) and that transitions/counter slopes do not create obstructions/hazards. Keeping the counter slope to 11% or less (eg., 8.33% ramp + 3% roadway cross-slope = 11.33%) reduces the potential problems with crossing the street. FDOT Design Standards require a 24” ‘level’ landing at the bottom of curb ramps to minimize potential problems with this transition. Ped controls near the ramp should have a level maneuvering space in front, not so close to the ramp as to require the user to sit/stand in the ramp to reach the button. Index 17346

32 This is who we are working for

33 Bus Stops R308 When siting a new bus stop… Must be on PAR
48” min. 60” recommended This may be sidewalk or paved shoulder Must have accessible approach to bus stop 48” min. width – 60” recommended Leads to / part of boarding & alighting area Meets running slope/cross slope criteria Firm, stable & slip-resistant Must consider potential construction of boarding and alighting area & other features

34 Parking Accessible space Access aisle Curb ramp Slopes
Width = 12’-0” min. Access aisle Width = 5’-0” min. Curb ramp Outside space & aisle Slopes 1:50 max. any direction Index 17346

35 On-Street Parking Spaces R214 & R309
Accessible on-street parking space per block perimeter – approx. 4% of total Table R214 Parking spaces are best located where the street has the least crown & grade and close to key destinations (i.e., near crosswalks) Chapter 2 of the PROWAG provides requirements for determining the number of disabled parking spaces per block. Consideration should be given to where on the block disabled parking will be provided.

36 Maintenance of PAR 28 CFR Title II of the ADA requires public entities to maintain equipment and features of facilities that are required to provide ready access to individuals with disabilities 5 photos showing sidewalk maintenance problems: cracks, overhanging shrubs, sidewalk section lifted by roots , accumulated snow and puddles in depressed areas.

37 Potential Solutions Sidewalk Grinding Flexible Pavement
Joint Materials Dependent upon the severity of the issue, some maintenance problems may be able to be resolved through low-cost solutions, even if temporarily. For example, minor changes in level (between 1/4-inch and ½-inch) along a sidewalk may be resolved by grinding the edges down or beveling the edges. Or, flexible pavements such as rubberized sidewalk sections may be a solution for areas where tree roots continually cause the concrete slabs to crack. These may be good for short term repairs, as long as the replacement rubberized sidewalk is firm, stable and slip-resistant.

38 Alternate Pedestrian Routes R205 & R303 & MUTCD 6D & 6G
Alternate Pedestrian Access Routes are required when an existing pedestrian access route is blocked by construction, alteration, maintenance, or other temporary condition. Construction in the public right-of-way can be particularly hazardous to pedestrians with visual or mobility impairments. Using caution tape and traffic cones/sidewalk closed signs alone is not acceptable. Consistent with the Title II requirement to maintain features of facilities in order to provide ready access to individuals with disabilities, PROWAG R205 requires that alternate pedestrian access routes be provided (to the maximum extent feasible) when an existing pedestrian access route is blocked by construction, alteration, maintenance, or other temporary condition. 28 CFR (b) The temporary route must be detectable and include accessibility features (such as curb ramps). The affected route must provide a warning alerting pedestrians to the construction and alternate route. Cones and construction tape are not adequate to warn persons with visual disabilities of the route closure and path guidance to temporary routes. Rather, a continuous detectable edging should be provided throughout the length of the project. One example would be chain link fencing with a continuous bottom rail, which would be detectable by individuals using a white cane or accompanied by a guide dog. Chapter 6 of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices provides useful information on temporary traffic control (including maintaining accessibility) and includes various examples of detectable edging

39 Alternate PARs See similar requirements in FDOT Index 660

40 Alternate PARs R205 specifies that the alternate pedestrian access route shall be: Provided on the same side of the street as the disrupted route, to the maximum extent feasible Where exposed to adjacent construction, traffic or other hazards, shall be protected with a pedestrian barricade or channelization device Continuous, stable, non-flexible Consist of features identified in the MUTCD Chapter 6F Alternate pedestrian access routes shall comply with R302, which states that alternate paths must be provided on the same side of the street as the disrupted route to the maximum extent feasible. Where exposed to adjacent construction, traffic or other hazards the path shall be protected by a pedestrian barricade or channelization device that is continuous, stable, non-flexible and consist of the features described in Chapter 6F of the MUTCD. Plastic tape is not acceptable!!! Rows of barrels and/or cones is not acceptable… unless they are connected by a continuous ‘detectable’ edge

41 Temporary Barricades: Detectable Edging & Channelizing Devices
Detectable edge @ 2"-8” above walking surface Hand-trailing 32-36” Accessible barricades should be provided when construction occurs in the public right-of-way. Barriers defining the alternate route should be at least inches high and continuous within 6 inches of the ground in order to be detectable by blind pedestrians using a cane. Barriers should extend around the perimeter of the construction site or entire length of the alternate route. It is important to provide a crashworthy barrier when temporary pedestrian route extends into the roadway. Please note in the bottom photo that the barricade is appropriate but there may not be enough surface for a wheelchair to pass through

42 Construction Work Zones
Unfortunately, too many bad examples… Left photo shows broken sidewalk under construction and not alternate path around work zone. Right photo shows changeable message sign and construction barrels blocking sidewalk.

43 Very good! Measure before you build (Identity withheld)
Photo shows sidewalk inspector measuring cross-slope of new sidewalk forms with “Smart Level” before concrete is placed. Very good! Measure before you build (Identity withheld)

44 Random Images Some good Some not so good

45 This is what we want…

46 Not this . . .

47 Nice!

48 Ummm…

49 Maintenance please!!!

50 Well Done!

51 Nice!

52 Very Good!

53 We’re not finished, right…?

54 Very Good!

55 This is a little hard to fix.

56 Creative path around large tree up and over the roots

57 Combination return curb and flared side

58 Large Gap BAD!!! Full Width … Good!

59 Ummm!

60 Good start, but…

61 Looks good. Might want to check that limb, tho’.
80”? Looks good. Might want to check that limb, tho’. March 17

62 Very Good!

63 This CAN be fixed.

64 Walk around at driveway apron
36” 36” Walk around at driveway apron

65 Nice shelter – but, how do I get here?

66 Potentially unsafe for all peds, especially those using mobility aids

67 Resources U.S. Access Board U.S. Dept. of Justice - ADA
Accessibility Guidelines - ADAAG U.S. Dept. of Justice - ADA Accessibility Standards for Facilities & Sites U.S. Dept. of Transportation – FHWA Accessibility Guidance & Standards for Public Rights of Way Florida Dept. of Transportation - FDOT ADA information on Website

68 Contact us... Dean Perkins, Architect ADA Coordinator or Your District
or Your District ADA Coordinator(s)

69 Thank You. Merci. Todah Rabbah. Arigato. Dhanya Vaad. Xie Xie. Gracias
Thank You! Merci! Todah Rabbah Arigato! Dhanya Vaad! Xie Xie! Gracias! Shokran! Danke! Live long and prosper!

70 What WERE they thinking!?!

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